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Instructional Design and Technology Multimedia Project August 19, 2011 Synthea Freeman EDUC 6105 Organizations, Innovation, and Change.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Design and Technology Multimedia Project August 19, 2011 Synthea Freeman EDUC 6105 Organizations, Innovation, and Change."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Instructional Design and Technology Multimedia Project August 19, 2011 Synthea Freeman EDUC 6105 Organizations, Innovation, and Change

3 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE Daisaku Ikeda: An Iconographic Image of Transformational Leadership Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, president and founder of Soka Gakkai International is recognized as a world leader in the quest for Peace.

4 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE Daisaku Ikeda: An Iconographic Image of Transformational Leadership Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, president and founder of Soka Gakkai International is recognized as a world leader in the quest for Peace. SGI is the organizational structure supporting a lay Buddhist movement based on Dr. Ikedas modern interpretation of Nichiren Buddhism.

5 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE Daisaku Ikeda: An Iconographic Image of Transformational Leadership Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, president and founder of Soka Gakkai International is recognized as a world leader in the quest for Peace. SGI is the organizational structure supporting a lay Buddhist movement based on Dr. Ikedas modern interpretation of Nichiren Buddhism. Dr. Ikeda has received over 300 honorary doctorates and professorships, attesting to the depth and breadth of his vision and capacity for Intellectual Stimulation.

6 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE Daisaku Ikeda, An Iconographic Image of Transformational Leadership, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, president and founder of Soka Gakkai International is recognized as a world leader in the quest for Peace. SGI is the organizational structure supporting a lay Buddhist movement based on Dr. Ikedas modern interpretation of Nichiren Buddhism. Dr. Ikeda has received over 300 honorary doctorates and professorships, attesting to the depth and breadth of his vision and capacity for Intellectual Stimulation. Dr. Ikedas Idealized Influence arouses many followers and generates strong emotions and identification with their leader.

7 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses LEADERSHIP STRUCTURE Daisaku Ikeda, An Iconographic Image of Transformational Leadership, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, president and founder of Soka Gakkai International is recognized as a world leader in the quest for Peace. SGI is the organizational structure supporting a lay Buddhist movement based on Dr. Ikedas modern interpretation of Nichiren Buddhism. Dr. Ikeda has received over 300 honorary doctorates and professorships, attesting to the depth and breadth of his vision and capacity for Intellectual Stimulation. Dr. Ikedas Idealized Influence arouses many followers and generates strong emotions and identification with their leader. By providing daily inspiration, Dr. Ikeda has shown Individualized Consideration; and by providing Inspirational Motivation, Dr. Ikeda has motivated millions of people around the world to take action to implement change in their individual lives.

8 A Brief History of the Leadership of Soka Gakkai

9 e first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. The first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. A Brief History of the Leadership of Soka Gakkai

10 e first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. The first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Soka Gakkai was not organized by Nichiren Shoshu, but after World War II Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu developed a mutually beneficial alliance. On May 3, 1960, Daisaku Ikeda became the third president. Ikeda has founded a number of educational and cultural institutions that seek to foster the values of peace, culture and education. Over time, tensions grew between SGI President Ikeda and the Nichiren Shoshu priesthood over questions of doctrine and leadership. In 1991 Nichiren Shoshu formally renounced SGI and excommunicated Ikeda. A Brief History of the Leadership of Soka Gakkai

