Presentation on theme: "Participatory Adult Learning Strategy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Participatory Adult Learning Strategy Carol M. Trivette, Ph.D.Orelena Hawks Puckett InstituteAsheville and Morganton, North CarolinaPresentation prepared for Helping Extend Learning and Practice (HELP)University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, May 29-30, 2012
2 Learning about YouHow long have you been providing training/professional development? years, 5-10 years more than 15 yearsCurrently, how much of time is spent providing training/professional develop? % and 50 – 75% no one 100%Do you train end-users or people who train the end-users?
3 Learning about YouWhat do you like best about providing training/professional development?Interacting with participants,Helping people changing their practicesResearching and preparing materialsNetworkingOnsite follow up and coaching
4 Learning about You What do you want to learn from this training? Engagement and follow up strategiesHow to evaluate effectiveness of initiativesNew evidence based on PD practicesWays to engage participantsHow to support teachersMaximize PD time and encourage implementation with fidelity
5 Learning about YouWhat do you like least about providing training/professional development?Limited time to cover contentFeeling like I am just a way to get “hours”Bad donutsPreparationParticipants resistant to change
7 A Lesson Learned from More Than 40 Years of Experience No intervention practice, no matter its evidence base, is likely to be adopted and used if the implementation methods used to teach or train practitioners to use the practice are themselves ineffective. Therefore, concern for the characteristics of implementation practices that are associated with optimal learner and practitioner outcomes should be of paramount importance as part of implementation research.
9 Two Types of Evidence-Based Practices Evidence-Based Intervention PracticesEarly childhood intervention practicesEvidence-Based Implementation PracticesAdult learning methods
10 Definition of TermsImplementation practices include methods and procedures used by implementation agents (trainers, coaches, instructors, supervisors, etc.) to promote interventionists’ use of evidence-based intervention practices.Intervention practices include methods and strategies used by intervention agents (teachers, therapists, clinicians, parents, etc.) to effect changes or produce desired outcomes in a targeted population or group of recipients (e.g., infants and toddlers with disabilities).
11 Implementation Practices Intervention Practices Relationship Between the Two Types of PracticesImplementation PracticesIntervention PracticesParticipatory adult learningCoachingMentoringJust-in-time trainingGuided designAccelerated learningEarly child contingency learningInterest-based child learningNatural environment practicesPreschool classroom practicesCommunication and language learningEarly literacy learningFamily systems intervention practices
12 Discussion: Training Content What intervention content are you thinking about using for our work during the next two days?Who are the end users?
13 PrinciplesEvidence-based intervention practices are a necessary—but not sufficient—condition to ensure optimal outcomes for children and families.Practitioners must be trained on intervention strategies using evidence-based adult learning implementation practices.
15 Evidence-Based Adult Learning Practicesa a Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1),
16 Research Synthesis of Adult Learning Studiesa Research synthesis of studies of accelerated learning, coaching, guided design, and just-in-time training58 randomized control design studies2,095 experimental group participants and 2,213 control or comparison group participantsCombination of studies in university and non-university settingsLearner outcomes included learner knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self- efficacy beliefsThe influence of the adult learning methods on the learner outcomes was estimated by weighted Cohen’s d effect sizes for the differences on the post test scores for the intervention vs. nonintervention group participantsa Dunst, C.J., Trivette, C.M., & Hamby, D.W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1),
17 Efficacy of the Adult Learning Methods Effect size for the intervention vs. nonintervention group comparisons is d = .42 (95% Confidence Interval = .36 to .47).
