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Tripoli, January 2006 1 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa BIG SUN – solar power from Nord Africa PROF. DR. PETER NOVAK ENERGOTECH, LJUBLJANA.

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Presentation on theme: "Tripoli, January 2006 1 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa BIG SUN – solar power from Nord Africa PROF. DR. PETER NOVAK ENERGOTECH, LJUBLJANA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tripoli, January 2006 1 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa BIG SUN – solar power from Nord Africa PROF. DR. PETER NOVAK ENERGOTECH, LJUBLJANA SLOVENIA http://www.let-group.com/iss09/iss.nsf/ae76a4ee10890d4bc1256fb9005f74fe/cc0e39f1fed7a856c125756f0040e1e6/$FILE/BIG%20SUN%20Project%E2%80%93Solar%20power%20from%20%20North%20Africa_s.ppt

2 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa2 ROLE OF ELECTRICITY IN SOCIETIES ELECTRICITY is a basic final energy need for present and future societiesELECTRICITY is a basic final energy need for present and future societies ELECTRICITY production/ consumption GROWTH in the world in last 30 years (1972 -2002) was almost linear with yearly additions of 343 TWh/y or 5,6% reaching in 2002 production of 16.054 TWh/yELECTRICITY production/ consumption GROWTH in the world in last 30 years (1972 -2002) was almost linear with yearly additions of 343 TWh/y or 5,6% reaching in 2002 production of 16.054 TWh/y ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION PRO CAPITA in 2002 in the world varies extremely and lies between 27 kWh/cap in Etiopia and 27.764 kWh/cap on Iceland (1: 1000)ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION PRO CAPITA in 2002 in the world varies extremely and lies between 27 kWh/cap in Etiopia and 27.764 kWh/cap on Iceland (1: 1000) World fossil fuel consumption for the electricity production grew from 20,9% to 34,3% of TPESWorld fossil fuel consumption for the electricity production grew from 20,9% to 34,3% of TPES CO 2 EMISSONS are growing at the same rate as production of electricityCO 2 EMISSONS are growing at the same rate as production of electricity

3 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa3 ENERGY SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2 ENERGY SYSTEM FOR UN-SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EMISSIONS OF CO2: 24.101,83 Mt/y IN 2002 LIQUID FUEL LPG BIOMASS

4 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa4 ENERGY SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT EMISSIONS IN YEAR 2xxx ? 0,00 CO 2 GEOTHERMAL

5 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa5 ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN EU Predicted installed capacity of different generating capacities in 15 EU states (GW)* 2000 2010 2020 2030 growth % Nuclear 136.4 135.1 117.2 45.6 - 66,5 ?? Coal and Lignite 166.1 101.1 36.9 9.5 - 94,3 ?? Open Cycle multi-fired 68.7 60.2 122.3 244.6 256 Open Cycle IPP 33.1 25 20.5 15.1 - 54,4 GTCC 59 208.7 305 354.3 500,5 ?? Small GT 25.2 45.2 79.2 96.6 283,3 ?? Clean Coal and Lignite 0.5 3.4 26.6 37 7300 !!! Biomass-Waste 4.4 4.7 6 6.5 47,7 Fuel Cells 0 0 0 1.3 --- Hydro-Renewables119.2 133.7 158 170.7 43,2 TOTALS 612.6 717.1 871.7 981.2 60,2 * The Liberalisation of Europe's Electricity Markets –pg.12, 2000

6 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa6 EU RE TARGET Renewable Electricity Targets In the EU White Paper [1]. [1] Actual in 1995 Projection for 2010 Type of Energy TWh%TotalTWh % Total Total2,3662,870 Pre -Kyoto Wind40.2802.8 Total Hydro 3071335512.4 Photovoltaics0.03-30.1 Biomass22.50.952308.0 Geothermal3.50.1570.2 Total Renewable Energies Instaled power (Cf~0,44) GW 33787,314.367523.5174,8 1] 1] White Paper, table 3, page 50 [ 1] White Paper, table 3, page 50 [ 1] New generating capacity: fossil fuel to 2010 104,5 GW* to 2030 368,6 GW* * 50 % new, 50 % replacement * 50 % new, 50 % replacement +87,5

