Earthquake EU. Sergio Franco A. AURA INC EXPERIENCE IN CHILE IN CHILE
PURPOSE Publicize: Experiences in face of seismic events of great magnitud in Aura Inc. mountain facilities in Chile. The work by Risk Prevention and Health and Safety Join Committee, implementing Guidelines, Plans and Programs to face Emergencies and mitigate these events. Aura Inc. potential, in Chile, to face seismic events of great magnitude, its capacity for reaction, its organization and available resources to face this kind of situations.
ESTANCIA EL TOTORAL Lat : 6.653.643.0 Long: 333.083.3 Elevac.: 2.200 - 2.700 35 – 45 Kms. mountain roads * 1:00 – 1:20 hrs. to Vicuña * 1:30 – 1:45 hrs. to La Serena
IMPORTANT SEISMIC EVENTS IV REGION - CHILE July 1971 7.7 E.R. / Illapel (Antofagasta – Valdivia) March 1975 7.5 E.R. / Coquimbo - La Serena March 1985 8.0 E.R. / Algarrobo (II-IX Reg.) Oct. 1997 6.8 E.R. / Punitaqui June 2002 6.3 E.R. / IV Región Earthquakes since 1962 = 12 events
RISK PREVENTION STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY AURA INC., IN CHILE -Shelves safely fasten to wall. -Heavy or easily breakable objects should be placed on lower shelf. -Heavy objects (pictures or similar) shouldnt hang over bed top ends or sofas. -Remove from roofs and platforms all elements that could move or fall in case of earthquake.
RISK PREVENTION STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY AURA INC., IN CHILE - Regular maintenance of electrical and gas systems to avoid fires. - Flexible joints provided between gas system and appliances. - Yearly maintenance for fire extinguishers and hydrostatic test every 5 years. - Monthly tests and yearly maintenance for detectors, panels and fire alarms.
BASIC RISK PREVENTION STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY AURA INC., IN CHILE -Flammable bottled materials, insecticides, and similar must be placed in special cupboards, apart from buildings, not too high and closed to avoid spilling. -Put the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each site in an established place. -Train staff to use MSDS.
RISK PREVENTION STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY AURA INC., IN CHILE - Identify and demarcate safest areas, inside buildings (for protection during the earthquake). - Identify safest and fastest evacuation routes. - Define Safety Areas (outdoors); far from structures, buildings, high trees, hill edges, etc. - Every worker must have been trained on how to shut down gas, electricity and water supply in his/her habitual workplace and in bedrooms. - Keep a basic night emergency kit in every building (one per floor or building) including bedrooms buildings.
RISK PREVENTION STANDARDS IMPLEMENTED BY AURA INC., IN CHILE -Set up an operation and encounter area for all staff and visitors as a way to register people more easily. -As a part of safety plan, a drill must be carried out at least once a year. -Staff evacuation from the summit should be carried out if allowed by Observatory safety conditions.
IF YOU ARE INSIDE A BUILDING -Stay calm and observe nearest surroundings. -Identify emergency exits. -Dont be overcome by panic (a strong earth tremor will last for less than one minute). -Dont go out unless the building deserves it or you are near a free exit without danger outside. -Warn people around you that they should shelter. -Pay attention to objects that may fall.
IF YOU ARE INSIDE A BUILDING - In the kitchen, switch off cooker. - Be careful with hot pots contents. - Minimize body mass sitting down or in fetal position in a safe place and protect your head (for example, beside or under a strong piece of furniture, beside a vehicle, etc. / protective triangle). If there are no furniture, go to a corner in a little office or in a corridor with strong walls.
IF YOU ARE INSIDE A BUILDING -Avoid getting near high, wide walls, windows, shelves, staircases, and at the center of large halls. -Do not use lifts. The earthquake may damage their structure and rails; you may get shut in. -Do not run. You would loose control over surrounding elements and may get injured. Just walk and remain attentive. Door frames arent necessarily the safest places, because of the rocking of the door itself and/or because its structures arent as strong as expected.
IF YOU ARE OUTDOORS -Observe the surroundings looking for hazards and identifying them. -Get apart form buildings, structures, trees, hill edges. -Remain outside until the motion stops. IF YOU ARE INSIDE A VEHICLE -Stop the vehicle and stay in the protective triangle. If there is no landslide threat you may stay inside. -When the telluric motion is over act carefully. -Drive carefully and report the situation. -Watch out, aftershocks will come. -Remain alert and vigilant to road condition (landslides, moving and falling rocks); inspect bridges before crossing, the structure may be damaged or shifted.
AFTER... The state of emergency is implemented. The Emergency Team is activated with available members. The emergency check list is activated. Staff and visitors in the summit are registered. If somebody is missing, the search and/or rescue process is organized and initiated. Help is provided to injured. Support to emotional reactions of affected people. Support to visitors, the elderly and children. Visits scattering must be controlled. Vehicular traffic must suspend until road inspection is completed.
AFTER... -Damage assessment to:. Gas circuit. Water. Electric power. Comunications. Fuel The Site Manager, advised by respective Technical staff and Emergency Team Head, will authorize supply resumption on-the-spot.
