Presentation on theme: "Improving Soil Moisture Conservation By Using Vermicompost"— Presentation transcript:
1Improving Soil Moisture Conservation By Using Vermicompost
2What is Vermicompost? Vermicomposting is a simple biotechnological process ofcomposting organic waste in to compost with the help ofearthworms.
3What is Vermicompost?Using vermicompost – as with other compost - will improve the capacity of the soil to retain moisture. This can reduce irrigation requirements with some 30%.In addition, using vermicompost has many other benefits.
4The different advantages of using vermicompost Increases water-holding capacity of soilReduces salinization and acidificationReduces soil erosionEnhances soil productivityPromotes faster growth of plants, increases crop yieldInduces resistance to pest and disease attack
5More advantages…Produces crops with a better taste, luster and lasting quality, without toxic residues: crops can therefore fetch a higher price in the marketMicroenterprise, generating income at house hold levelEasy to produce with low costEarth worms (in case of excess) can be used as a feed for poultry and fishReduces the cost of cultivation by providing higher returns
6This module discusses: How to produce vermicompostHow to use vermicompost
7How to produce vermicompost? What materials are required to start a vermicompost?What are sources of useable organic waste?What earthworms are good for vermicomposting?Where can one start a vermicompost? What are suitable containers or places?
8What materials are required to start? QuantityCement ring ~90 cm diameter, ~30 cm height(or pit or walled enclosure) or any other container1Polythene sheet(big enough to cover the bottom of the cement ring)Dry organic wastes (DOW)50 kgRock phosphate (RP)15 kgEarthworms (EW)Water (W)5 L every three daysRatio of DOW : CS : RP : EW : W5 : 1 : 5 : 0 : 2 : : 0.5
9What are sources of useable organic waste material? Vermicompost can be prepared fromall sorts of organic residues.Examples:dry organic wastes (like sorghum straw, rice straw after feeding cattle, dry leaves, pigeon pea residues, groundnut husk, wheat husk)waste vegetablessoybean residuesweedssugarcane trash
10More sources of material.. Sericultural residues from silk productionAnimal manuresDairy and poultry wastesFood industry wastesMunicipal solid wastesBiogas sludgeBagasse from sugarcane factories
12What worms are good for vermicomposting? Non-burrowing types (Eisenia spp,Eudrilis spp) are used forvermicomposting. They are red orpurple, live on the soil surface andhelp digest 90% organic wastematerials.Don’t use the pale-coloured ones that liveinside the soil and are generally seen inrice fields. These are the burrowing types(Pertima spp), which are not used forvermicomposting since they eat 90% soil.
14Where can one start a vermicompost Where can one start a vermicompost? What are suitable containers or places?Vermicompost can be prepared in differentplaces/containers in a shady area. Somesuggested places include:Above ground - in cement rings (~90 cm diameter, ~30 cm height)Above ground - commercial modelBelow ground – in pits 1 meter deep
15The Vermicomposting model The most common commercial model consists of four chambers enclosed by wall (3 feet height, 5 feet width, total of 15 feet length). The walls made up of different materials like normal bricks, hallow bricks, sheets, locally available rocks.Commercial model
16The Vermicomposting model This model contains partition walls with small holes to facilitate the easy movement of earthworms from one chamber to another. Excess water can be collected by providing an outlet at one corner of each chamber. This technology reduces labor cost and saves water as well as time.Commercial model
18What are the steps for creating a vermicompost? Step 1: Cover the bottom of the container with a polythene sheet(Or use the sheet to cover the ground of the area you’re usingStep 2: Spread a layer (15-20cm) of organic waste on top of the sheetStep 3: Sprinkle rock phosphate on top of the organic material (2kg)Step 4: Prepare cowdung slurry (15kg) and add the slurry as a layer on top of the mixture
19What are the steps for creating a vermicompost? Step 5: Fill the ring completely and evenly with the layered materialStep 6: Paste cowdung or soil over the top of the materialStep 7: Allow the material to decompose for 20 daysAfter 20 days, put the earthworms on top.They will find the cracks and enter the material
20What are the steps for creating a vermicompost? Step 10: After 2 months, (or when the compost is ready), remove the ring and heap the material in a cone shape on the floor.Leave the heap undisturbed for 2-3 hours, to let the worms move slowly to the bottomStep 11: Separate the upper portion of the heap
21What are the steps for creating a vermicompost? Step 12: Sieve the lower portion of the heap to separate the worms. They can be used again for preparation of new vermicompost.Step 13: Pack the compost in bags and store them in a cool place** Note: The same procedure can be followed using any container or place
22How to use Vermicompost How long before one can use the compost?Which crops should vermicompost be used on?When and how should vermicompost be applied?Quantity: How much is necessary to use?
23How to long before the organic material can be used as fertilizer? Vermicompost is ready in 2 to2.5 months.When it’s ready, it’s black,lightweight and has no bad smell.
24Which crops should vermicompost be used on? Vermicompost can be used for all crops (agricultural, horticultural, ornamental and vegetable) at any stage of the crop development.
25When and how should vermicompost be applied? Agricultural Crops: apply vermicompost by broadcasting when the seedlings are cms in height and irrigate the field.Flowers, Vegetables and Fruit Trees: apply vermicompost around the base of the plant, at any stage of development, and cover with soil. Water regularly.
26How much is necessary to use? General Agricultural Use: 3-4 tonnes ha-1Fruit Trees: 5-10 kg per treeVegetables: 3-4 tonnes ha-1Flowers: kg ha-1
27What are the additional precautions? Use only plant materials (such as vegetable peelings, leaves or grass)Remove glass, metal and plastic materials from the organic materialProtect against birds by covering the rings with wire or plastic meshSprinkle water regularly and maintain moisture levelsPrepare compost in the shade to protect it from sun and rain
28What are the costs? Costs for are quite low. Examples are as follows: Rock Phosphate: 2 Rs. / kgWorms: 50 Rs. / kg* Note: these prices are only a guide andare subject to change.
29Acknowledgement This presentation is based on a module provided by: VASAT - Virtual Academy of Semi-Arid Tropics led by ICRISAT