Presentation on theme: "Styles, Names, & Construction"— Presentation transcript:
1Styles, Names, & Construction FURNITUREStyles, Names, & Construction
2Furniture Names...Familiarize yourself with certain names that designers have given to pieces of furniture. Those names reflect the way the piece is constructed, more than the way they are decorated or finished.A coffee table is a low table, often placed in front of a sofa for magazines, beverages, etc… regardless of furniture style.
3Director’s Chair: wood frame with canvas seat and back Morris Chair: has loose cushions and a movable backArm and Side Chairs: dining chairsBarcelona Chair: stainless steel frameBentwood Chair: made from steam-bent wood piecesClub Chair: heavily upholsteredWing Chair: projecting sides
4Small upholstered footstool: also known as a hassock or ottoman Trundle Bed: low bed on casters under a full height bedArmoire (ärm-wär‘): A large wardrobe cabinetBombe Chest: A commode with a bulging sides, front, or bothBreakfront: Large china hutch with a center section that extends beyond the side sections
5Chaise Lounge: backless couch with one high side for reclining Loveseat: small sofa for 2 peopleHutch: chest or cabinet with an open shelf aboveOccasional table: small table, sometimes with shelves or drawers; may serve as a lamp table or coffee tableLibrary table: rectangular table; Parson’s table is simple and does not have a drawerPedestal table: has 1 or 2 center support posts instead of 4 legs
6Davenport: small writing desk OR sofa that makes into a bed Etagère (ā'tä-zhâr')(last syllable rhymes with chair): an open shelf unit for small ornamentsDavenport: small writing desk OR sofa that makes into a bedGateleg or Pembroke table: a drop leaf table with one or two legs that swing out to support the raised leavesDivan: a living room piece with a concealed bed mattress that pulls out from the seat
7Lingerie chest: tall but narrow chest of small drawers Poster bed: high posts on all 4 corners Canopy bed: has a cloth topper on a poster bedLingerie chest: tall but narrow chest of small drawersSettee: small double-seat that may have arms and be upholsteredSectional: piece of seating furniture composed of sections that can be arranged separately or together
8Campaign furniture: has metal corners and handles like military chests Coffee Table: low table often placed in front of sofa for holding magazines and drinksCampaign furniture: has metal corners and handles like military chestsCommode: low chest of drawersCredenza: storage piece about chair rail height, usually designed for the dining room but often found in the denConsole: once a shelf but now a versatile table
9Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Ball and Claw FootBun FootPad Foot
10Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Feral Foot Feral: wild and menacing; a "ferocious dog"Reeded Brass FootTrifid (TRY fid) Foot Alternative name: Drake Foot3-lobed end-piece of a Queen Anne cabriole legClub Foot; may be slightly pointed; usually thick and substantialPaw Foot: may be a hairy dog’s paw
11Ogee bracket foot, popular on Queen Anne and Chippendale Furniture Construction: Identifying FeaturesOgee bracket foot, popular on Queen Anne and ChippendaleFrench bracket footSpade FootArrow FootHoof Foot
12Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Bandy Legged Cabriole LegCabriole Leg with Pad FootCabriole Leg with Ball and Claw FootCabriole Leg
13Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Bulbous LegTapered LegTurned LegSpiral Legs
14Pediments above; Pediment with Finial below Furniture Construction: Identifying FeaturesH StretcherX StretcherPediments above; Pediment with Finial belowMotifs
15Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Ladder Back ChairFiddle Back ChairShield Back ChairSlat Back ChairSpoon Back ChairSplat Back ChairLyre Back Chair
16Furniture Construction: Quality Check Eight-way hand-tied springs: considered the best springs, each coil is hand tied into place eight ways (front to back, side to side, and diagonally), allowing the coils to move independently while still providing firm, comfortable supportCorner blocks: blocks of wood used in the corners of the frame that act as an extra brace, strengthening the frameKiln-dried hardwood frame: the best frames are made of hardwoods such as elm, oak, birch, walnut and cherry which have been kiln-dried to remove moisture, thereby protecting the frame against warping, splitting, swelling and shrinking
