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Styles, Names, & Construction

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Presentation on theme: "Styles, Names, & Construction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Styles, Names, & Construction
FURNITURE Styles, Names, & Construction

2 Furniture Names... Familiarize yourself with certain names that designers have given to pieces of furniture. Those names reflect the way the piece is constructed, more than the way they are decorated or finished. A coffee table is a low table, often placed in front of a sofa for magazines, beverages, etc… regardless of furniture style.

3 Director’s Chair: wood frame with canvas seat and back
Morris Chair: has loose cushions and a movable back Arm and Side Chairs: dining chairs Barcelona Chair: stainless steel frame Bentwood Chair: made from steam-bent wood pieces Club Chair: heavily upholstered Wing Chair: projecting sides

4 Small upholstered footstool: also known as a hassock or ottoman
Trundle Bed: low bed on casters under a full height bed Armoire (ärm-wär‘): A large wardrobe cabinet Bombe Chest: A commode with a bulging sides, front, or both Breakfront: Large china hutch with a center section that extends beyond the side sections

5 Chaise Lounge: backless couch with one high side for reclining
Loveseat: small sofa for 2 people Hutch: chest or cabinet with an open shelf above Occasional table: small table, sometimes with shelves or drawers; may serve as a lamp table or coffee table Library table: rectangular table; Parson’s table is simple and does not have a drawer Pedestal table: has 1 or 2 center support posts instead of 4 legs

6 Davenport: small writing desk OR sofa that makes into a bed
Etagère   (ā'tä-zhâr')(last syllable rhymes with chair): an open shelf unit for small ornaments Davenport: small writing desk OR sofa that makes into a bed Gateleg or Pembroke table: a drop leaf table with one or two legs that swing out to support the raised leaves Divan: a living room piece with a concealed bed mattress that pulls out from the seat

7 Lingerie chest: tall but narrow chest of small drawers
Poster bed: high posts on all 4 corners Canopy bed: has a cloth topper on a poster bed Lingerie chest: tall but narrow chest of small drawers Settee: small double-seat that may have arms and be upholstered Sectional: piece of seating furniture composed of sections that can be arranged separately or together

8 Campaign furniture: has metal corners and handles like military chests
Coffee Table: low table often placed in front of sofa for holding magazines and drinks Campaign furniture: has metal corners and handles like military chests Commode: low chest of drawers Credenza: storage piece about chair rail height, usually designed for the dining room but often found in the den Console: once a shelf but now a versatile table

9 Furniture Construction: Identifying Features
Ball and Claw Foot Bun Foot Pad Foot

10 Furniture Construction: Identifying Features
Feral Foot Feral: wild and menacing; a "ferocious dog" Reeded Brass Foot Trifid (TRY fid) Foot Alternative name: Drake Foot 3-lobed end-piece of a Queen Anne cabriole leg Club Foot; may be slightly pointed; usually thick and substantial Paw Foot: may be a hairy dog’s paw

11 Ogee bracket foot, popular on Queen Anne and Chippendale
Furniture Construction: Identifying Features Ogee bracket foot, popular on Queen Anne and Chippendale French bracket foot Spade Foot Arrow Foot Hoof Foot

12 Furniture Construction: Identifying Features
Bandy Legged Cabriole Leg Cabriole Leg with Pad Foot Cabriole Leg with Ball and Claw Foot Cabriole Leg

13 Furniture Construction: Identifying Features
Bulbous Leg Tapered Leg Turned Leg Spiral Legs

14 Pediments above; Pediment with Finial below
Furniture Construction: Identifying Features H Stretcher X Stretcher Pediments above; Pediment with Finial below Motifs

15 Furniture Construction: Identifying Features
Ladder Back Chair Fiddle Back Chair Shield Back Chair Slat Back Chair Spoon Back Chair Splat Back Chair Lyre Back Chair

