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1 Integrated Pest Management in Multifamily Housing.

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1 1 Integrated Pest Management in Multifamily Housing

2 Beware of this Bug!!!

3 Background 1980s bug crew 1990s contractors and gels 2000 Listening Tour 2001 – 2005 Healthy PH initiative Healthy Pest-Free Hsg 2010 – Environmental Exposure and IPM Intensity

4 4 Developed and sponsored by

5 5

6 6 Resources Networked resources are available at: –www.StopPests.org –www.healthyhomestraining.org/ipm/training.htm The binder is yours to keep –Copies of presentation slides –HUDs Voluntary Guidance on IPM –Pest fact sheets

7 7 By the end of today, you will know Why pests are health threats. How to control cockroaches, rodents, and bed bugs. Why Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the most effective way to control pests. Your role in the IPM team.

8 8 How have you fought pests?

9 9 IPM makes homes healthier! Pests cause problems Trigger/cause asthma and allergies Bite Contaminate food Lead people to overreact and ignore pesticide labels Transmit disease Hitchhike in belongings Violate housing codes

10 10 Priority pests Cockroaches cause asthma in infants, trigger asthma attacks, and contaminate food. Rodents such as mice and rats carry diseases, bite, destroy property, may cause fires, and may trigger asthma attacks. Bed Bugs and their bites are a nuisance and are expensive to eliminate.

11 11 What all pests need Shelter Food Water Food Water Shelter

12 12 What is IPM? Integrated: Uses multiple approaches that work together. Pest: What the multiple approaches work to fight. Management: Use of the most economical means with the least possible risk to people, property, and the environment.

13 13 What you will gain IPM will give you… A healthier building: Fewer asthma attacks, less exposure to pesticides, and less of a chance you will take pests home. Fewer complaints: A Boston Housing Authority development reduced cockroach work orders by 68% after one year of IPM. Fewer pests: You can stop infestations from growing and spreading disease.

14 14 Bed Bugs

15 15 Also known as… chintzes or chinches mahogany flats red coats crimson ramblers wall lice the bug that nobody knows Outline What they are What they eat Where they live How to think like bed bug Prevention and control

16 16 Adult bed bug feeding on a human What is a bed bug? A blood-sucking insect Most active at night Usually feeds at night

17 17 Bed bugs are health hazards Bed bugs do not transmit disease, but they cause secondary infections after people scratch their bed bug bites; result in stress, loss of work, loss of sleep, and financial burden; are unwelcome in our homes and workplaces.

18 18 Unfed Fed Bed bug life cycle Bed bugs at various stages of growth.

19 19 Bed bug crawling into a screw hole to hide. Bed bug behavior Hide in cracks and crevices, often in groups. Cannot fly, jump, or burrow into skin…they crawl. Hitchhike on bags, furniture, wires, or pipes.

20 20 Mosquito Bites Can be confused with… Ticks Cockroach nymphs Other kinds of bug bites Tick Bat Bug Cockroach Nymph

21 One bed bug, HALF a year… 21

22 22 Signs of bed bugs Bites Blood spots Shed skins Dead bed bugs Live bed bugs

23 23 Bites Bed bugs cannot be confirmed by bites alone. Live bed bugs must be found.

24 24 The start of an infestation A bad infestation Blood spots Blood spots are bed bug droppings. Bed bugs cannot be confirmed by blood spots alone. Live bed bugs must be found.

25 25 Bed bug signs on a mattress seam Shed skins

26 26 Dead bed bugs BottomTop

27 27 What bed bugs eat and drink Blood

28 28 Where bed bugs live In the building In any crack or crevice where a credit card edge could fit In anything near where people rest

29 29 Where bed bugs live = Hot Spot Beds, sofas, bedside tables, recliners, picture frames…

30 30 Whats on the other side of the wall? How do bed bugs spread? Through walls along wires and pipes On anything coming from an infested unit (furniture, backpacks, laundry…)

31 31 After mating once and feeding, a female is ready to lay eggs. To avoid dying, a female may go off and find a hiding spot away from other bed bugs. Think like a bed bug Traumatic insemination (bed bugs breeding)

32 32 Got bed bugs? Now what? If found and controlled early in the infestation, the spread of bed bugs can be stopped. The first responses should be to: Report the problem Not throw the mattress outcover it Not sprayleave this to the PMP Prevent carrying the bed bugs to other places Prepare the unit for the PMP

33 33 Document all observations Take action promptly. Report: Date What you saw What you did (dont spray)

34 34 Mattresses and furniture dont have to be thrown out! Use a mattress encasement Trap live bed bugs inside. Zip, seal, and check for rips. Leave it on for 1-1/2 years (dont let it rip).