17Furniture Construction: Quality Check Mortise and Tenon: a favored means of furniture assembly where a projection, or tenon, in one piece of wood fits securely into a groove, or mortise, in another to make a strong, durable, interlocking jointThe Dovetail Joint, so named for it's similarity in shape to the tail of the dove, has been a hallmark of fine woodworking. Typically, dovetails are use to join two pieces of solid wood, as in the side and front of a drawer. Dowel joints: a traditional method of construction using dowels (pegs made of wood or steel) that are fitted into holes to join two pieces of a frameTongue and Groove Construction
18Furniture Construction: Quality Check High density polyurethane foam wrapped in Dacron is the most common (and least expensive) seat core in upholstered furniture. The density of foam (should be at least 1.8 pounds per cubic foot) and quantity of Dacron will determine the softness of the upholstered seat.Spring-Down cushions consist of innerspring coils surrounded by foam and wrapped in Dacron. This whole unit is then inserted into a muslin bag of channeled down. The springs give the upholstered furniture support, while the down gives a luxurious surface feel.Down cushions offer the softest seat, utilizing a combination of down and feathers sometimes wrapped around a foam core and then encased in a muslin bag. This cushion does not retain its shape without an occasional fluffing. Back cushions are primarily filled with Dacron fiber. Encasing the filling in a bag will help the cushions keep their proper shape.
19Traditional Furniture Styles... Traditional furniture styles originated during historical periods of time from the ’s, primarily in France, England, and the United States. The European styles came about in two ways: either the ruler of the country decided what their own preferences were and then commissioned the cabinet makers to produce the designs OR a cabinetmaker themselves developed a particular style that others liked.
20Traditional Furniture Styles... 1840 Victorian- English Empire – French Directoire – French Sheraton - English Hepplewhite - English Neoclassic - French Adam - English Regency - English Federal - American Chippendale - English Georgian - American Rococo - French Regence - French Queen Anne - English Early American - American William & Mary - English Restoration - English Colonial - American Baroque - French Cromwellian - English Jacobean - English Late Renaissance - French Elizabethan - English Tudor - English
21Traditional Furniture Styles: Late French Renaissance... Italian and Flemish influence such as bun feet; Henry IV and Louis XII; furniture was large and upright; walnut, oak, and ebony were preferred; marquetry was common (wooden inlays used to create patterns in furniture, sometimes cut into shapes such as geometric shapes or flowers or leaves, and sometimes used in a variety of woods in interesting grains and colors); tall, slender columns and spiral turnings.
22Traditional Furniture Styles: French Baroque... Louis XIV; massive, rectangular, and proportionately heavy furniture; marble tabletops often placed on elaborately carved, square legs; upholstered chairs and sofas covered in rich tapestries, brocades, and silks; the cabinetmaker Andre-Charles Boulle created boulle work which used pewter, brass, semitransparent tortoiseshell and a lustrous gold allow of copper and zinc called ormolu for ornamentation
23Traditional Furniture Styles: French Regence... A transitional style between Baroque and Rococo; cabriole legs were introduced; lighter woods were used
24Traditional Furniture Styles: French Rococo... Louis XV; furniture scaled down to more human proportions; curves, flowing lines and symmetry; cabriole legs and scroll feet; ornamentation included designs of shells, foliage, shepherd’s crooks, musical instruments, inlaying, and marquetry; marble and leather tops were common, as was gold-leafing; Chinese lacquer and Oriental motifs were introducedFrench Provincial was a term given to much of the furniture during the reigns of Louis XIV through XVI. Some exposed wood was painted white with painted enamel or omalu trim.
