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China's Experiences and Challenges in Large-scale Wind Power Integration Bai Jianhua State Grid Energy Research Institute September 23, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "China's Experiences and Challenges in Large-scale Wind Power Integration Bai Jianhua State Grid Energy Research Institute September 23, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 China's Experiences and Challenges in Large-scale Wind Power Integration Bai Jianhua State Grid Energy Research Institute September 23, 2013

2 Main Content 2 1. Status Quo of Wind Power Development2. Main Situation of Wind Power Consumption3. Wind Power Development Plan4. Solutions to Wind Power Integration & Consumption5. Conclusion

3 1. Status Quo of Wind Power Development 3

4 By the end of 2012, China's installed capacity of wind power integration topped the world, reaching million KW. Comparison of Top 10 Countries in Wind Power Installed Capacity 4 (1) The situation of wind power integration Installed capacity of wind power China US Germany Spain India France Italy UK Canada Portugal

5 From 2006 to 2012, Chinas wind power has increased from 2 million KW to 60 million kW, with expanded scale and advanced technology. Wind Power Integration Capacity by Region in 2012 (10MW) China's Wind Power Integration Capacity from 2006 to 2012 (10MW) 5 China's Wind Power Integration Capacity 10MW NE East of China Central China North China NW

6 By the end of 2012, the installed capacity of wind power integration in SGCC's operating areas has increased to million kW with an average annual growth rate of 76% since % The wind power integration capacity of the SGCC is the largest-scale in the world and increases at the fastest rate. Wind power integration capacity in SGCC's operating areas from 2006 to 2012 Comparison of Typical Countries in Installed Wind Power Capacity Growth Rate 6 Installed wind power capacity growth rate China US Germany Spain Denmark

7 Wind power generating capacity of SGCC's operating areas from 2006 to % Wind power generating capacity of SGCC's operating areas in 2012 increased to 96.8 billion kWh at the average annual growth rate of 85%, almost 41 times as much as that in (2) Operational situation of wind power

8 Wind power utilization hours in SGCCs operating areas from 2006 to 2012 respectively reached 1917, 2015, 2004, 1993, 2095, 1928, and 1903 hours. There was wind curtailment in recent years. Wind power utilization hours in SGCC's operating areas Comparison between domestic and international wind power utilization hours in Wind power utilization hours Spain Germany Denmark Wind power utilization hours SGCC's operating areas

9 2. Main Situation in Wind Power Consumption 9

10 Chinas onshore wind energy resources are mainly in the Three Norths ( Northwest, Northeast & North China), accounting for more than 90% of China's total wind energy resources. It is planned that the installed wind power capacity in Three Norths in 2015 and 2020 will reach 79 million kW and 164 million kW respectively, accounting for 80% of the planned total. Two thirds of the power load in China is concentrated in the eastern and central regions. Chinas wind energy resource distribution map (1) Wind energy resource and power load distribution China's power load distribution map 10

11 Installed wind power capacity in western Inner Mongolia, eastern Inner Mongolia, Gansu, and northern Hebei, the four regions with the largest installed wind power capacity, accounts for about 50% of national total, but electricity consumption there only accounts for about 10%. Due to small electricity load, it is difficult for most of wind farms to consume locally. Wind power integration is not only about connection, but also about output and consumption. 11 % of wind power generation in national total % of wind power consumption in national total Western Inner Mongolia Eastern Inner Mongolia GansuNorthern Hebei Total

12 Wind power is characterized by intermittence, randomness, and volatility. Efficient use of wind power requires adequate support in peak regulation from conventional power source. Large-scale development and efficient consumption of wind power has become a global problem. As China's primary energy is coal-based, and the power mix in Three Norths where wind power is concentrated is single, in which thermal power accounts for 80%, heat-supply units take a large proportion, and power source for flexible adjustment such as fuel, gas and pumped storage power takes less than 1%, the ability of peaking regulation is limited, particularly in the heating period in winters. (2) Peak regulation in the system Proportion of coal- fired thermal power Proportion of coal-fired heat-supply units in all thermal units Jinlin69%88% Western Inner Mongolia 78%57% Heirongjian g 80%68% Power mix in "Three Norths" 12 Flexible power (pumped storage, fuel and gas) Wind power OthersHydroCoal NE North of China NW Total of Three Norths

