ARCTIC POPs 2001-2004 Science, education and friendship
Arctic POPs 2001-2004 POP= Persistent Organic Pollutants How did it started? Project objectives Scientific results Educational results
Arctic POPs 2001-2004 Collaboration among Arctic GLOBE schools 1999 Contact with NILU (Norwegian Institute for Air Research) Finding interested scientists Choosing theme POPs and potential POPs (brominated flame retardants) 2000 Presentation of the project at GLOBE annual conference Invitation of schools (2 from each country) 2001 Development of protocols Workshop in Fairbanks
Project Objective Investigate Investigate the distribution and level of new selected POPs in the Arctic region Increase the knowledge Increase the knowledge of POPs and general environmental science in the involved schools Contribute to the documentation Contribute to the documentation of new POPs in the Arctic, needed for international political processes PBDE47 PBDE99 PCB153
Scientific results Protocol 2001-2004 Scientific correct sampling of fish tissue liver from cod, burbot, haddock, whitefish fillets from salmonids (salmon, trout, char, whitefish) Written protocol by NILU Precleaned and burned equipment from NILU Biological parameters length, weight, maturity, otoliths and scales Preparing datasheets, documentation with camera marking and packing in a correct way and shipping to NILU Reporting via internet portal www.nilu.no/web/arcticpops
New POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) Brominated flame retardants Used in electronic equipment, textiles, and furnitures to prevent fires Electronic parts of color televisions and personal computers Textile coatings; sofas, in seats of cars, buses, and aircraft.
Sample date:09/10/2002 ID of fish sample:Sample 1 Total body weight of fish (in whole grams):745 Total length of fish (in mm):430 Sampled otoliths:y Sampled scales:n Immature/Mature/Spent:Immature Length of gonad (if possible): Weight of gonad (if possible): Female/Male/Unknown:Female General of unusual observations:Extraordinary small liver. The liver was also sort of red or purple instead of pale-pink. Sample date:09/10/2002 ID of fish sample:Sample 2 Total body weight of fish (in whole grams):1277 Total length of fish (in mm):470 Sampled otoliths:y Sampled scales:n Immature/Mature/Spent:Immature Length of gonad (if possible): Weight of gonad (if possible): Female/Male/Unknown:Female General of unusual observations: Report basic facts Date of sampling:09/10/2002 Sample taken:Fish Latin name of species:gadus morhua Sampling method in fieldangling Type (and name) of sampling area:Svalbardseyri - pier Latitude and longitude (* GLOBE GPS Investigation): 65,74202N 18,08698W Nearest city/town/village:Akureyri Near industry (if, which industry):No
Evaluation of results Evaluation/discussion We think that sample 1 shouldn't be included in the results because the fat percentage in the liver was unusually low, only 10%. The fish that we took sample 1 from was extremely thin, almost half the weight of sample 2 in spite of little difference in length. There is a great difference between the two samples. The first one has very high levels of contaminants, 124,10 ng/g lipid weight of PBDE47, but the other one has on the contrary very low levels of contaminants or 4,93 ng/g lipid weight of PBDE47. Compared with the average from the prveious reports from the years 2001 and 2002, which is approximately 20 ng/g lipid weight, the difference is substantial. Evaluation of specific tasks We were asked to work through two special tasks. They were as following: 1) We were asked to try to estimate the fish's age with the help of a local fish biologist. 2) We were also asked to find the average range of levels of PCBs and PBDEs in our geographic area or country. 1) According to our references it's most likely that both samples are three years old. The categories were divided by length into 5 cm groups and in those two groups 40-44 cm and 45-49 cm the average age was three years. 2) The only reference we found in Iceland about the range of levels of PCB was in human breastmilk. It was 20,5 ng/g lipid weight. References Ásta Guðmundsdóttir, Björn Æ. Steinarsson and Gunnar Stefánsson, Marine Research Institute, 1988, A simulation procedure to evaluate the efficiency of some otolith and length sampling schemes. http://www.hollver.is/mengun/Upplysingar/Fraedsluefni/POP_1.htm