35 Place monitors Trap and kill bed bugs Determine how bad the infestation is Two types –Interceptors –Portable 35

36 Teach people how to control without pesticides Follow site-specific instructions from the PMP If there is an infested item, the PMP may have the resident: –Encase –Destroy, dispose, and replace with metal or plastic –Heat treat in a dryer –Heat treat then isolate in bags or containers 36

37 37 Teach people how to prevent Keep coats, backpacks, purses, and bags off beds, recliners, and sofas. Dont bring home used furniture. Look for signs before sleeping.

38 38 The PMP might Inspect Take apart furniture Put infested items in sealed plastic bags or discard heavily infested items Use –A vacuum –Heat or steam –Pesticides

39 39 Only PMPs use sprays Sprays are not effective when used by homeowners for bed bug control Sprays cause the bugs to scatter –Problem becomes harder to deal with

40 40 A review of what you should do Report the problem Encase the mattress and box spring Prevent spreading the bed bugs to other places Follow the PMP's instructions

41 41 Management's role Find out the PMPs requirements for unit prep and plan ahead! Example: Who takes apart and reassembles furniture? Have the professional inspect and treat units adjacent to the infested one. Communicate the situations/populations in units to the professional (respiratory problems, chemical sensitivities, pregnant women, the elderly, or children present).

42 42 The PMP's role ALWAYS thoroughly inspects the unit and the adjacent walls. Provides preparation and follow-up instructions in multiple languages. Follows the labelespecially when treating mattresses! Returns in three weeks to look for and treat hatched nymphs.

43 43 The resident's role Inspect regularly Launder bedding regularly Report bed bug sightings immediately and seek help from staff Use plastic bags when transporting infested items Dont bring home furniture found on the street Follow preparation instructions from the PMP

44 44 Questions?

45 45 Cockroaches

46 46 What they are What they eat Where they live How to think like a cockroach Prevention and control Also known as… roaches cucarachas Outline

47 47 Cockroaches are health hazards Cockroaches and their frass Make asthma worse in sensitive people Cause asthma in preschool-aged children Cause or aggravate allergies Contaminate food, dishes, and counters Are unwelcome in places where we work and play

48 48 What is a cockroach? An insect Lives in areas where humans provide food and water Active at night If you see cockroaches during the day, the infestation is serious

49 49 What is a cockroach? Multiple eggs in each egg case Many eggs means many nymphs (babies) Nymphs look like small versions of the adults

50 50 Common cockroaches most common sewers & basements high & dry hotcool

51 51 German cockroach Medium size (3/4''), bronze, with racing stripes behind the head Found everywhere, but likes warmth, moisture, and darkness Reproduces quickly Mother carries eggs to term even if she is dead Eats almost anything

52 52 Brown banded cockroach Small size (1/2'') with side-to-side stripes Found in warm and dry spots, often up high Lives in scattered locations, often behind pictures and appliances

53 53 Oriental cockroach a.k.a water bugs Large (1''); black color Lives in sewers, basements, and mulch Likes it cool American cockroach a.k.a. palmetto bugs or water bugs Large (1-1/2''); brown color Glides in the air Lives in sewers and basements Likes it hot

54 One German cockroach, 1/2 a year… 54

55 Signs of cockroaches 11 Live cockroaches Dead cockroaches and their parts Frass Egg cases 55

56 56 Dead Dead cockroaches German cockroaches on a sticky trap Brown banded cockroaches by a door hinge

57 57 Frass Door Under a cabinet shelf Behind the wall clock Wall clock

58 58 Where cockroaches live Anywhere in a building Prefer spots near water but also need food and warmth In cracks and crevices where their bodies touch surfaces above and below

59 59 What cockroaches eat Crumbs Grease Trash Cardboard glue Just about anything Under the bag in a trash can

60 Where cockroaches drink 60 Sinks Counters Floors Pet bowls Shower stalls Sweaty pipes Refrigerator drip pans and gaskets AC units

61 61 IPM practice Whats the problem here? How would you fix it? Cockroaches Need food and water. Are most active at night.