11 e first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. The first incarnation of Soka Gakkai occurred in Japan in 1930 by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi ( ), an author and educator. Soka Kyoiku Gakkai was a lay organization dedicated to humanistic education reform, that also embodied the religious teachings of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Makiguchi and his close associate Josei Toda ( ) refused to participate in Shinto rituals and worship, and they were arrested as thought criminals. Makiguchi died in prison in After the war and his release from prison. Toda re-formed Soka Kyoiku Gakkai into Soka Gakkai or "Value-Creating Society" and shifted the focus from education reform to the promotion of Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism. Soka Gakkai was not organized by Nichiren Shoshu, but after World War II Soka Gakkai and Nichiren Shoshu developed a mutually beneficial alliance. On May 3, 1960, Daisaku Ikeda became the third president. Ikeda has founded a number of educational and cultural institutions that seek to foster the values of peace, culture and education. Over time, tensions grew between SGI President Ikeda and the Nichiren Shoshu priesthood over questions of doctrine and leadership. In 1991 Nichiren Shoshu formally renounced SGI and excommunicated Ikeda. News of the schism spread rapidly through the SGI membership. A majority of American members remained with SGI, as they had had little direct contact with the priesthood. SGI-USA had always been run by lay persons... that did not change. Since the break with the priesthood SGI-USA, leadership has become more democratic and less hierarchical. A Brief History of the Leadership of Soka Gakkai

12 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue Schism with the Nichiren Shōshū Priesthood: An Organization Fighting for Survival

13 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue Schism with the Nichiren Shōshū Priesthood: An Organization Fighting for Survival The schism with the Nichiren Priesthood, was a unique event in the organizations history, that has both influenced the growth of the structure and culture of the organization; as well as determined the organizations approach to change management for the last twenty years. The internal and external environmental pressures for change generated in the wake of the 1991 schism led to a new path for S G I that eventually enabled a global network of faith practitioners.

14 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue Schism with the Nichiren Shōshū Priesthood: An Organization Fighting for Survival The schism with the Nichiren Priesthood, was a unique event in the organizations history, that has both influenced the growth of the structure and culture of the organization; as well as determined the organizations approach to change management for the last twenty years. The internal and external environmental pressures for change generated in the wake of the 1991 schism led to a new path for S G I that eventually enabled a global network of faith practitioners. On April 5, 1998, High Priest Nikken revealed his plans to transfer the Dai-Gohonzon from the Grand Main Temple, Sho Hondo; and to destroy the symbolic connection of SGI members to the temple. The Sho Hondo is a monumental masterpiece of modern religious architecture. Completed in 1972, Its construction was supported by approximately 8 million Soka Gakki members in Japan and overseas. Despite strong protests from SGI members, as well as from architectural and academic communities around the world, the once-majestic structure was completely leveled, by the end of 1998.

15 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: The Temple Issue Schism with the Nichiren Shōshū Priesthood: An Organization Fighting for Survival The schism with the Nichiren Priesthood, was a unique event in the organizations history, that has both influenced the growth of the structure and culture of the organization; as well as determined the organizations approach to change management for the last twenty years. The internal and external environmental pressures for change generated in the wake of the 1991 schism led to a new path for S G I that eventually enabled a global network of faith practitioners. On April 5, 1998, High Priest Nikken revealed his plans to transfer the Dai-Gohonzon from the Grand Main Temple, Sho Hondo; and to destroy the symbolic connection of S G I members to the temple. The Sho Hondo is a monumental masterpiece of modern religious architecture. Completed in 1972, Its construction was supported by approximately 8 million Soka Gakki members in Japan and overseas. Despite strong protests from S G I members, as well as from architectural and academic communities around the world, the once-majestic structure was completely leveled, by the end of SGI leadership had to implement organizational change initiatives to retain its integrity, convince its followers that it was the one and only true upholder of Nichirens teachings, and prove that it continued to be a viable and legitimate religion.

16 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture Birth of an American Buddhist Culture

17 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture Birth of an American Buddhist Culture One of Ikeda's first initiatives after assuming presidency was to plan a trip to the USA in order to encourage the handful of Soka Gakkai members that lived here, mostly war brides who had emigrated with their American husbands. In October 1960, five months after his inauguration, Ikeda departed for the United States, Canada and Brazil. Ikeda's ability to inspire the few individuals he met proved a powerful impetus to the expansion of the Buddhist movement here in America.

