Presentation on theme: "Furniture Construction 5.02. Types of Wood Hardwoods: come from deciduous trees (lose their leaves). Walnut, mahogany, pecan, cherry, maple, oak. Expensive,"— Presentation transcript:
Types of Wood Hardwoods: come from deciduous trees (lose their leaves). Walnut, mahogany, pecan, cherry, maple, oak. Expensive, does not dent easily. Softwoods: come from coniferous or evergreen trees (do not shed leaves & can have a cone). Cedar, redwood, pine, fir, spruce. Dents easily, grain is not as attractive as hardwoods.
Wood Solid Wood: all exposed parts of a piece of furniture is made from whole pieces of wood, usually $$$$, has a tendency to warp, swell, and crack or split Bonded wood: bonded by glue and pressure, includes veneered & pressed wood
Veneered wood or plywood: created by bonding 3,5,or 7 thin layers of wood to one another, to a solid core, or pressed wood core. Fine wood is used on the outside and cheaper wood on inside. ADV: Makes fragile wood stronger Dis.Adv: adhesive that bonds veneer may not stick, causing veneer to loosen and chip or crack.
Pressed wood: made of shavings, veneer scraps, chips, & other small pieces of wood and is called particleboard, wafer board, composite board Used on parts of wood that do not show and can be covered with laminate/plastic covering for durability
Wood Grain or pattern Lumber is cut to show off the pattern Stump wood: irregular grain formed by twisted and irregular growth of trees roots Crotch wood: special grain caused by branches growing out from trunk of tree Burls: woody, flattened outgrowths on tree, unique and $$$$$
Finished and Unfinished Wood Solid walnut: exposed wood is same throughout entire piece Walnut veneer: surface is covered with thin sheets of walnut wood while rest of piece is usually particle board or other inexpensive wood Walnut finish: has a finish (paint/varnish) whose color is same as walnut
Wood Joints Mortise-and –tenon: one of the strongest joints, glued tenon fits into mortise (hole), no nails/screws used. Legs of chairs
Dowel joint: small wood pegs that are glued into the holes of pieces of wood being joined together. Used as reinforcement
Dovetail joint: Used to fasten corner joints in drawers. Found in good-quality furniture. Can take strong pulls or strains
Butt joint: weakest joint. One board is glued or nailed to another.
Corner Block: small pieces of wood attached between corner boards, reinforce & support joints. Used in tables, chairs, upholstered furniture frames
Tongue-and-groove: tongue is cut on one board and matching groove is cut on another. If done correctly, joint is invisible.
Mitered joint: 2 edges are cut at a 45 degree angle and joined to form a square corner. Joint is then glued and sometimes reinforced with nails, dowels, a spline or glue blocks
Upholstered furniture Chairs, sofas, and other pieces of padded furniture All exposed surfaces are covered with fabric so all inner construction details are hidden. Good quality furniture has durable, well- tailored upholstery fabric
Plastic Furniture Less expensive than wood Lightweight, sturdy, easy to clean Looks best in modern/contemporary settings
Rattan, Wicker, Bamboo Combines natural wood frames with woven stems or branches
Rattan Made from stringy, tough stems of palm trees. Bend easily and are strong, works best in casual setting
Wicker Made by weaving thin, flexible branches around a frame, can be varnished or painted, water resistant, durable, natural gloss, lightweight
Bamboo Made from tall tropical grasses with hollow stems. Can be combined with rattan
Glass Usually combined with metal or wood. Good for tabletops and cabinet doors
Frames, Springs, Cushions Frames: Upholstered furniture frames are usually made of solid wood or metal. Joints should be secured with screws and corner blocks
Springs: part of the inner construction. The type and number determine the quality. Coil springs: spiral shaped without padding and covering. Used in heavier furniture. Average chair has 9-12 springs per seat.
Flat or zigzag springs: used with lightweight pieces of furniture and are flat, S-shaped springs that may have metal support strips banded across them Offers firm comfort at a lower price
Cushions: Need to be proper size Fit snugly into furniture Give body and support Usually made of urethane foam or foam rubber. Down or feathers are not durable Loose fill can also be used for pillows. Will lose shape Can be molded into any size or shape.
Finishes Include stains, sealers, waxes and paints that protect and improve the appearance of the wood surface Water-based and oil-based stains bring out the natural beauty of woods Sealers can be penetrating or on the surface of the wood
Finishes cont Plastic sealers resists moisture Wax is used to preserve the wood and gives an attractive look Paint is used to hide unattractive surfaces. Can also be used to enhance the look by being decorative