16 Furniture Construction: Quality Check
Eight-way hand-tied springs: considered the best springs, each coil is hand tied into place eight ways (front to back, side to side, and diagonally), allowing the coils to move independently while still providing firm, comfortable support Corner blocks: blocks of wood used in the corners of the frame that act as an extra brace, strengthening the frame Kiln-dried hardwood frame: the best frames are made of hardwoods such as elm, oak, birch, walnut and cherry which have been kiln-dried to remove moisture, thereby protecting the frame against warping, splitting, swelling and shrinking

17 Furniture Construction: Quality Check
Mortise and Tenon: a favored means of furniture assembly where a projection, or tenon, in one piece of wood fits securely into a groove, or mortise, in another to make a strong, durable, interlocking joint The Dovetail Joint, so named for it's similarity in shape to the tail of the dove, has been a hallmark of fine woodworking. Typically, dovetails are use to join two pieces of solid wood, as in the side and front of a drawer.  Dowel joints: a traditional method of construction using dowels (pegs made of wood or steel) that are fitted into holes to join two pieces of a frame Tongue and Groove Construction

18 Furniture Construction: Quality Check
High density polyurethane foam wrapped in Dacron is the most common (and least expensive) seat core in upholstered furniture. The density of foam (should be at least 1.8 pounds per cubic foot) and quantity of Dacron will determine the softness of the upholstered seat. Spring-Down cushions consist of innerspring coils surrounded by foam and wrapped in Dacron. This whole unit is then inserted into a muslin bag of channeled down. The springs give the upholstered furniture support, while the down gives a luxurious surface feel. Down cushions offer the softest seat, utilizing a combination of down and feathers sometimes wrapped around a foam core and then encased in a muslin bag. This cushion does not retain its shape without an occasional fluffing. Back cushions are primarily filled with Dacron fiber. Encasing the filling in a bag will help the cushions keep their proper shape.

19 Traditional Furniture Styles...
Traditional furniture styles originated during historical periods of time from the ’s, primarily in France, England, and the United States. The European styles came about in two ways: either the ruler of the country decided what their own preferences were and then commissioned the cabinet makers to produce the designs OR a cabinetmaker themselves developed a particular style that others liked.

20 Traditional Furniture Styles...
1840 Victorian- English Empire – French Directoire – French Sheraton - English Hepplewhite - English Neoclassic - French Adam - English Regency - English Federal - American Chippendale - English Georgian - American Rococo - French Regence - French Queen Anne - English Early American - American William & Mary - English Restoration - English Colonial - American Baroque - French Cromwellian - English Jacobean - English Late Renaissance - French Elizabethan - English Tudor - English

21 Traditional Furniture Styles: Late French Renaissance...
Italian and Flemish influence such as bun feet; Henry IV and Louis XII; furniture was large and upright; walnut, oak, and ebony were preferred; marquetry was common (wooden inlays used to create patterns in furniture, sometimes cut into shapes such as geometric shapes or flowers or leaves, and sometimes used in a variety of woods in interesting grains and colors); tall, slender columns and spiral turnings.

22 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Baroque...
Louis XIV; massive, rectangular, and proportionately heavy furniture; marble tabletops often placed on elaborately carved, square legs; upholstered chairs and sofas covered in rich tapestries, brocades, and silks; the cabinetmaker Andre-Charles Boulle created boulle work which used pewter, brass, semitransparent tortoiseshell and a lustrous gold allow of copper and zinc called ormolu for ornamentation

23 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Regence...
A transitional style between Baroque and Rococo; cabriole legs were introduced; lighter woods were used

24 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Rococo...
Louis XV; furniture scaled down to more human proportions; curves, flowing lines and symmetry; cabriole legs and scroll feet; ornamentation included designs of shells, foliage, shepherd’s crooks, musical instruments, inlaying, and marquetry; marble and leather tops were common, as was gold-leafing; Chinese lacquer and Oriental motifs were introduced French Provincial was a term given to much of the furniture during the reigns of Louis XIV through XVI. Some exposed wood was painted white with painted enamel or omalu trim.