19 Translational Findings Process for unpacking and unbundling the key characteristics of the adult learning methods
20 Six Characteristics Identified in How People Learna Were Used To Code and Evaluate the Adult Learning MethodsPlanningIntroduceEngage the learner in a preview of the material, knowledge or practice thatis the focus of instruction or trainingIllustrateDemonstrate or illustrate the use or applicability of the material, knowledgeor practice for the learnerApplicationPracticeEngage the learner in the use of the material, knowledge or practiceEvaluateEngage the learner in a process of evaluating the consequence or outcomeof the application of the material, knowledge or practiceDeep UnderstandingReflectionEngage the learner in self-assessment of his or her acquisition of knowledgeand skills as a basis for identifying “next steps” in the learning processMasteryEngage the learner in a process of assessing his or her experience in thecontext of some conceptual or practical model or framework, or someexternal set of standards or criteriaa Donovan, M. et al. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
21 Effect Sizes for the Six Adult Learning Characteristics Planning Application UnderstandingAverage effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationships between the six adult learning method characteristics and the study outcomes.
23 Discussion: Training Characteristics and Practices What do you think about when you see these characteristics and the practices associated with them?
24 Cumulative Effects of Different Combinations of the Most Effective Adult Learning Method PracticesAverage Cohen’s d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship between different combinations (clusters) of adult learning methods characteristics and the study outcomes.
25 Introduction: PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLANIntroduce and IllustrateRECYCLEActiveLearner InvolvementAPPLICATIONIdentify Next Steps in the Learning ProcessPractice and EvaluateINFORMED UNDERSTANDINGReflection and Mastery
26 Illustration: Participatory Adult Learning Strategy PALS Video
27 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLANIntroduce and IllustrateRECYCLEActiveLearner InvolvementAPPLICATIONIdentify Next Steps in the Learning ProcessPractice and EvaluateINFORMED UNDERSTANDINGReflection and Mastery
28 Plan: Introduce and Illustrate Content DiscussionPlan: Introduce and Illustrate ContentThinking about the content you are going to use, what is the content and how would introduce it?How would you illustrate this content?
29 Short-Side BarView “Data on Various Training Formats”
30 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLANIntroduce and IllustrateRECYCLEActiveLearner InvolvementAPPLICATIONIdentify Next Steps in the Learning ProcessPractice and EvaluateINFORMED UNDERSTANDINGReflection and Mastery
31 Practice and Evaluation of Literacy Rich Environments
32 Practice: Setting Up a Literacy-Rich Environment Create a learning center or area in the classroom (not a book nook or library).Design the learning center or area so that it is part of a literacy-rich environment.When designing your learning center or area be sure to note the following:Materials includedFunctional uses of materialsWhether materials were high, medium, or low cost
33 Evaluate: Setting Up a Literacy-Rich Environment In the activity just completed, what learning centers/areas were created and what materials did they include?What literacy activities could the children do in these learning centers/areas?What low-cost materials were used and how could you acquire them?In what ways could the materials from each learning center/area created be embedded in other learning centers/areas?
34 Application: Practice and Evaluate DiscussionApplication: Practice and EvaluateThinking about the content you are going to work with this afternoon, what situation might you use so the practice could be applied?What questions would you ask to get the trainee to evaluate the practice?How would the training format you use when training your content impact what can be done during application?