13 The power resource with flexible regulation in Spain accounts for 34%, 1.7 times of wind power. That in U.S. accounts for 49%, 14 times of wind power. A higher proportion of flexible power resource is one of the main reasons why Spain and other countries are at a high level of wind power utilization. The power resource with flexible regulation in China only accounts for 5.6%, 1.1 times of wind power. Comparison Diagram of Power Mix 13 Flexible power (pumped storage, fuel and gas) Wind power OthersHydroCoal China Spain Germany US

14 Locally: Installed wind power capacity inThree Norths has reached 20%. Subject to small-scale market, limited resources for peak regulation, and lack of a capacity of trans-regional transmission, there is no space for further wind power development. Nationally: Installed wind power capacity accounts for only 5%. Resources for peak regulation are relatively abundant in the eastern and central regions; the consumption market has not been fully developed. Chinas realities of reverse distribution between wind power and other new energy and load determine that China's new energy should focus on large-scale development and long-distance outbound delivery. 14 NW NE Tibet South China Three Chinas Grid

15 3. Wind Power Development Plan 15

16 According to the 12th Five-Year Plan for Wind Power Development issued by National Bureau of Energy of China in July 2012, there will be total of 100 million kW installed wind power capacity by the end of 2015, with annual wind power generating capacity reaching 190 billion Kwh; by 2020, there will be a total of 200 million kW installed wind power capacity,with annual generating capacity reaching 380 billion kWh. (1) Objectives of wind power development plan 16 Installed Wind Power Capacity in National Planning Wind power installation (million kW) % of wind power in installation Million kW

17 Schematic diagram of large-scale wind power bases distribution Western Inner Mongolia Costal area of Jiangsu Jiuquan Eastern Inner Mongolia Eastern Inner Mongolia Hebei Jilin Shandong Kumul Chinas wind power development is generally characterized by centralized development with the support of distributive development, relying mainly on onshore wind with the support of offshore wind power, and attaching equal importance to local consumption and trans-regional transmission. According to the distribution characteristics of wind energy resource, China plans to construct a number of large wind power bases, including Kumul, Jiuquan, Western Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Eastern Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Shandong and coastal area of Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, etc. Chinas wind power development is generally characterized by centralized development with the support of distributive development, relying mainly on onshore wind with the support of offshore wind power, and attaching equal importance to local consumption and trans-regional transmission. According to the distribution characteristics of wind energy resource, China plans to construct a number of large wind power bases, including Kumul, Jiuquan, Western Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Eastern Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Shandong and coastal area of Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, etc. (2) Large-scale wind power base Heilongjiang 17

18 CategoriesBases/Provinces Installed capacity planned Large-scale bases Hebei Eastern Inner Mongolia Western Inner Mongolia Jilin Gansu Xinjiang Jiangsu Shandong Subtotal Key provinces Shanxi Liaoning Heirongjiang Ningxia Subtotal Subtotal of other provinces National total According to the 12th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development and provincial planning, a table of installed capacity in various regions is developed (see the table). China will maintain Three-Norths-based wind power development layout for a long time. The wind power development in 10 provinces in Three Norths region accounts for about 80%. The wind power decentralized development in the eastern and central regions is of limited-scale. 18 Installed capacity planned of provinces

19 4. Solutions to Wind Power Integration & Consumption 19

20 Power structure Coordinated planning Grid layout Electricity consumption structure Technical standards and norms Good power supply structure, and increasing the flexible power supply for peak regulation in the system are the important foundation to raise the consumption capacity of wind power. Construct strong interregional large power grid is objective need to raise the consumption capacity of new energy power generation market Mobilize a wider range of demand side resources to participate in the system adjustment, is an effective way to improve the consumption capacity of wind power. Formulate the strict integration technical standards and management norms is the basic to raise the consumption capacity of wind power. Incorporate the wind power large-scale development, transmission and consumption into the unified planning for power development, is the important guarantee to raise the consumption capacity of wind power. Improve overall capacity of electricity system receiving electricity from new energy (1) Coordinated solution to wind power integration & consumption 20