62 62 Got cockroaches? Now what? There is not just one answer. First find out: –What kind? –How many? –Where? Then use solutions that provide: –Most effective prevention and control –Least risk to residents and staff

63 63 Trash chute Boiler room Inspect Using a flashlight, look for evidence where cockroaches would find food, water, or a hiding spot: up, down, behind, and under. Think like a cockroach – look in hidden areas.

64 64 Inspect Monitor by placing sticky traps near areas where cockroaches might travelat corners and near warmth, food, and water.

65 65 Prevention and control: Sanitation Good sanitation makes pest control work. Eliminate hiding spots, food, and water available at night by - cleaning the kitchen; - reducing clutter; - throwing away dead cockroaches; - cleaning frass and areas where there were cockroaches with simple soap and water.

66 66 Seal or fix cracks, peeled wallpaper and shelf liners, or holes that cockroaches could get through. Use silicone caulk; copper mesh; screens; or door sweeps on boiler rooms and exterior doors. Prevention and control: Exclusion

67 67 Prevention and control: Baits The most effective pesticide option. Wont work if contaminated by strong- smelling cleaners or other chemicals, pesticide sprays or foggers, or nicotine from cigarette smoke. Use in every room. Gel Bait Bait Station

68 68 Prevention and control: Baits The bait needs to be the only food in the areasanitation first! Slow to kill: Cockroaches feed on the bait and take it back to their hiding spots where other cockroaches live. PMPs gel bait applied under a drawer

69 69 Prevention and control: Insecticidal dusts Active ingredients may be boric acid or diatomaceous earth How they kill cockroaches: –Scratch their outer layers –Dry them out Long-lasting if dry

70 70 Prevention and control: Insecticidal dusts Effective if used correctly. Light dusting instead of piles. Use in walls before fixing them. Under and behind cabinets at turnover or when making large repairs…but clean first! Incorrect use of insecticidal dust

71 71 Prevention and control: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) Interfere with cockroach growth and egg hatching In baits, sprays, aerosols, and powders Take a month to work Stay effective for a long time Compatible with other IPM methods; may enhance baits

72 72 Sanitation Exclusion Pesticides: Bait Insecticidal dusts IGRs A review of IPM tools

73 73 Dont use over-the-counter sprays and foggers Over-the-counter sprays and foggers are not part of IPM in multifamily housing They are not compatible with baits

74 74 Questions?

75 75 Cockroaches

76 76 What they are What they eat Where they live How to think like a cockroach Prevention and control Also known as… roaches cucarachas Outline

77 77 Cockroaches are health hazards Cockroaches and their frass Make asthma worse in sensitive people Cause asthma in preschool-aged children Cause or aggravate allergies Contaminate food, dishes, and counters Are unwelcome in places where we work and play

78 78 What is a cockroach? An insect Lives in areas where humans provide food and water Active at night If you see cockroaches during the day, the infestation is serious

79 79 What is a cockroach? Multiple eggs in each egg case Many eggs means many nymphs (babies) Nymphs look like small versions of the adults

80 80 Common cockroaches most common sewers & basements high & dry hotcool

81 81 German cockroach Medium size (3/4''), bronze, with racing stripes behind the head Found everywhere, but likes warmth, moisture, and darkness Reproduces quickly Mother carries eggs to term even if she is dead Eats almost anything

82 82 Brown banded cockroach Small size (1/2'') with side-to-side stripes Found in warm and dry spots, often up high Lives in scattered locations, often behind pictures and appliances

83 83 Oriental cockroach a.k.a water bugs Large (1''); black color Lives in sewers, basements, and mulch Likes it cool American cockroach a.k.a. palmetto bugs or water bugs Large (1-1/2''); brown color Glides in the air Lives in sewers and basements Likes it hot

84 One German cockroach, 1/2 a year… 84

85 Signs of cockroaches 11 Live cockroaches Dead cockroaches and their parts Frass Egg cases 85

86 86 Dead Dead cockroaches German cockroaches on a sticky trap Brown banded cockroaches by a door hinge

87 87 Frass Door Under a cabinet shelf Behind the wall clock Wall clock

88 88 Where cockroaches live Anywhere in a building Prefer spots near water but also need food and warmth In cracks and crevices where their bodies touch surfaces above and below

89 89 What cockroaches eat Crumbs Grease Trash Cardboard glue Just about anything Under the bag in a trash can

90 Where cockroaches drink 90 Sinks Counters Floors Pet bowls Shower stalls Sweaty pipes Refrigerator drip pans and gaskets AC units

91 91 IPM practice Whats the problem here? How would you fix it? Cockroaches Need food and water. Are most active at night.

