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Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D. Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute Asheville and Morganton, North Carolina Presentation prepared for Helping Extend Learning and.

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Presentation on theme: "Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D. Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute Asheville and Morganton, North Carolina Presentation prepared for Helping Extend Learning and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D. Orelena Hawks Puckett Institute Asheville and Morganton, North Carolina Presentation prepared for Helping Extend Learning and Practice (HELP) University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, May 29-30, 2012

2 2 Learning about You How long have you been providing training/professional development? years, 5-10 years more than 15 years Currently, how much of time is spent providing training/professional develop? % and 50 – 75% no one 100% Do you train end-users or people who train the end-users?

3 3 Learning about You What do you like best about providing training/professional development? Interacting with participants, Helping people changing their practices Researching and preparing materials Networking Onsite follow up and coaching

4 4 Learning about You What do you want to learn from this training? Engagement and follow up strategies How to evaluate effectiveness of initiatives New evidence based on PD practices Ways to engage participants How to support teachers Maximize PD time and encourage implementation with fidelity

5 5 Learning about You What do you like least about providing training/professional development? Limited time to cover content Feeling like I am just a way to get hours Bad donuts Preparation Participants resistant to change

6 6

7 7 A Lesson Learned from More Than 40 Years of Experience No intervention practice, no matter its evidence base, is likely to be adopted and used if the implementation methods used to teach or train practitioners to use the practice are themselves ineffective. Therefore, concern for the characteristics of implementation practices that are associated with optimal learner and practitioner outcomes should be of paramount importance as part of implementation research.

8 8 Child and Family Benefits

9 9 Two Types of Evidence-Based Practices Evidence-Based Intervention Practices Early childhood intervention practices Evidence-Based Implementation Practices Adult learning methods

10 10 Definition of Terms Implementation practices include methods and procedures used by implementation agents (trainers, coaches, instructors, supervisors, etc.) to promote interventionists use of evidence-based intervention practices. Intervention practices include methods and strategies used by intervention agents (teachers, therapists, clinicians, parents, etc.) to effect changes or produce desired outcomes in a targeted population or group of recipients (e.g., infants and toddlers with disabilities).

11 11 Participatory adult learning Coaching Mentoring Just-in-time training Guided design Accelerated learning Early child contingency learning Interest-based child learning Natural environment practices Preschool classroom practices Communication and language learning Early literacy learning Family systems intervention practices Implementation PracticesIntervention Practices Relationship Between the Two Types of Practices

12 12 Discussion: Training Content What intervention content are you thinking about using for our work during the next two days? Who are the end users?

13 13 Principles Evidence-based intervention practices are a necessarybut not sufficientcondition to ensure optimal outcomes for children and families. Practitioners must be trained on intervention strategies using evidence-based adult learning implementation practices.

14 14

15 15 Evidence-Based Adult Learning Practices a a Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1),

16 16 Research Synthesis of Adult Learning Studies a Research synthesis of studies of accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training 58 randomized control design studies 2,095 experimental group participants and 2,213 control or comparison group participants Combination of studies in university and non-university settings Learner outcomes included learner knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self- efficacy beliefs The influence of the adult learning methods on the learner outcomes was estimated by weighted Cohens d effect sizes for the differences on the post test scores for the intervention vs. nonintervention group participants a Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1),

17 17 Efficacy of the Adult Learning Methods Effect size for the intervention vs. nonintervention group comparisons is d =.42 (95% Confidence Interval =.36 to.47).

18 18 Efficiency of the Four Adult Learning Methods

19 19 Translational Findings Process for unpacking and unbundling the key characteristics of the adult learning methods

20 Six Characteristics Identified in How People Learn a Were Used To Code and Evaluate the Adult Learning Methods Planning Introduce Engage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge or practice that is the focus of instruction or training Illustrate Demonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledge or practice for the learner Application Practice Engage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge or practice Evaluate Engage the learner in a process of evaluating the consequence or outcome of the application of the material, knowledge or practice Deep Understanding Reflection Engage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledge and skills as a basis for identifying next steps in the learning process Mastery Engage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in the context of some conceptual or practical model or framework, or some external set of standards or criteria a Donovan, M. et al. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

21 21 Effect Sizes for the Six Adult Learning Characteristics Planning Application Understanding Average effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationships between the six adult learning method characteristics and the study outcomes.

22 22 Most Effective Adult Learning Method Practices CharacteristicPracticeMean Effect Size IntroductionOut-of-class learner activities/self-instruction0.64 Classroom/workshop presentations0.63 Pre-class learner exercises0.54 IllustrationTrainer role playing/simulations0.55 Learner-informed input0.53 PracticingReal-life learner application0.94 Real-life learner application/role playing0.86 EvaluationSelf assessment of strengths/weaknesses0.94 ReflectionIdentify performance improvement goals1.27 Journaling/behavior suggestions0.82 MasteryStandards-based assessment0.86

23 23 What do you think about when you see these characteristics and the practices associated with them? Discussion: Training Characteristics and Practices

24 24 Cumulative Effects of Different Combinations of the Most Effective Adult Learning Method Practices Average Cohens d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship between different combinations (clusters) of adult learning methods characteristics and the study outcomes.

25 25 Introduction: PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLAN APPLICATION RECYCLE Active Learner Involvement Reflection and Mastery Practice and Evaluate Introduce and Illustrate Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process INFORMED UNDERSTANDING

26 Illustration: Participatory Adult Learning Strategy PALS Video

27 27 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLAN APPLICATION RECYCLE Active Learner Involvement Reflection and Mastery Practice and Evaluate Introduce and Illustrate Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process INFORMED UNDERSTANDING

28 28 Discussion Plan: Introduce and Illustrate Content Thinking about the content you are going to use, what is the content and how would introduce it? How would you illustrate this content?