AFTER... -Do not light matches or cigarettes. -Initial assessment of damage in buildings. -If necessary, close down access to buildings until specialized assessment is carried out. -Control flammable and/or toxic liquids spills (according to risk assessment) / The place is immediately cut off. -Areas with fire hazard are defined and fire extinguishers are provided.
AFTER... -Do not walk barefooted, there may be glass and sharp objects on the floor. -Gather water in large containers, the supply may be cut off. -Be prepared for aftershocks, they may happen for months after the earthquake, and may add new damage to already damaged structures. -Do not go along or stay near hill edges until hazards and damages have been assessed for every place defined as high risk. -Stay outside damages buildings. -Do not walk or drive needlessly.
AFTER... -Be careful when opening shelves or furniture after earthquake, some elements may have moved and may fall on people. -At the beginning, communications will be exclusively for emergency control. Keep on watching radio and TV to get informed of emergency and possible instructions from communal authority.
AURA INC TELESCOPE FACILITIES IN CHILE Far away from important cities We conclude that, in case of emergency: Possibility of help from outside: practically nil The Observatory must have and maintain the ability to bear the contingency by itself, with teams formally trained to deal with simple and collective accidents, disasters and catastrophes.
In the mountains, the time of a high magnitude telluric contingency is highly critical. If it happens at daytime: more people are available but also the odds that somebody is involved in a critical situation increases. If it happens at night, on a weekend or holiday: there are only staff o duty and then, less ability to respond to critical situations. Saturday, at visit time: there are around 50 persons per group (morning and afternoon), visitors handling will be difficult as they will tend to leave the summit on their own and by their own means.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Professional Nurses at Tololo trained for Emergency Handling. Paramedic Staff at Cerro Pachón with Basic Emergency Handling Course. Two Ambulances for basic transportation fitted for injured evacuation / Cerro Tololo and Pachón. Fire Engine for initial Fire control. 222 fire extinguishers, strategically placed according to international standards.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Emergency Teams (Tololo and Pachón) with basic level training for emergencies handling and better response abilities at daytime and work days. There Are Emergency Plans approved by the Organization and CPHS for several contingencies in the Observatory, including the Building Evacuation Plan, proven through drills. Equipment, materials and supplies for Emergency Team work / being improved.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Government Decree Nº 54 / CPHS Functions RISK PREVENTION, HEALTH AND SAFETY - Promotion and Advise - Observation - Study – Analyze – Instruction - Training - Surveillance Hazard Control / Physical and Mental Health Protection CPHS role is active and prevailing: Stimulates, promotes, contributes, checks and participates in Planes and Programs implementation to face Emergencies, including Earthquakes.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Cerro Tololo and Pachón canteens are supplied and autonomous enough to endure easily one week isolation at the summit. Water self supply for a couple of weeks, without pumping water from main source at San Carlos (possible rationing). Means for sectored gas storage for canteens, heating and hot water in every building.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS New heavy machinery to clear and set up roads. Heavy machinery operator. Power generation groups for self supply (rationing periods). Fuel (gas and fuel oil) supply, if used rationally and according to stock, can cover needs for vehicle traffic, power generation and heavy equipment operation.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Means for peoples evacuation, once the road conditions have been assessed and hazards are under control // Buses, micro-buses, SUV, vans. High standards buildings to face telluric contingencies. No open air power lines near vehicle or human traffic areas. Accommodations for own emergency crews and possible external support teams.
POTENTIALITIES IN EMERGENCY EVENT MONTAIN AOSS Autonomous means to support radio communication / 2 repeaters; Remote radio stations system for emergency communication; one station every 5 km on access roads to Observatories. HF waveband radio equipment will be operating in the future. Project for satellite telephones in the Organizations sites in Chile.
