2 Types of WoodHardwoods: come from deciduous trees (lose their leaves). Walnut, mahogany, pecan, cherry, maple, oak. Expensive, does not dent easily.Softwoods: come from coniferous or evergreen trees (do not shed leaves & can have a cone). Cedar, redwood, pine, fir, spruce. Dents easily, grain is not as attractive as hardwoods.
3 WoodSolid Wood: all exposed parts of a piece of furniture is made from whole pieces of wood, usually $$$$, has a tendency to warp, swell, and crack or splitBonded wood: bonded by glue and pressure, includes veneered & pressed wood
4 Veneered wood or plywood: created by bonding 3,5,or 7 thin layers of wood to one another, to a solid core, or pressed wood core. Fine wood is used on the outside and cheaper wood on inside.ADV: Makes fragile wood strongerDis.Adv: adhesive that bonds veneer may not stick, causing veneer to loosen and chip or crack.
5 Pressed wood: made of shavings, veneer scraps, chips, & other small pieces of wood and is called particleboard, wafer board, composite boardUsed on parts of wood that do not show and can be covered with laminate/plastic covering for durability
6 Wood Grain or pattern Lumber is cut to show off the pattern Stump wood: irregular grain formed by twisted and irregular growth of tree’s rootsCrotch wood: special grain caused by branches growing out from trunk of treeBurls: woody, flattened outgrowths on tree, unique and $$$$$
7 Finished and Unfinished Wood Solid walnut: exposed wood is same throughout entire pieceWalnut veneer: surface is covered with thin sheets of walnut wood while rest of piece is usually particle board or other inexpensive woodWalnut finish: has a finish (paint/varnish) whose color is same as walnut
8 Wood JointsMortise-and –tenon: one of the strongest joints, glued tenon fits into mortise (hole), no nails/screws used. Legs of chairs
9 Dowel joint: small wood pegs that are glued into the holes of pieces of wood being joined together. Used as reinforcement
10 Dovetail joint: Used to fasten corner joints in drawers Dovetail joint: Used to fasten corner joints in drawers. Found in good-quality furniture. Can take strong pulls or strains
11 Butt joint: weakest joint. One board is glued or nailed to another.
12 Corner Block: small pieces of wood attached between corner boards, reinforce & support joints. Used in tables, chairs, upholstered furniture frames
13 Tongue-and-groove: tongue is cut on one board and matching groove is cut on another. If done correctly, joint is invisible.
14 Mitered joint: 2 edges are cut at a 45 degree angle and joined to form a square corner. Joint is then glued and sometimes reinforced with nails, dowels, a spline or glue blocks
15 Upholstered furniture Chairs, sofas, and other pieces of padded furnitureAll exposed surfaces are covered with fabric so all inner construction details are hidden.Good quality furniture has durable, well-tailored upholstery fabric
16 Plastic Furniture Less expensive than wood Lightweight, sturdy, easy to cleanLooks best in modern/contemporary settings
20 Rattan, Wicker, BambooCombines natural wood frames with woven stems or branches
21 Rattan Made from stringy, tough stems of palm trees. Bend easily and are strong, works best in casual setting
22 WickerMade by weaving thin, flexible branches around a frame, can be varnished or painted, water resistant, durable, natural gloss, lightweight
23 BambooMade from tall tropical grasses with hollow stems. Can be combined with rattan
24 Glass Usually combined with metal or wood. Good for tabletops and cabinet doors
25 Frames, Springs, Cushions Frames: Upholstered furniture frames are usually made of solid wood or metal. Joints should be secured with screws and corner blocks
26 Springs: part of the inner construction Springs: part of the inner construction. The type and number determine the quality.Coil springs: spiral shaped without padding and covering. Used in heavier furniture. Average chair has 9-12 springs per seat.
27 Flat or zigzag springs: used with lightweight pieces of furniture and are flat, S-shaped springs that may have metal support strips banded across themOffers firm comfort at a lower price
28 Cushions: Need to be proper size Fit snugly into furniture Give body and supportUsually made of urethane foam or foam rubber. Down or feathers are not durableLoose fill can also be used for pillows. Will lose shapeCan be molded into any size or shape.
29 FinishesInclude stains, sealers, waxes and paints that protect and improve the appearance of the wood surfaceWater-based and oil-based stains bring out the natural beauty of woodsSealers can be penetrating or on the surface of the wood
30 Finishes con’t Plastic sealers resists moisture Wax is used to preserve the wood and gives an attractive lookPaint is used to hide unattractive surfaces. Can also be used to enhance the look by being decorative