18 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture Birth of an American Buddhist Culture One of Ikeda's first initiatives after assuming presidency was to plan a trip to the USA in order to encourage the handful of Soka Gakkai members that lived here, mostly war brides who had emigrated with their American husbands. In October 1960, five months after his inauguration, Ikeda departed for the United States, Canada and Brazil. Ikeda's ability to inspire the few individuals he met proved a powerful impetus to the expansion of the Buddhist movement here in America. Getting beyond the Temple Issue necessitated the establishment of a clear, and separate identity. This led to efforts to discredit the temple and the priesthood using inflammatory rhetoric and negative personal attacks. This negativity led many American members to oppose the changes in varying degrees and methods. Some became vocal in their criticisms and prepared proposals to present to national leaders to instigate change, and some may have started practicing independently or joined other

19 A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture A Significant Historical Event in SGI-USA History: Birth of an American Buddhist Culture Birth of an American Buddhist Culture One of Ikeda's first initiatives after assuming presidency was to plan a trip to the USA in order to encourage the handful of Soka Gakkai members that lived here, mostly war brides who had emigrated with their American husbands. In October 1960, five months after his inauguration, Ikeda departed for the United States, Canada and Brazil. Ikeda's ability to inspire the few individuals he met proved a powerful impetus to the expansion of the Buddhist movement here in America. Getting beyond the Temple Issue necessitated the establishment of a clear, and separate identity. This led to efforts to discredit the temple and the priesthood using inflammatory rhetoric and negative personal attacks. This negativity led many American members to oppose the changes in varying degrees and methods. Some became vocal in their criticisms and prepared proposals to present to national leaders to instigate change, and some may have started practicing independently or joined other Many others began to envision changes the organization could make to become more effective in responding to the needs of American Buddhists. From a global perspective, Nichiren Buddhism has always been characterized by standing up against authoritarianism, persecution, and intoleranceideals very much in line with American ideals of democracy and individual freedom. It was during this critical period in the years following the Nichiren Shoshu schism that true visionaries and Bodhisattvas of the Earth here in America, sought to nurture the culture of these ideals in the American organization through their Buddhist practice and grow the organization from the grassroots, community level.

20 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses SGI-USA Organizational History The Soka Gakkai International (SGI), is the global organization of a lay Buddhist movement rooted in the teachings of a 700-year-old tradition founded by Nichiren Daishonin. Daishonin taught devotion to the Lotus Sutra as the exclusive means to attain enlightenment, and the chanting of Nam-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō as the essential practice of the teaching. SGI-USA Organizational History The Soka Gakkai International (SGI), is the global organization of a lay Buddhist movement rooted in the teachings of a 700-year-old tradition founded by Nichiren Daishonin. Daishonin taught devotion to the Lotus Sutra as the exclusive means to attain enlightenment, and the chanting of Nam-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō as the essential practice of the teaching. SGI-USA Organizational Culture Emphasizes individual empowerment and social engagement to advance peace, culture, and education. There is a strong ethos of responsibility for global and social issues among SGI members. Cultural artifacts and practices include the daily practice of chanting to the Gohonzon (the fundamental object of devotion in Nichiren Buddhism). The Gohonzon is an inscribed scroll depicted in Chinese and Sanskrit characters that represent the enlightened life of each individual and embodies the protective functions of the Universe. SGI-USA Organizational Culture Emphasizes individual empowerment and social engagement to advance peace, culture, and education. There is a strong ethos of responsibility for global and social issues among SGI members. Cultural artifacts and practices include the daily practice of chanting to the Gohonzon (the fundamental object of devotion in Nichiren Buddhism). The Gohonzon is an inscribed scroll depicted in Chinese and Sanskrit characters that represent the enlightened life of each individual and embodies the protective functions of the Universe. SGI-USA Organizational Description SGI-USA is the American branch of the global network of lay Nichiren Buddhist faith practitioners who believe that we can change the destiny of the world by bringing positive change into the lives of individuals. SGI-USA is a non-profit religious organization that exists to further a stated cause and win converts to a religious ideology. The organizations stated objective is the development of the potential for hope, courage and altruistic action in its members. SGI-USA Organizational Description SGI-USA is the American branch of the global network of lay Nichiren Buddhist faith practitioners who believe that we can change the destiny of the world by bringing positive change into the lives of individuals. SGI-USA is a non-profit religious organization that exists to further a stated cause and win converts to a religious ideology. The organizations stated objective is the development of the potential for hope, courage and altruistic action in its members.