EMERGENCY RADIOE STATIONS ROAD Nº 1 = Km 27 Baracoa Nº 2 = Km 22 Cifuentes Nº 3 = Km 18 La Cancha Nº 4 = Km 12 Placeres Nº 5 = Km 9 Mollacas Nº 6 = Km 5 El Quisco Nº 7 = Km 9 Z Sector Nº 8 = Km 5 El Pozo
EMERGENCY CREWS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Emergency crews assigned to the summit: Driver / Mechanic / Heavy machinery operator Cook Janitor Electrician Electronic Engineer Plumbing and Cryogenics Nurses and Paramedics Equipment or Machinery to clear and set up roads D-6 Bulldozer Scraper Front loader Hopper truck
EMERGENCY CREWS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS Staff transportation Bus Carry all SUV and vans Transportation and evacuation of injured people Ambulances (2) / Drivers athorized with special licence Other vehicles for emergency handling Fire Engine Yale Stacker Crane Heavy equipment Truck with cistern
REQUIRED TRAINING COURSES EMERGENCY TEAMS : Basic Trauma Handling (retraining) RCP in PCR and DEA equipment handling Hydraulic Extrication Equipment handling Handling and Rescue in Collapsed Structures Fire fighting (retraining) Water, Fire and use of fire extinguishers Basic Mountain Handling and Rescue Psychology of Emergency Communications / Use of equipments available in the organization Emergency command (disaster handling) Initial damage assessment in buildings and structures
HIGH RISK AREAS Inspections will be performed in every building twice a year to update the risk sheet Technicians Building. Large windows. Gym structure. Gas heater. Ceiling panels ROB Building. Large windows. Gas / heating system. Ceiling panels. Unprotected fluorescent lights. Unfixed library shelves (isolated)
HIGH RISK AREAS Road:. Hill edges and gorges. Placeres bridge. 3 Tubos bridge (Km 13). Landslides. Crevices Canteen and Kitchen. Large windows. Tendency to evacuate towards Quebrada San Carlos area (hill edge). Kind of ceilings. Hanging lamps. Gas. Cauldrons with hot water or food
HIGH RISK AREAS Outsides. Gas storage. Fuel storage / Gas and Fuel Oil. Water tanks. AGA cryogenic tank. Tall trees. Collapsed commercial power lines
HIGH RISK AREAS Telescope areas People trapped in lifts and funicular Fall of instruments and equipments Equipments and instruments in high place Stairs Shelves Stability of Domes and Shutters
HIGH RISK AREAS Telescope areas Cryogenics gases Very tall antennas Evacuation route (Visits hall) Large windows in M floor (visits) Nitrogen and CO2 cylinders in wheel carts Ceiling in Las Tacas building
SUPPORT PLAN Diffusion of Risk Prevention Plan in case of Earthquake and every worker must take part in it. Clearly identify evacuation routes with proper signs in every building. Identify higher risk areas and increase needed prevention means in them. Tell staff about specific risks in workplace and sleeping rooms; how to act in face of an emergency and how to control risks.
SUPPORT PLAN Publicize and post in visible places outlines for various contingencies (in this case, for a possible earthquake). Provide necessary authority to Emergency command The Organization supports Emergency Team work, to obtain participation, training and safety levels needed to face emergencies.
SUPPORT PLAN Should remain permanently operative : Emergency Teams personal safety resources. Implements, machines and tools for Emergency Teams autonomous work. Supply and appropriate renewal of medical material: equipment, supplies, medicines and materials for emergency handling. Consider as nil the possibility of external support from community authorities; they also face emergencies in their respective jurisdictions.
SUPPORT PLAN VHF communication equipment renewal. Enable HF wavebands. Development of satellite phones in Observation Centers and in La Serena Recinto for internal and abroad communication. Projected possibility of evacuation through air rescue services.
FORMS AND INFORMATION Publicize outlines and plans for each area Emergency procedures Procedures check list Damage reports / Forms for each area Injured report Staff training report Support from Mutual Body Support from Fire Brigade
CHECK LIST FOR EARTHQUAKE EVENT BEFORE THE EVENT… Emergency Plan : develop Earthquake Event / Annual review Emergency Plan : develop Building Evacuation Publicize Emergency Plans and Self-protection Systems for Earthquake Event Publicize Damage Assessment and Effect Mitigation Plan for Earthquake Event Permanent review of Basics Standards for Risk Prevention for Earthquake Event Earthquake Event Drills every 6 months, with Building Evacuation Review and maintenance every 3 months: signs for evacuation routes and safety areas Review and maintenance every 3 months: materials and equipment for emergency handling Review and maintenance every 3 months: radio communications systems and equipment High Risk Areas Definition / Signs / Handling and Control over these Areas Institutional support with budget defined for Emergency Team development - Official List for Emergency Team Members / with training carried out - Review every 3 months: materials and equipment for Emergency Team - Support to Training Plan for Emergency Team - Coordinate support from : Fire Brigade / Mutual / External Experts
CHECK LIST FOR EARTHQUAKE EVENT EARTQUAKE EVENT / INMEDIATELY … On duty staff Check list / Report in ROB Define command / among on-the-spot active staff Search unreported persons Rescue and care of possible casualties / Priority Evacuation Initial assessment / defined per priority Assess secondary risk conditions / Gas - Power - Fuel – Communications Damage evaluation per area Immediate closure of collapsed structures or risk areas AFTER…: Communications restoration (radio communication) and alternative systems Situation and current conditions pre-report Road conditions assessment Emergency groups / Emergency Team Canteen – General services - Transportation - Others Staff evacuation from summit Contact with Observatory authorities Reports
IMPLEMENT: Planned emergency plans for workers homes. Contingency handling in the family Means for captive worker to communicate with his/her family Facilities
Permanent maintenance of Plans and Programs is vitally important to face emergencies. Remain fully aware that its necessary to train and implement The Emergency Team. Its necessary to improve Emergency Team resources to ensure efficient and effective response in face of emergencies
It is a fundamental, primary priority, over any discussion point or analysis, to keep human assets safe; property comes later. The Organizations Joint Committees and Emergency Team, should increase their work to protect workers in case of high magnitude and high risk emergency events.
Earthquake Success will depend of: Organization support Staff adhesion to Emergency Plans Human resources incentive and motivation Material resources endowment to face emergencies Proper training in Emergency Handling matters.