25Traditional Furniture Styles: French Neoclassic... Sometimes called Classic Revival, this style returned to straighter lines; simpler motifs included roses, garlands, ribbons, and Cupid’s bows and darts; some Greek & Roman influences
26Traditional Furniture Styles: French Directoire... Just after the French Revolution, furniture production was disrupted; transition between Neoclassic and Empire styles; motifs included military and agricultural forms such as arrows, spears, drums, stars, and wheat; some Greek and Egyptian influences
27Traditional Furniture Styles: French Empire... Napoleon’s reign; masculine furniture with geometric shapes, absolute symmetry, and heavy, solid proportions; less carving and what was used was very military in nature and included chariots; highly polished veneers, brass and ormalu ornamentation such as brass corner protectors
28Traditional Furniture Styles: English Tudor... Henry VII & VIII, Edward VI, and Mary; native oak was most popular; simple carving and inlaying; Tudor rose, coat of arms and arabesques (scrolled leaf pattern generally symmetrical in design) motifs; overall appearance was large and heavyTudor Rose
29Traditional Furniture Styles: English Elizabethan... The bulbous form (melon shaped) was introduced; turned chairs had triangular seats with thick turnings for back, arms, and legs; wainscot chairs had rectangular seats with turned or column legs and carved or inlaid wooden backs
30Traditional Furniture Styles: English Jacobean... James I and Charles I reigns; more slender bulbous forms; motifs of acanthus leaves (large leaves used by Greeks in decoration), intertwined circles, palmettos (resembled a small, fan-shaped palm branch), ionic capitals on columns, and romayne work (caricatures of human heads); split balusters (short, turned pieces of wood like spindles split in half and often glued to surfaces); upholstered chairs gained popularity
31Traditional Furniture Styles: English Cromwellian... Civil War halted all furniture production; any pieces made were much plainer than before and relatively undecorated
32Traditional Furniture Styles: English Restoration... Walnut replaces oak as most popular wood; Charles II and James II reigned; carvings and spiral turnings till used; marquetry and gilded metal gained popularity; oriental lacquers introduced in England at this time; scrolls and floral patterns were common; caned chairs; elaborate cushions with fringes
33Traditional Furniture Styles: English William & Mary... Simpler, more elegant, and less ornate furniture; highly polished woods; oriental lacquers and japanning (less expensive but similar to lacquering); inlaid and marquetry; bun feet; some metal decorations; x-stretchers
34Traditional Furniture Styles: English Queen Anne... Strong oriental influence; gracefully curved lines; cabriole leg; motifs included shells and lion mask; ball and claw foot; spooned-back chairs; use of scrolls and finials was common on top or bottom of pieces
35Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian... ChippendaleThomas Chippendale was a London cabinetmaker; lyre, pretzel, ladder back, latticework chair backs; mahogany; much Chinese influence
36Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian... HepplewhiteGeorge Hepplewhite featured more slender lines and delicate proportions than Chippendale; straight, tapered legs with straight, spade, or thimble feet; chairs had heart, caned, wheel, oval, and his characteristic shield backs; wheat, ribbons, fluting, and oval carvings; some painted motifs such as the 3-feathered crest of the Prince of Wales and floral designs
37Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian... AdamRobert & James Adam were architects employing cabinetmakers to make furniture to complement their architecture; symmetrical with Greek and Roman designs; moved from mohagany to satinwood (a medium brown with less red tone)
38Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian... SheratonThomas Sheraton designed furniture but left construction to others; straight lines; rectangular chair backs; legs and feet like Hepplewhite; motifs included urns, swags, leaves; porcelain plaques used for decoration; splayed legs; incorporated mechanical devices for disappearing drawers folding tables, and secret compartments
39Traditional Furniture Styles: English Regency... Less originality; reused ancient Roman, Greek, and Egyptian designs such as the concave legs on chairs and symmetrical leaf designs
40Traditional Furniture Styles: English Victorian... Queen Victoria reigned; designs borrowed from several earlier styles such as Renaissance, gothic (the middle ages artwork and architecture) and Rococo (so sometimes called the eclectic style); mass produced, but elaborately ornamented objects such as rose carvings; characteristic deep greens and burgundy velvet and brocades; rosewood
41Traditional Furniture Styles: Colonial Homes were small and survival was an issue rather than furniture, so home furnishings were few and basic; low trunks doubled as seats and slanted-top bible boxes served as lap desks; trestle tables had bench seats; drop-leaf table and chair seats were popular; chairs had slatbacks and cane seats.