25 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Neoclassic...
Sometimes called Classic Revival, this style returned to straighter lines; simpler motifs included roses, garlands, ribbons, and Cupid’s bows and darts; some Greek & Roman influences

26 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Directoire...
Just after the French Revolution, furniture production was disrupted; transition between Neoclassic and Empire styles; motifs included military and agricultural forms such as arrows, spears, drums, stars, and wheat; some Greek and Egyptian influences

27 Traditional Furniture Styles: French Empire...
Napoleon’s reign; masculine furniture with geometric shapes, absolute symmetry, and heavy, solid proportions; less carving and what was used was very military in nature and included chariots; highly polished veneers, brass and ormalu ornamentation such as brass corner protectors

28 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Tudor...
Henry VII & VIII, Edward VI, and Mary; native oak was most popular; simple carving and inlaying; Tudor rose, coat of arms and arabesques (scrolled leaf pattern generally symmetrical in design) motifs; overall appearance was large and heavy Tudor Rose

29 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Elizabethan...
The bulbous form (melon shaped) was introduced; turned chairs had triangular seats with thick turnings for back, arms, and legs; wainscot chairs had rectangular seats with turned or column legs and carved or inlaid wooden backs

30 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Jacobean...
James I and Charles I reigns; more slender bulbous forms; motifs of acanthus leaves (large leaves used by Greeks in decoration), intertwined circles, palmettos (resembled a small, fan-shaped palm branch), ionic capitals on columns, and romayne work (caricatures of human heads); split balusters (short, turned pieces of wood like spindles split in half and often glued to surfaces); upholstered chairs gained popularity

31 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Cromwellian...
Civil War halted all furniture production; any pieces made were much plainer than before and relatively undecorated

32 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Restoration...
Walnut replaces oak as most popular wood; Charles II and James II reigned; carvings and spiral turnings till used; marquetry and gilded metal gained popularity; oriental lacquers introduced in England at this time; scrolls and floral patterns were common; caned chairs; elaborate cushions with fringes

33 Traditional Furniture Styles: English William & Mary...
Simpler, more elegant, and less ornate furniture; highly polished woods; oriental lacquers and japanning (less expensive but similar to lacquering); inlaid and marquetry; bun feet; some metal decorations; x-stretchers

34 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Queen Anne...
Strong oriental influence; gracefully curved lines; cabriole leg; motifs included shells and lion mask; ball and claw foot; spooned-back chairs; use of scrolls and finials was common on top or bottom of pieces

35 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian...
Chippendale Thomas Chippendale was a London cabinetmaker; lyre, pretzel, ladder back, latticework chair backs; mahogany; much Chinese influence

36 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian...
Hepplewhite George Hepplewhite featured more slender lines and delicate proportions than Chippendale; straight, tapered legs with straight, spade, or thimble feet; chairs had heart, caned, wheel, oval, and his characteristic shield backs; wheat, ribbons, fluting, and oval carvings; some painted motifs such as the 3-feathered crest of the Prince of Wales and floral designs

37 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian...
Adam Robert & James Adam were architects employing cabinetmakers to make furniture to complement their architecture; symmetrical with Greek and Roman designs; moved from mohagany to satinwood (a medium brown with less red tone)

38 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Georgian...
Sheraton Thomas Sheraton designed furniture but left construction to others; straight lines; rectangular chair backs; legs and feet like Hepplewhite; motifs included urns, swags, leaves; porcelain plaques used for decoration; splayed legs; incorporated mechanical devices for disappearing drawers folding tables, and secret compartments

39 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Regency...
Less originality; reused ancient Roman, Greek, and Egyptian designs such as the concave legs on chairs and symmetrical leaf designs

40 Traditional Furniture Styles: English Victorian...
Queen Victoria reigned; designs borrowed from several earlier styles such as Renaissance, gothic (the middle ages artwork and architecture) and Rococo (so sometimes called the eclectic style); mass produced, but elaborately ornamented objects such as rose carvings; characteristic deep greens and burgundy velvet and brocades; rosewood

41 Traditional Furniture Styles: Colonial
Homes were small and survival was an issue rather than furniture, so home furnishings were few and basic; low trunks doubled as seats and slanted-top bible boxes served as lap desks; trestle tables had bench seats; drop-leaf table and chair seats were popular; chairs had slatbacks and cane seats.

