Presentation on theme: "PHOTO: Bob Cirino, University of Delaware into chlorophyllcarbohydratesphotosynthesis + water = electrolytes Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur,"— Presentation transcript:
PHOTO: Bob Cirino, University of Delaware into chlorophyllcarbohydratesphotosynthesis + water = electrolytes Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Anion Exchange Capacity most Trace Elements Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium Cation Exchange Capacity Energy Flow Biochar Properties
Cation adsorption (positive ions) Huge capacity: micropore surfaces Increase CEC sharply (+20-50) Increase stored growth potential Easily available forms Adsorbed on micropore surfaces Retain nutrients in root zone Simple ion exchange with roots Reduce leaching (40-80%) Enhance microbial activity Efficient nutrient use by plants Reduce fertillizer applications Enhance growth of crops Higher crop nutrient content Sorption to detoxify & remediate Heavy metals Organic molecules Store charge as ions (micropore adsorption) Store charge as electrons (carbon rings) Release charge to power growth Regulate charge level & polarity Source of charge? C ation E xchange C apacity A nion E xchange C apacity Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements 80 bu5 100 bu7 120 bu9 140 bu bu bu16 Soil ClassCEC Sandy3-5 Silt Loam10-15 Heavy Clay20-25 Corn YieldCEC Soil as battery Where are the electrons? Electron adsorption capacity Soil conducivity Cations add charge to battery Anions carry charge around in cell & plant Acid = H+ charge = electron deficient Charge carriers: electrons = negative Cellulose & micropores: charge conductor Carbon ring & electron cloud: capacitor Ions, membranes & biofilms: circuit board e Capacity to contain electrons Ability to pass electric current Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) e C C C C C C C C C C C C PARADIGM SHIFT Biochar Properties corncob battery biochar LED bulb super- capacitor lit by
Anion adsorption (negative ions) Huge capacity: micropores Unique ability among soil components Increase AEC tremendously (+10–20) Form nutrient reservoirs in soil matrix Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Microbes Nitrogen-cycle bacteria Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria Phosphorus, fungi & biochar Challenges to handle living cultures Probiotic: create microbe-friendly soil Reduce non-point pollution Curb eutrophication C ation E xchange C apacity Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements A nion E xchange C apacity Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Nitrogen Phosphorus Major non-point water pollutant Half of US Hydrogen production Nitrogen into Amino Acids into Proteins Reduce nitrate leaching 40-80% Reduce NO x, NH 4 out-gassing: adsorption Peak Phosphorus: supply limited Major non-point water pollutant Phosphorus availability in soil UVM Burlington & Lake Champlain Phosphorus traps vs. broadcast Study Objectives Quantify Phosphorus adsorption & availability in biochar: 1) corn stover (Zea mays L.) 2) pine wood residue (Pinus ponderosa) 3) switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). P adsorption corn stover highest - avg: 79%) switchgrass - avg: 76%) pine wood residue - avg: 31%) Available P (bicarbonate extract) % of adsorbed P pine wood residue highest - avg: 43% switchgrass - avg: 33% corn stover - avg: 25% Biochar added to acid soil (at 40 g/kg = 4%) increased equilibrium P (reduced adsorption) increased available adsorbed P Alkali biochar in calcareous soil (corn stover & switchgrass) significantly increased P adsorption decreased adsorbed P availability pine wood biochar: very different chemical character than corn stover and switchgrass Anion Exchange Capacity (AEC) Biochar Properties Toxic Algae Blooms Lake Erie 2013 Phosphate & Nitrate Pollution PARADIGM SHIFT
What [ in the H ] is pH? C ation E xchange C apacity A nion E xchange C apacity Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements The Neutral Zone Acid (H+)Alkali (OH-) xtremeverystrongmild mildstrongveryxtreme 6. 4 i d e a l p l a n t s a p h u m a n b l o o d Electric balance between + & Electric balance between + & Similar to voltage in electricity Balance: Acid ( H+ ) & Alkali (OH-) Balance: The Neutral Zone Balance: Cations (+) Soil nutrients, plant sap, human blood = Anions () pH Biochar Properties What is pH?
pH Slow Pyrolysis Fast Pyrolysis Gasification char made with steam at 475°C char made without steam at 500°C char produced with steam at 700°C tend to be acid (carboxyl) tend to be very basic make good lime agents tend to be slightly basic Biochar Properties C ation E xchange C apacity A nion E xchange C apacity Nitrogen, Boron, Iodine Phosphorus, Sulfur, Chlorine Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium most Trace Elements Varies Biochar is pH buffer Stable pH: prime function of biology Adsorbs excess ions Flywheel effect for ion balance Balanced electric charges Store, distribute & share energy What is pH? Electric balance between + & Electric balance between + & Similar to voltage in electricity Balance: Acid (H+) + Alkali (OH-) Balance: The Neutral Zone Balance: Cations (+) = Anions () Soil nutrients, plant sap, human blood with feedstock with production process with post-production process
Moiste n Fresh char is bone dry and sterile Hydrophobic, due to tar & resin residues Excess moisture is also trouble Micronize Maximize surface area Rice grain size, down to dust Grind, crush, screen Weedy vs. woody feedstocks Water-soluble, low-weight carbons Mineralize Huge internal adsorption capacity High efficiency delivery of nutrients Charge with sea minerals (trace elements) Major Cations (Ca, Mg, K) & Anions (N, P, S) Microbial Inoculation Encourage colonization by microbes Simplest method: blend with compost Commercial cultures: BD preps, EM, SCD BioAg, Trichoderma, Mycorrhizae….. Moisten The 4Ms Steps to Prepare BiocharUsing Biochar in Soil Micronize Mineralize Microbial Inoculation