42Traditional Furniture Styles: Early American Slatback chairs were replaced by ladder backs for more comfort; split spindles, turnings, and bun feet; low relief carvings, if any; painted and stenciled designs often replace carvings; corner hutches; pine, beech, and ash woods were popular because they were plentiful.
43Traditional Furniture Styles: American Georgian Boston, Newport, New York, and Philadelphia emerged as design centers, each with their own distinct styles or modifications on traditional European styles; chairs became contoured; couches and upholstered pieces were popular including the wing chair; The Windsor chair from England was introduced as a rocker in Boston; secretary pieces became popular; highboys and lowboys were introduced to replace chests; brass hardware
44Traditional Furniture Styles: American Federal Little change during the American Revolution, but resumed later; ornamentation was patriotic and included eagles, cornucopias, fruit, flowers, lyres, and spiral turnings; designer Duncan Phyfe used concave legs and ornate mirrors; Pennsylvania Dutch liked cheerful designs including colorful stencils of tulips, hearts, birds, and leaves; animal and human motifs used by American Scandinavians; Shakers valued clean lines and frugality
4520th Century Furniture Styles... 20th Century styles of furniture are those that originated after the 1900’s. They were inspired by specific designers such as Frank Lloyd Wright, popular trends such as Art Nouveau or Contemporary, or the influence of preferences from specific countries such as Scandinavia.Today’s manufacturers still create the traditional styles of furniture, but do not adhere to strict rules of design. They “modify” the designs to suit their client’s preferences or method of manufacturing.Interior designers do not select all one style of furniture for any one room either. They may mix & match them in an appealing manner. This is described by the term “eclectic”.
4620th Century Furniture Styles: Art Nouveau As early as 1902, there was a rebellion against ornamentation called Art Nouveau; designed to work well with mechanization; based on flowing, natural lines ending in a curve similar to the bud of a plant; beautiful for it’s artistic merit rather than it’s cost; inexpensive woods
4720th Century Furniture Styles: Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built homes and furniture with an emphasis on nature, in a manner like he designed his sprawling ranch style homes in keeping with the sprawling prairies. He integrated furniture into the structure whenever possible… these referred to as “built-ins”; geometric shapes, slats, and flat surfaces with no ornamentation; often regarded as architectural sculpture
4820th Century Furniture Styles: Bauhaus Walter Gropius founded a school known as The Bauhaus in Germany in 1919 where the guiding principle was to simplify the design of objects, and mechanization; tubular steel, canvas, and leather straps; Bauhaus design focused only on function
4920th Century Furniture Styles: Scandinavian In Scandinavian design from the wood was curved by applying heat and steam to many veneers (same principle used in making skis); white birch often used; clean, sleek lines; upholstered pieces still had exposed wood arms and legs
5020th Century Furniture Styles: Contemporary Latest furniture designs, not yet classified or experimental; wood, metals, plastics, and glass are used; designs inspired from abstract art to everyday objects; some created simply for the artistic pleasure of the designer, but most for the middle-class market; mobile society wants lightweight, affordable, adaptable furniture; modular pieces; folding metal or canvas chairs, waterbeds, bean bag chairs, etc.
51Styles, Names, & Construction FURNITUREStyles, Names, & ConstructionThe End
52Selecting & identifying furniture styles... Name: _____________________Due Date: __________________You have already been assigned a drafting project…to draw a ranch style house floor plan. Then you were asked to choose one room of that floor plan, and render it as a shaded, perspective drawing. Now, we’re ready for furniture selection.On your ranch style floor plan, choose two rooms that you wish to show furnishings for. Choose two different types of rooms; a living room and a bedroom perhaps, not two bedrooms.Using magazines or catalogs, find a picture of an individual furniture item OR a whole room full of furniture, to illustrate the style of furniture you want in each room. The two rooms cannot have identical furniture styles.Cut out the pictures, and set them aside for now. They will be added to your final project later on. Identify the furniture styles, and be prepared to label those later as well.