42 Traditional Furniture Styles: Early American
Slatback chairs were replaced by ladder backs for more comfort; split spindles, turnings, and bun feet; low relief carvings, if any; painted and stenciled designs often replace carvings; corner hutches; pine, beech, and ash woods were popular because they were plentiful.

43 Traditional Furniture Styles: American Georgian
Boston, Newport, New York, and Philadelphia emerged as design centers, each with their own distinct styles or modifications on traditional European styles; chairs became contoured; couches and upholstered pieces were popular including the wing chair; The Windsor chair from England was introduced as a rocker in Boston; secretary pieces became popular; highboys and lowboys were introduced to replace chests; brass hardware

44 Traditional Furniture Styles: American Federal
Little change during the American Revolution, but resumed later; ornamentation was patriotic and included eagles, cornucopias, fruit, flowers, lyres, and spiral turnings; designer Duncan Phyfe used concave legs and ornate mirrors; Pennsylvania Dutch liked cheerful designs including colorful stencils of tulips, hearts, birds, and leaves; animal and human motifs used by American Scandinavians; Shakers valued clean lines and frugality

45 20th Century Furniture Styles...
20th Century styles of furniture are those that originated after the 1900’s. They were inspired by specific designers such as Frank Lloyd Wright, popular trends such as Art Nouveau or Contemporary, or the influence of preferences from specific countries such as Scandinavia. Today’s manufacturers still create the traditional styles of furniture, but do not adhere to strict rules of design. They “modify” the designs to suit their client’s preferences or method of manufacturing. Interior designers do not select all one style of furniture for any one room either. They may mix & match them in an appealing manner. This is described by the term “eclectic”.

46 20th Century Furniture Styles: Art Nouveau
As early as 1902, there was a rebellion against ornamentation called Art Nouveau; designed to work well with mechanization; based on flowing, natural lines ending in a curve similar to the bud of a plant; beautiful for it’s artistic merit rather than it’s cost; inexpensive woods

47 20th Century Furniture Styles: Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright designed and built homes and furniture with an emphasis on nature, in a manner like he designed his sprawling ranch style homes in keeping with the sprawling prairies. He integrated furniture into the structure whenever possible… these referred to as “built-ins”; geometric shapes, slats, and flat surfaces with no ornamentation; often regarded as architectural sculpture

48 20th Century Furniture Styles: Bauhaus
Walter Gropius founded a school known as The Bauhaus in Germany in 1919 where the guiding principle was to simplify the design of objects, and mechanization; tubular steel, canvas, and leather straps; Bauhaus design focused only on function

49 20th Century Furniture Styles: Scandinavian
In Scandinavian design from the wood was curved by applying heat and steam to many veneers (same principle used in making skis); white birch often used; clean, sleek lines; upholstered pieces still had exposed wood arms and legs

50 20th Century Furniture Styles: Contemporary
Latest furniture designs, not yet classified or experimental; wood, metals, plastics, and glass are used; designs inspired from abstract art to everyday objects; some created simply for the artistic pleasure of the designer, but most for the middle-class market; mobile society wants lightweight, affordable, adaptable furniture; modular pieces; folding metal or canvas chairs, waterbeds, bean bag chairs, etc.

51 Styles, Names, & Construction
FURNITURE Styles, Names, & Construction The End

52 Selecting & identifying furniture styles...
Name: _____________________ Due Date: __________________ You have already been assigned a drafting project…to draw a ranch style house floor plan. Then you were asked to choose one room of that floor plan, and render it as a shaded, perspective drawing. Now, we’re ready for furniture selection. On your ranch style floor plan, choose two rooms that you wish to show furnishings for. Choose two different types of rooms; a living room and a bedroom perhaps, not two bedrooms. Using magazines or catalogs, find a picture of an individual furniture item OR a whole room full of furniture, to illustrate the style of furniture you want in each room. The two rooms cannot have identical furniture styles. Cut out the pictures, and set them aside for now. They will be added to your final project later on. Identify the furniture styles, and be prepared to label those later as well.

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