7 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa7 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES SOLAR TOWER (molten salt -sodium, potassium nitrate ) ~ 900 °CSOLAR TOWER (molten salt -sodium, potassium nitrate ) ~ 900 °C ONLY EXPERIMENTAL UNIT 10 MWONLY EXPERIMENTAL UNIT 10 MW LOW EFFICIENCY ~ 7%LOW EFFICIENCY ~ 7% INVESTMENT NOT KNOWNINVESTMENT NOT KNOWN MAINTENANCE OF HELIOSTATSMAINTENANCE OF HELIOSTATS HIGH TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONHIGH TEMPERATURE CONVERSION USEFULL FOR SINFUEL Project: 40 MW thermal – 15 MWe/24 h; 15$c/kWhProject: 40 MW thermal – 15 MWe/24 h; 15$c/kWh Investment: 100 M$Investment: 100 M$ SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRICITY

8 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa8 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES PARABOLIC TROUGH (thermal oil) ~400 °CPARABOLIC TROUGH (thermal oil) ~400 °C Real SEGS 354 MW – 20 year of operationReal SEGS 354 MW – 20 year of operation Efficiency: ~ 10,8%,y; 20% dayly max.Efficiency: ~ 10,8%,y; 20% dayly max. New plant eff.:: ~ 15-16%,yNew plant eff.:: ~ 15-16%,y Solar field eff. up to 60%Solar field eff. up to 60% investment: $2000/kW for SEGSinvestment: $2000/kW for SEGS Investment: $ 850/kW for ISCCSInvestment: $ 850/kW for ISCCS Maintenance: acceptableMaintenance: acceptable Hybridization up to 25%, thermal storageHybridization up to 25%, thermal storage Thermal storage costs:~ $20/ kWhThermal storage costs:~ $20/ kWh SEGS- Solar Electric Generating System SEGS- Solar Electric Generating System ISCCS – Integrated Solar Combined-Cycle System SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRICITY

9 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa9 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES Solar chimney For medium power, simple design, reliable (?) Low efficency, integrated storage, aproppriate for hybridization with CSP, little experience

10 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa10 SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEM EFFICIENCY Basic Research Needs for solar energy utilisation, ANL Workshop April 2005

11 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa11 Solar electricity production POSSIBILITIES in LIBYA LANDLAND SOLAR IRRADIATIONSOLAR IRRADIATION AVAILABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIESAVAILABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES ELECTRICITY DISPATCHELECTRICITY DISPATCH

12 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa12 MAP of LYBIA 1,759,540.00 sq km, 1% arable land ~1542 km ~1667 km Land for ~ 700 GW PP 200 x 200 km

13 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa13 DIREKT SOLAR IRRADIATION on the world map

14 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa14 CLIMATIC DATA FOR NORTH - EAST LIBYA YEARLY AVERAGE: Air temperature: 19,1°C Insulation on 31°tilted surface: 6,18 kWh/m 2 (6,6 kWh/m 2 opt.) Wind speed, height 50 m: 5,01 m/s (86% > [3÷ 10] m/s)

15 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa15 PV production NORTH - EAST LIBYA YEARLY AVERAGE: Air temperature: 19,1°C Insulation on 31°tilted surface: 6,18 kWh/m 2 (6,6 kWh/m2 opt.) Yearly production: 1541 kWh e Land use: ~ 25 m 2 / kWp

16 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa16 DESIGN CONCEPT ESTIMATED PRODUCTION CAPACITYESTIMATED PRODUCTION CAPACITY EU 25 ESTIMATED ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN 2010: > 3000 TWh (2711 TWh in 2002)EU 25 ESTIMATED ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN 2010: > 3000 TWh (2711 TWh in 2002) INVESTMENT PLAN TO 2030: 184, 3 GW FOR REPLACEMENT AND 184,3 GW NEW PPINVESTMENT PLAN TO 2030: 184, 3 GW FOR REPLACEMENT AND 184,3 GW NEW PP RENEWABLE ENERGY SHEAR: 87,5 GW RENEWABLE ENERGY SHEAR: 87,5 GW In 25 years 14 744 MW PP to be build per year !In 25 years 14 744 MW PP to be build per year ! 50 % of them can be build in SAHARA as50 % of them can be build in SAHARA as SUSTAINABLE, POLLUTION FREE ELECTRICITY