92 92 Got cockroaches? Now what? There is not just one answer. First find out: –What kind? –How many? –Where? Then use solutions that provide: –Most effective prevention and control –Least risk to residents and staff

93 93 Trash chute Boiler room Inspect Using a flashlight, look for evidence where cockroaches would find food, water, or a hiding spot: up, down, behind, and under. Think like a cockroach – look in hidden areas.

94 94 Inspect Monitor by placing sticky traps near areas where cockroaches might travelat corners and near warmth, food, and water.

95 95 Prevention and control: Sanitation Good sanitation makes pest control work. Eliminate hiding spots, food, and water available at night by - cleaning the kitchen; - reducing clutter; - throwing away dead cockroaches; - cleaning frass and areas where there were cockroaches with simple soap and water.

96 96 Seal or fix cracks, peeled wallpaper and shelf liners, or holes that cockroaches could get through. Use silicone caulk; copper mesh; screens; or door sweeps on boiler rooms and exterior doors. Prevention and control: Exclusion

97 97 Prevention and control: Baits The most effective pesticide option. Wont work if contaminated by strong- smelling cleaners or other chemicals, pesticide sprays or foggers, or nicotine from cigarette smoke. Use in every room. Gel Bait Bait Station

98 98 Prevention and control: Baits The bait needs to be the only food in the areasanitation first! Slow to kill: Cockroaches feed on the bait and take it back to their hiding spots where other cockroaches live. PMPs gel bait applied under a drawer

99 99 Prevention and control: Insecticidal dusts Active ingredients may be boric acid or diatomaceous earth How they kill cockroaches: –Scratch their outer layers –Dry them out Long-lasting if dry

100 100 Prevention and control: Insecticidal dusts Effective if used correctly. Light dusting instead of piles. Use in walls before fixing them. Under and behind cabinets at turnover or when making large repairs…but clean first! Incorrect use of insecticidal dust

101 101 Prevention and control: Insect growth regulators (IGRs) Interfere with cockroach growth and egg hatching In baits, sprays, aerosols, and powders Take a month to work Stay effective for a long time Compatible with other IPM methods; may enhance baits

102 102 Sanitation Exclusion Pesticides: Bait Insecticidal dusts IGRs A review of IPM tools

103 103 Dont use over-the-counter sprays and foggers Over-the-counter sprays and foggers are not part of IPM in multifamily housing They are not compatible with baits

104 104 Questions?

105 105 IPM and Pesticide Use

106 106 Outline HUDs guidance on IPM IPM in practice Pesticides

107 107 Making homes healthy IPM is part of a nationwide Healthy Homes movement to reduce housing-based health hazards. A healthy home is: –Dry –Clean –Ventilated –Safe –Contaminant-free –Maintained –Pest-free

108 108 HUDs voluntary guidance on integrated pest management PIH guidance since 2006 (PIH (HA)) Offers the potential efficacy of pest elimination while protecting the health of residents and staff. Will extend the useful life of property and, thereby, generate significant savings that offset costs of the pest control operations. Effective in preventing moisture intrusion and accumulation. In the reference section of your manual.

109 109 Federal housing must comply with local housing codes Typical local housing code All structures shall be kept free from insect and rodent infestation. All structures in which insects or rodents are found shall be promptly managed by approved processes that will not be injurious to human health. Proper precautions shall be taken to prevent re-infestation.

110 110 IPM in practice: Documentation is key One IPM log in each building. Record: date detailed observations action taken Make sure action is taken promptly.

111 111 IPM in practice: An IPM log ProblemSolution DateWhats seen? InitialsDateWhats done? Initials 4/4/08Door sweep broken AAT4/7/08New door sweep installed CAP

112 112 At first more work, but then less Starting an IPM program may mean more work because of education, repairs, and monitoring. Expect to see increased work orders as pests and pest-friendly conditions that were previously overlooked are reported. THEN…you will get fewer complaints, have fewer pests, and be providing a better place to live.

113 113 Another view Invest time and materials for repair and education. Protect through exclusion, sanitation, and careful product choice based on least risk to human health and the environment and compatibility with other management practices. Maintain with monitoring, communication, and documentation so that infestations do not grow.

114 114 Pesticides Why do people tolerate exposure to pests and pesticides? They are used to living with problems Low standards for pest control and maintenance Other priorities Not aware of the problems Cannot envision a better way

115 115 Routine spraying of pesticides is not the only option Weve learned a better way. Routine baseboard spraying is not part of IPM.

