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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Spacecraft Energy Storage and Attitude Control Alkan ALTAY Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ozan TEKİNALP Middle East Technical University Aerospace Engineering Dept. TUSAŞ Aerospace Industries Inc.

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Energy Storage in LEO Spacecrafts Electrochemical Battery Packs

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Attitude Control in LEO Spacecrafts Control Moment Gyroscope ( CMG )

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Integrated Power and Attitude Control IPACS A Variable Speed CMG ( VSCMG ) That Stores Energy IPACS - VSCMG

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE IPACS - VSCMG

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Conceptual Design Calculations Small Spacecraft Requirements Energy Storage ( Wh )100 Number of Charge/Discharge Cycles30,000 Torque Capacity ( Nm )0.025 Angular Momentum Capacity (Nms )6 Number of Attitude Actuators4 ElectroChemical Battery Parameters Ni-CdLi-Ion Energy Density (Wh/kg)35110 Depth of Discharge20 % Reaction Wheel Design Parameters MaxWheel Speed ( RPM )5000 Maximum Torque (Nm)0.015 Angular Momentum Capacity ( Nms )3.4 CMG Design Parameters Operating Speed (RPM)15000 Max. Gimbal Speed (rad/s)0.1 Maximum Output Torque (Nm)0.22 Angular Momentum Capacity (Nms)1.9 IPACS-VSCMG Design Parameters FW1FW2FW3 a Max Wheel Speed (kRPM)3060240 Angular Momentum Capacity (Nms) 15.37.71.9 Max Torque (Nm)1.740.870.22 DoD0.9375 Energy Density (Wh/kg)5.08.325.0 a fails structurally

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Comparisons Electric Power System Advantages Of IPACS Uncoupled energy storage and power capacity More Charge/Discharge Cycles Long Life High Charge/Discharge Rates Deterministic State of Charge Attitude Control System Advantages of IPACS Large Control Torques Large Momentum Storage Low Vibration (for Magnetic Bearing) RW + Li-Ion RW + Ni-Cd CMG + Li-Ion CMG +Ni-Cd FW - 30FW - 60FW - 240 Total Mass Comparison For Energy Storage and Attitude Control System Combinations

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Simulation of a S/C Equipped With IPACS Spacecraft Inertias (kgm 2 )[15, 15, 10] Initial Orientation of S/C (deg)[0, 0, 0] Skew Angle, β (deg)54.73 IPACS-VSCMGFW2 (60 kRPM) Initial Flywheel Spin Rates (kRPM)[35, 40, 45, 50] Initial Gimbal Angles (deg)[110, -125, 110, -125] 60 deg of roll maneuver is expected from the spacecraft while energy is being drawn from the IPACS-VSCMGs

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Simulation Results - Smooth Maneuvering Capability - Both Attitude and Power Objectives Satisfied - Uncoupled Power and Attitude Functions

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Simulation Results -We are able to follow any desired spin rate profile - Low gimbal rates due to the high angular momentum content

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2 nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, June 09-11,2005, İstanbul,TÜRKİYE Future Work The Solution To The Kinematic Singularity Problem : Application of Blended Inverse Building A Prototype ?

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