21 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses SGI-USA Organizational Structure The SGI - USA Organizational Structure consists of nine organizational levels unit, group, district, chapter, area, region, zone, territory and national.The SGI - USA Organizational Structure consists of nine organizational levels unit, group, district, chapter, area, region, zone, territory and national. The national organization is made up of three geographically defined territories : West, Central, and East territories.The national organization is made up of three geographically defined territories : West, Central, and East territories. Each Territory is divided into zones, regions, areas, chapters and districts. The core activity for all SGI - USA members is the neighborhood discussion meeting.Each Territory is divided into zones, regions, areas, chapters and districts. The core activity for all SGI - USA members is the neighborhood discussion meeting. SGI - USA appears to have a strict hierarchical organization with a clear chain of command, and a stratified system of levels of activitySGI - USA appears to have a strict hierarchical organization with a clear chain of command, and a stratified system of levels of activity All but the lowest levels are appointed from aboveAll but the lowest levels are appointed from above SGI - USA may appear to be hierarchical, but it is not authoritarian.SGI - USA may appear to be hierarchical, but it is not authoritarian. Dr. Ikeda s application of two principles of Eastern philosophy serves as dual pillars of support for the organization s success : The Principle of Mentor and Disciple, and the Principle of DialogueDr. Ikeda s application of two principles of Eastern philosophy serves as dual pillars of support for the organization s success : The Principle of Mentor and Disciple, and the Principle of Dialogue

22 Researching Organizational Change Part I Highlights of Observations and Analyses SGI-USA Organizational Structure: The Principle of Mentor and Disciple The organizations emphasis is on guidance and mentoring which results in a systematic and structural dissemination of values throughout the organization. The Mentor/Disciple relationship establishes Daisaku Ikeda as the mentor to each and all of the organizations members. As disciples, members look to him for vision, inspiration and leadership. The Mentor/Disciple relationship also designates all members as equals and completely alters the power relationship between organizational leaders and members. Subsequently, authority is reinforced in subtle and continuous ways. In SGI-USA people are not told what to do-- they are offered encouragement and advice

23 Leadership Actions in Planning and Implementing Organizational Change SGI-USA Organizational Structure: The Principle of Dialogue The Principle of Dialogue is used to manage conflict and resistance to change. Dialogue provides the forum for the interchange of different perspectives within the context of implementing change. Dialogue was used in all planning and analysis before the change is implemented Dialogue was designed to handle any anticipated opposition to the change effort Dialogue provided leaders, change agents, and organizational members with the opportunity to provide feedback. Dialogue was the driving impetus for change from the bottom up, as opposed to the top down model of most organizations Dr. Ikedas planning and transformational leadership styles were necessary and essential components of a fully integrated change process; and their successful application highlights the influence of his leadership style on the ultimate success of the change.

24 Undertaking a Change Process he SGI - USA 2007 Restructuring and Re - visioning Initiative The SGI - USA 2007 Restructuring and Re - visioning Initiative The change process implemented a new organizational structure consisting of three large territories -- East, Central and West to regionalize the coordination of activities. The three territories will have autonomous organizations The changes were made to accommodate a growing membership…to provide for more direct, localized assistance in helping volunteer leaders support their districts, and to provide better member care and support. This initiative was rolled out to the organization through internal communications channels and various other media outlets

25 Researching Change in an Organization - Part II : Overcoming Resistance and Institutionalizing Change Leadership Strategies for Overcoming Resistance and Sustaining Change It is important to assess whether or not a resister has sound business reasons for opposing the change, as resisters who understand the business well can shed valuable insights about how proposed changes might be modified to increase the odds for success. By drawing on another Eastern philosophy, the Middle Way, resistance is transformed into an acceptance that the external force is there, and then it leads us to find a way to hold our intention and accommodate it ( Gullickson, 2009). Accommodation was essentially the strategy that change leaders used to overcome the resistance ; as accommodation has been the reason that Buddhism has been able to adapt itself to so many diverse cultures around the world.