116 116 Concerns with pesticides Pests can become tolerant of or avoid pesticides. Risk from exposure may outweigh the benefit of killing pests. Possible harm to pets and wildlife. Certain populations may be especially vulnerable or sensitive to some pesticides: –Elderly; children; pregnant women –People with breathing or lung disorders such as asthma –People with multiple chemical sensitivities

117 117 How to handle illegal and risky pesticides Educate residents on the dangers of using illegal pesticides. For example, pesticides that look like candy are risky. Report illegal sales to the EPA or to the state pesticide licensing agency. Unlabeled MothballsChinese ChalkTres Pasitos Products without a pesticide label are illegal.

118 118 Washington, DC, August 2008 San Diego, CA, July 1992 Augusta, GA, March 2008 Total release foggers (theres a reason theyre called bombs!)

119 119 Pesticide risk by application method Tamper- resistant station Total release fogger Less risk of exposure More risk of exposure Gel bait in a crevice

120 120 How to read a label Product name Active Ingredients Signal words: CAUTION = slightly toxic WARNING = moderately toxic DANGER = severe skin or eye irritation DANGER-POISON = highly toxic

121 121 How to read a label Registration number: EPA Reg. No. Precautionary Statements Directions for: –Use –Storage –Disposal

122 122 National Pesticide Information Center Poison Control Center National Hotline Product use and emergencies

123 123 Questions?

124 124 Roles and Responsibilities

125 125 The Property Manager is responsible for IPM Hires a qualified pest management professional (PMP) who uses IPM and a contract that rewards success Follows HUDs IPM Guidance (PIH (HA)) Develops and enforces policies and procedures based on PIH (HA) Manages the PMP Identifies problems, especially with housekeeping and sanitation Monitors and maintain facilities and grounds

126 126 The Property Manager is responsible for IPM Protects and assists vulnerable and sensitive populations Tracks complaints and program performance Delegates the solutions –If unable to assist directly, contacts family member, resident support services, or social services agency Encourages a reporting system –Notify staff and residents of upcoming PMP visits –Facilitate the IPM log –Provide pesticide use notification

127 127 Pest Management Professional Qualifications to consider –Green Shield, GreenPro, or Ecowise (in CA) –Association membership: National Pest Management Association –PMP certification: Associate Certified Entomologist (ACE) or Board Certified Entomologist (BCE) Follows contract to get paid –Notifies PHA of upcoming visits –Communicates with staff and residents –Inspects and monitors for pests –Identifies pests –Recommends pest-proofing strategies –Applies effective and compatible pesticides –Documents everything: observations, pesticide usage, suggestions –Follows-up quickly when needed

128 128 Maintenance Staff Seal cracks Fix leaks Eliminate moisture problems Install barriers to pest entry and movement Monitor common areas for pests Report observations, problems, and actions Possibly assist with unit preparation

129 129 Janitorial / Custodial Staff Keep common areas clean and sanitary (especially trash chutes and dumpsters) Monitor for pests Report problems in units and common areas

130 130 Landscaping and Grounds Crews Monitor for pests (especially rats) Report problems Minimize use of pesticides on grounds –Plant choice Doesnt offer coverage for rat travel and burrowing Resists pests naturally (few pesticides or nutrients required) –Plant placement Never touching the building Appropriate sunlight, shade, and moisture for the plant –Plant maintenance Mow grass high: 3-4" Mulch grass clippings Shapes rats avoid Shapes rats seek

131 131 Resident Support Service Staff Get assistance for residents who are unable to prepare their unit for the PMP due to financial or physical limitations Educate residents about: –Pests –Proper housekeeping –Reporting presence of pests, leaks, and mold Enforce lease provisions regarding: –Housekeeping –Sanitation –Trash removal and storage Encourage residents to allow PMP into unit

132 132 Resident Notifies management of disabilities or when assistance is needed to participate in an IPM program Gives PMP access to unit –Works with staff to find reasonable accommodations if sensitivities exist Prepares unit for PMP visit according to instructions Follows lease regarding –Housekeeping –Sanitation –Trash removal and storage Reports presence of pests, leaks, and mold Monitors unit for problems Helps and educates neighbors

133 133 The results of the team approach An inspection and monitoring system that finds pests A reporting system that identifies areas of improvement Units are prepared to receive effective treatment Communication that empowers all Fewer pests and a healthier environment

134 134 Questions?


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