17 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa17 DESIGN CONCEPT SOLAR THERMAL POWER and PV PLANT AREA 1000 MW unit, consisting of: 1 x 200 MW solar chimney: 5000 x 5000 m1000 MW unit, consisting of: 1 x 200 MW solar chimney: 5000 x 5000 m 3 x 200 MW ISCCS: 3 x 6100 x 700 m 3 x 200 MW ISCCS: 3 x 6100 x 700 m 1 x 200 MW PV 1 x 5000 x 500 m 1 x 200 MW PV 1 x 5000 x 500 m Total land use for 1 GW plant: 6800 x 6400 m = 43, 52 km 2 Total efficiency: solar chimney: 3,0 % ISCCS: 12,5% PV: 10,5% Capacity factor: 0,5 Yearly electricity production: 3,862 TWh Number of units build per year: 7

18 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa18 DESIGN CONCEPT 6 x 100 MW ISCCS 2 x 100 PV 1 x 200 MW SOLAR POWER STATION 1 GW + ~ 200 WIND TURBINE (~ 7X7 KM) 2 x 100 MW PV 6 x 100 MW ISCCS SOLAR POWER PLANT 1 GW + ~200 WG Location: 31°N;23°E; Land use:~ 7 x 7 km P. Novak, Energotech, SI Solar chimney 200 MW

19 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa19 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES design data Solar tower 200 MW: 350 ÷400 GWh/y, Cf ~ 57% (700 ÷ 800 GWh/y) (700 ÷ 800 GWh/y) Land area: 1920 ha (D =5000 m, h =1000 m), A ~ 98 m 2 /kWe ~ 2 ÷ (4) %, Construction time: 34 months ~ 2 ÷ (4) %, Construction time: 34 months ISCCS 200 MW: 773,5 GWh/y, Cf = 50% 673 ha (2600 x 2600 m); A= 33,6 m 2 /kW costruction time: 12 months costruction time: 12 months

20 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa20 DESIGN CONCEPT To overcome the solar intermitance a HYBRIDIZATION OF SOLAR POWER PLANT is needed. This can be done with: FOSSIL FUEL PPFOSSIL FUEL PP GEOTHERMAL PPGEOTHERMAL PP LOW SPEED WIND TURBINELOW SPEED WIND TURBINE SHORT THERM SOLAR STORAGESHORT THERM SOLAR STORAGE

21 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa21 CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRICITY ISCCS – INTEGRATED SOLAR COMBINED-CYCLE SYSTEM Low pressure solar steam High pressure solar steam Variante: ORC geothermal hot rock

22 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa22 CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER ECONOMICS Peak capacity factor on 6h basis: 90 -95% with fossil hybrid or thermal storage Annual capacity factor: Cf ~ 40-50 % Debt Interest Rate: 9,5% Equity IRR: 15% Performans waranty: 1-5 y SOLAR THERMAL ELECTRICITY

23 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa23 CPS ECONOMICS SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT - ISCCS (www.energylan.sandia.gov/sunlab/overview.htlm)

24 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa24 How to start ? 1.With donation of the land to the one of international organization (UNESCO; UNDP; UNEP) – 99 year contrac 2.Organizing the international activities to build the first unit from donation and privat/public partnership 3.Seling the green electricity to the Europe and other interested countrie 4.Clean income should be used for activities of UN org. (e.g. UNESCO tc.) 5.Benefits: 1.UN organization become finantial les depended to help the African countries 2.Europe will be supplied with sustainable electricity from independent organization 3.Expirence will be collected for the next units 4.The next units can be commercial 6.Questions? 1.Can we find the donor? 2.Will the UNO accept the proposal and will be in position to realize the job

25 Tripoli, January 2006 P. Novak: BIG SUN - solar power from Nord Africa25 CONCLUSIONS The question of solar electricity production on large scale in Nord Africa is not: The question of solar electricity production on large scale in Nord Africa is not: Can we do it? but but Why dont WE? THANK YOU


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