26 Researching Change in an Organization - Part II : Overcoming Resistance and Institutionalizing Change Evaluation of Overall Success in Implementing a Change Initiative In evaluating the overall effectiveness of the change process, the research associate concluded that the structural and cultural make-up of SGI-USA readily facilitates institutionalization of organizational change. Dialogue was successfully employed as a method of communication throughout this change process. This change process was reflective of the method of systematic diffusion of other innovation or changes in the organization. The research associate evaluated the overall effectiveness of the leaders and other change agents in guiding the organization through this change process as exceptional. The research associate observed that the structure and the culture of the organization were co-reinforcing forces that mutually influenced organizational communication and change, and that no other organizational planning or change models could have achieved similar results. Based upon the information gleaned from the course resources, outside research, and personal interview, the overall effectiveness of the change process as described in the literature of SGI-USA is rated as Excellent!

27 Research Resources List Dawson, Lorne, The Cultural Significance of New Religious Movements: The Case of Sōka Gakkai. Sociology of Religion, 62(3), pp Faith in Revolution "Interview with President Ikeda." In Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, 1/21, 2009 [Online] THE RE-INVENTION OF NICHIREN IN AN ERA OF GLOBALIZATION / 43 Hurst, Jane, Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism and the Sōka Gakkai in America. The Ethos of a New Religious Movement. New York: Garland Publishing. Ikeda, Daisaku, Katsuji Saito and Masaaki Morinaka The World of Nichiren Daishonins Writings. A Discussion on Humanistic Religion. Volume One. Malaysia: Sōka Gakkai, Malaysia. Ikeda, Daisaku, The Human Revolution, Vol. 3. Tokyo: Sōka Gakkai. Kiyoaki, Murata, Japans New Buddhism. New York & Tokyo: Walker/Weatherhill. Lee, Edwin, Nichiren and Nationalism: The Religious Patriotism of Tanaka Chigaku. In Monumenta Nippponica, xxx, 1 spring, pp Metraux, Daniel, The International Expansion of a Modern Buddhist Movement: the Sōka Gakkai in Southeast Asia and Australia. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. _______, The Sōka Gakkais Search for the Realization of the World of Rissho Ankoku. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, 13(1), pp

28 Research Resources List (cont.) Seager, Richard Hughes, Encountering the Dharma. Daisaku Ikeda, Sōka Gakkai, and the Globalization of Buddhist Humanism. Berkeley: University of California Press. Sōka Gakkai, N.D. Sōka Gakkai Controversies Explored: Sōka Gakkai-Nichiren Shōshū Split. [Online] [Accessed April 2010]. Smith, Jonathan, Imagining Religion. From Babylon to Jonestown. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stone, Jacqueline, Seeking Enlightenment in the Last Age: Mappō Thought in Kamakura Buddhism. Eastern Buddhist, 18(1) spring, pp Stone, Jacqueline, Rebuking the enemies of the lotus: Nichiren Exclusivism in Historical Perspective. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 21(2-3), pp Stone, Jacqueline, By Imperial Edict and Shogunal Decree: Politics and the Issue of the Ordination Platform in Modern Lay Nichiren Buddhism. In Steven Heine and Charles Prebish, eds. Buddhism in the Modern World: Adaptation of an Ancient Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, pp World Tribune Press, Chapter 16, The Untold History of the Fuji School, the True Story of Nichiren Shoshu, SGI-USA Study Department. Yampolsky, Philip B., ed, Burton Watson, trans Nichiren, Selected Writings of Nichiren. New York: CUP.


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