29 29 Short-Side Bar View Data on Various Training Formats

30 30 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLAN APPLICATION RECYCLE Active Learner Involvement Reflection and Mastery Practice and Evaluate Introduce and Illustrate Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process INFORMED UNDERSTANDING

31 31 Practice and Evaluation of Literacy Rich Environments

32 32 Practice: Setting Up a Literacy-Rich Environment Create a learning center or area in the classroom (not a book nook or library). Design the learning center or area so that it is part of a literacy-rich environment. When designing your learning center or area be sure to note the following: Materials included Functional uses of materials Whether materials were high, medium, or low cost

33 In the activity just completed, what learning centers/areas were created and what materials did they include? What literacy activities could the children do in these learning centers/areas? What low-cost materials were used and how could you acquire them? In what ways could the materials from each learning center/area created be embedded in other learning centers/areas? 33 Evaluate: Setting Up a Literacy-Rich Environment

34 34 Discussion Application: Practice and Evaluate Thinking about the content you are going to work with this afternoon, what situation might you use so the practice could be applied? What questions would you ask to get the trainee to evaluate the practice? How would the training format you use when training your content impact what can be done during application?

35 35 PALS PhasesTrainer RolesTrainee Roles IntroductionPreview learning topicComplete pre-training preview Describe key elementsPre-class/workshop exercises Provide examplesProvide input on the learning topic Include trainee inputIn-class/workshop warm-up exercises Illustrate application Demonstrate application ApplicationFacilitate applicationProvide examples of application Observe trainee applicationTrainee role playing, games, etc. Provide in vivo feedback/guidanceImplement/practice use of the subject matter Facilitate learner assessment of optionsEvaluate use of the knowledge or practice Informed Understanding Establish learning standardsStandards-based evaluation Engage learners in self-assessmentConduct self-assessment Provide guidance to learnersTrainer-guided learner reflection Provide behavioral suggestionsJournaling Group discussions of understanding Repeat Learning Process Joint planning Trainer guidanceIdentify needed information/experiences Trainer/trainee mentoring Trainer and Trainee Roles in the Different Phases of PALS

36 36 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLAN APPLICATION RECYCLE Active Learner Involvement Reflection and Mastery Practice and Evaluate Introduce and Illustrate Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process INFORMED UNDERSTANDING

37 37 Practice Reflection Checklists Specify the practice by creating indicators for each project component Help practitioners understand key characteristics of the practices Serve as the standards against which practitioners examine and improve their practices

38 38 CELL Early Literacy Learning Model Literacy-Rich Environments Everyday Literacy Activities Responsive Teaching Early Literacy Learning Outcomes Child Interests

39 39 Child Interests Checklist Center for Early Literacy Learning

40 40 Caregiver Responsive Teaching Checklist Center for Early Literacy Learning

41 41 PALS Checklist

42 42 What are the components of training content that would be appropriate for a reflection tool? What do you already have that you could use to develop such a tool? How would your process engage the trainee in determining mastery? Discussion Informed Understanding: Reflection and Mastery

43 43 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLAN APPLICATION RECYCLE Active Learner Involvement Reflection and Mastery Practice and Evaluate Introduce and Illustrate Identify Next Steps in the Learning Process INFORMED UNDERSTANDING

44 Matrix of Implementation and Intervention Methods Center for Early Literacy Learning Model Components Child Interests Everyday Activities Learning Opportunities Responsive Teaching Introduce Illustrate Practice Evaluate Mastery Whats Next? Capacity-BuildingAdult Learning Process

45 45 Mastery

46 46 Recycle: Repeat Learning Process: What content do you need to train on next? How would you decide what is next? How might the next cycle different or similar to the first one?

47 47 Principles Active participation of the learner in all phases of the training is essential. Individualize training to support learner mastery of the practice. Encourage practitioners self-reflection at every phase of the process (Specific checklists can be helpful) to increase the rate of change in practitioners practices. The more training strategies (introduce, illustrate, practice, etc.) used during training, the greater the change in practitioner practices. Checklists are effective tools for engaging practitioners in self-reflection.

48 48 Next Steps Identify content With your content, develop the training slides and materials that you would use to introduce and illustrate how to use the practice to a practitioner. Develop a practice(s) activity that the practitioner could complete, determine how you will be able to provide feedback, and what evaluation questions will be discussed. Develop the reflection checklist that contains all of the components or characteristics of the training content that you are focusing on for this exercise. (This is not a reflection checklist for the practice activity.) You need to explicitly describe what will happen to ensure that this reflection will lead to mastery. What challenges do you face in being able to recycle to ensure the practitioner develops a deep understanding of how to use the practices in a real context? Be ready to present tomorrow morning.

49 49 Thank you for your participation!!

50 50 References Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (2009). Lets be PALS: An evidence-based approach to professional development. Infants and Young Children, 22, Free download at Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1), Retrieved from https://w5.hkuspcae.hku.hk/journal/index.php/ijcell/article/view/111. https://w5.hkuspcae.hku.hk/journal/index.php/ijcell/article/view/111 Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., & OHerin, C.E. (2009). Characteristics and consequences of adult learning methods and strategies [Winterberry Research Syntheses, Vol. 2, No. 2]. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press. Free download at


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