35 Trainer and Trainee Roles in the Different Phases of PALS PALS PhasesTrainer RolesTrainee RolesIntroductionPreview learning topicComplete pre-training previewDescribe key elementsPre-class/workshop exercisesProvide examplesProvide input on the learning topicInclude trainee inputIn-class/workshop warm-up exercisesIllustrate applicationDemonstrate applicationApplicationFacilitate applicationProvide examples of applicationObserve trainee applicationTrainee role playing, games, etc.Provide in vivo feedback/guidanceImplement/practice use of the subject matterFacilitate learner assessment of optionsEvaluate use of the knowledge or practiceInformed UnderstandingEstablish learning standardsStandards-based evaluationEngage learners in self-assessmentConduct self-assessmentProvide guidance to learnersTrainer-guided learner reflectionProvide behavioral suggestionsJournalingGroup discussions of understandingRepeat Learning ProcessJoint planningTrainer guidanceIdentify needed information/experiencesTrainer/trainee mentoring
36 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLANIntroduce and IllustrateRECYCLEActiveLearner InvolvementAPPLICATIONIdentify Next Steps in the Learning ProcessPractice and EvaluateINFORMED UNDERSTANDINGReflection and Mastery
37 Practice Reflection Checklists Specify the practice by creating indicators for each project componentHelp practitioners understand key characteristics of the practicesServe as the standards against which practitioners examine and improve their practices
38 CELL Early Literacy Learning Model Literacy-Rich EnvironmentsEveryday Literacy ActivitiesResponsive TeachingEarly Literacy Learning OutcomesCELL Early Literacy Learning ModelThis is the CELL early literacy learning model. As you can see, the model includes five inter-related components including literacy-rich environments, child interests, everyday literacy activities, responsive teaching, and early literacy outcome indicators. These important components are the foundation for all of the early literacy practices found in the CELL practice guides that are located on our website atThe components of the early literacy learning model are displayed in an overlapping fashion because of the difficulty of separating them from each other in theory or in practice. We want you to understand that each component is important, but that early literacy learning results from an interrelated mix of these components in the context of your interactions with children. None of the components works independently of the others.Child Interests
39 Center for Early Literacy Learning ChildInterestsChecklist
40 Center for Early Literacy Learning CaregiverResponsiveTeachingChecklist
42 Informed Understanding: Reflection and Mastery DiscussionInformed Understanding:Reflection and MasteryWhat are the components of training content that would be appropriate for a reflection tool? What do you already have that you could use to develop such a tool?How would your process engage the trainee in determining mastery?
43 PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy) PLANIntroduce and IllustrateRECYCLEActiveLearner InvolvementAPPLICATIONIdentify Next Steps in the Learning ProcessPractice and EvaluateINFORMED UNDERSTANDINGReflection and Mastery
44 Matrix of Implementation and Intervention Methods Center for Early Literacy Learning Model ComponentsChildInterestsEveryday ActivitiesLearning OpportunitiesResponsive TeachingIntroduceIllustratePracticeEvaluateMasteryWhat’s Next?Adult Learning ProcessCapacity-Building
46 Recycle: Repeat Learning Process: What content do you need to train on next? How would you decide what is next?How might the next cycle different or similar to the first one?
47 PrinciplesActive participation of the learner in all phases of the training is essential.Individualize training to support learner mastery of the practice.Encourage practitioners’ self-reflection at every phase of the process (Specific checklists can be helpful) to increase the rate of change in practitioners’ practices.The more training strategies (introduce, illustrate, practice, etc.) used during training, the greater the change in practitioner practices.Checklists are effective tools for engaging practitioners in self-reflection.
48 Next Steps Identify content With your content, develop the training “slides” and materials that you would use to introduce and illustrate how to use the practice to a practitioner.Develop a practice(s) activity that the practitioner could complete, determine how you will be able to provide feedback, and what evaluation questions will be discussed.Develop the reflection checklist that contains all of the components or characteristics of the training content that you are focusing on for this exercise. (This is not a reflection checklist for the practice activity.) You need to explicitly describe what will happen to ensure that this reflection will lead to mastery.What challenges do you face in being able to “recycle” to ensure the practitioner develops a deep understanding of how to use the practices in a real context?Be ready to present tomorrow morning.
50 References www.puckett.org firstname.lastname@example.org Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (2009). Let’s be PALS: An evidence-based approach to professional development. Infants and Young Children, 22, Free download atDunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of four adult learning methods and strategies. International Journal of Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, 3(1), Retrieved from https://w5.hkuspcae.hku.hk/journal/index.php/ijcell/article/view/111.Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., & O’Herin, C.E. (2009). Characteristics and consequences of adult learning methods and strategies [Winterberry Research Syntheses, Vol. 2, No. 2]. Asheville, NC: Winterberry Press. Free download at