PBDE47 and PBDE99 PCB153 (well known and used as reference) ng/g or pg/g wet weight EOM (Extractable Organic Material) is the same as amount lipids lipid weight = wet weight * 100 / EOM Concentration data
Old Crow Pangnirtung Akureyri Vestmanneyjar Leknes Vannareid Kjøllefjord Apatity Kiruna Tornio Pajala 15 schools Kodiak High school Polaris K12 School Chief Zzeh Gittlet School Samuel Hearne Secondary High School Attagoyuk School Barnaskoli Vestmannaeyja Verkmenntaskólinn á Akureyri Vannareid skole Honningsvåg fiskarfagskole og vg skole Vestvågøy videregående skole The Murmansk Vocational Maritime lyceum 6 Laestadiusskolan Gymnasium 1 Hjalmar Lundbohmsskolan Pudas School
1 List of Latin names: Atlantic cod: Gadus morhua, Pacific cod: Gadus macrocephalus, Haddock: Melanogrammus aeglefinus Burbot: Lota lota, Atlantic salmon: Salmo salar, Coho salmon (Pacific salmon): Onocorhynchus kisutch,, Brown trout: Salmo trutta, Arctic char: Salvelinus alpinus, Broad whitefish: Coregonus nasus, Lake whitefish: Coregonus clupeaformis, Common whitefish: Coregonus lavaretus, 2 Most probably Coregonus acronis or Coregonus nilssoni
Our results Tendence : European Arctic > American/Canadian Arctic Confirm other results in AMAP Wind direction differences, river outlets, distance form source, different food webs (diets) etc. Our PCB153 and PBDE47 data for cod are in agreement with JAMP monitoring studies in Norway. Burbot and salmon are comparable with some data but much lower compared to lakes near local sources for pollution (Mjøsa, Lake Michigan)
New York 22.04.04 Levels of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Cod, Salmon, Char, and Trout Taken From Arctic Countries Polaris K-12 School July 15 2003
Questions How do the levels of PBDE 47, PBDE 99, and PCB 153 in fish from Alaska, Sweden, and Canada vary? What may have influenced these variations? How do POP levels from salmon, char, and trout vary? What threats might these POPs pose to Alaskans?
Hypotheses Our hypotheses are: POP levels will vary greatly between Alaska and Sweden, and less between Alaska and Canada. POP levels between Salmon, Char, and Trout will be similar. These POPs will threaten the health of subsistence relying Alaska Natives.
Sampling Site-Ship Creek, Elmendorf Fish Hatchery
HJS = Hjalmar Lundbohmsskolan, Sweden LAE = Laestadiusskolan, Sweden POK = Polaris K-12 School, Alaska ATT = Attagoyuk School, Canada Fig. 6: PCB 153 Lipid Weight Levels 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 HJS TroutLAE SalmonPOK SalmonATT Char Schools and Samples Level (ng/g) Fall 2001 S1 Fall 2001 S2 Spring 2002 Fall 2002 S1 Fall 2002 S2
Results Toxin levels in Sweden tended to be higher than Alaska and Canada. The schools that sampled salmon, trout, or char in the fall of 2002 found lower levels than the previous years. Swedish salmon contained higher levels of PBDE 47 than Swedish trout. Both were higher than Canadian char and Alaskan salmon. Swedish trout and salmon vary in levels of PBDE 99, but both have higher levels than the Alaskan salmon and Canadian char. The char had slightly higher levels than the Alaskan salmon.
Discussion Alaskan and Canadian PCB and PBDE levels are lower than Europes, however they may still pose a threat to Alaskans, especially if they rise. According to the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, PCBs and PBDEs may be coming to the North Pacific from East Asia. Fish represents almost 60% Alaska native diets. According to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Alaska by ACAT, PCB levels in Alaskan lake trout are about 3.7 ng/g
Conclusions POP levels varied greatly between Alaska, Sweden and Canada. These variations are most likely due to location. Salmon, trout and char have similar levels of POPs with respect to their location. Alaskan POP levels are lower than most other countries. POPs pose a threat to subsistence relying Alaska Natives and are known to have terrible health effects. POP levels in Alaskan fish have not yet reached a level to do substantial damage to health. However due to biomagnification and rising amounts, POP levels could get dangerous further up the food chain.