21 To fulfill the objective of national wind power's new energy planning development, the tasks are arduous and the management and technology are extremely complex. To make sure healthy and renewable development of new energy and wind power integration, it is needed to coordinate the whole power system comprehensively and optimize resources allocation while taking the larger picture into consideration. 21

22 Principles of overall system planning for wind power Safety:satisfying the systems max load (electricity balance) ; the min load (peak ragulation balance) ; hourly eolectricity balance (load tracing) Cleaniliness:fulfilling the objective of the total amount of national wind power and other clean energy development and expanding the scale of wind power development Economics:reasonablly planning other power and trans-province power grid, and minimizing the total costs like system investment, operation and external cost, etc. High efficiency:optimizing the system operation, improving the system's intelligent level, lowering the running cost and decreasing the consumption of fossil energy (2) Overall system optimazation for wind power and other clean energy development 22

23 23 Scenario construction: considering national energy strategy; coordinating supply and demand balance of coal, gas and electricity; forming electric power development scenario by combining power planningScenario construction: considering national energy strategy; coordinating supply and demand balance of coal, gas and electricity; forming electric power development scenario by combining power planning Scenario analysis: analyze the electricity and layout,running method and development and consumption situation of clean energy power under different development scenariosScenario analysis: analyze the electricity and layout,running method and development and consumption situation of clean energy power under different development scenarios Benefit evaluation: evaluate quality of all development scenario to provide the basis of the route of fulfilling the objective of clean energy and suggestion for formulating the energy strategy and related industry planningBenefit evaluation: evaluate quality of all development scenario to provide the basis of the route of fulfilling the objective of clean energy and suggestion for formulating the energy strategy and related industry planning Overall design thinking of clean energy, conventional energy and power system Overall design of clean energy development 23 Energy strategy and relevant industry planning Energy development goals Coal and transportation industry planning Oil & gas industry planning Renewable energy development planning Electric power development boundary conditions Development quality and benefits evaluation conclusion Electric power development scenario construction Model for overall optimization and planning of power system Development evaluation Evaluation system CGE Model IO Model Overall development scenario of the energy power Optimization of multi- regional power Production stimulation of power system Analysis/Verification of system frequency adjustment Overall cost Economic benefits Social benefits Environmental benefits Revision suggestions

24 Build a coordinating development model for energy resource and power generation to adapt to the energy mix and adjust the target Optimization of multi-regional energy resource: optimize the scale and layout of all kinds of power development as the input condition of renewable energy consumption plan computingOptimization of multi-regional energy resource: optimize the scale and layout of all kinds of power development as the input condition of renewable energy consumption plan computing Power system output stimulation : optimize the operational model of the power system accommodating renewable power generation, the consumption method of wind power and other renewable energies and hydro and wind curtailment level.Power system output stimulation : optimize the operational model of the power system accommodating renewable power generation, the consumption method of wind power and other renewable energies and hydro and wind curtailment level. Analysis/Verification of system frequency adjustment: identify the impact of the development and consumption plan for wind power and other intermittent power on the stability of system frequencyand adjust the consumption plan for wind power and wind curtailment level.Analysis/Verification of system frequency adjustment: identify the impact of the development and consumption plan for wind power and other intermittent power on the stability of system frequencyand adjust the consumption plan for wind power and wind curtailment level. 24 I. Optimization of multi-regional power Plan for output power planning scenario 1. Identify the scale and layout for non-fossil energy power development 2. Optimize the scale and layout for power and power flow in various regions 3. Identify the total costs and composition of power system 4. Emission scale and layout of environmental pollutants and CO2 II. Production stimulation of power system III. Analysis/Verification of system frequency adjustment 1. Identify the operating curve of various power including wind power 2. Identify the operating curve of trans-provincial connection line 3. Identify wind and solar curtailment and fuel consumption CO2 1. The overall situation of system frequency adjustment capacity and evaluation 2. Adjust wind power consumption plan and wind and solar curtailment level Whether there exist acceptable limits in wind and solar curtailment levels in various regions Adjusting wind power consumption plan and electricity level of wind and solar curtailment No Yes

25 Most grids in China's wind power bases are small in scale and insufficient in wind power consumption capacity, and the large-scale development and high-efficient use must rely on long-distance, large-volume and trans-regional delivery. Northwest: in addition to consumption in the northwest grid, Xinjiangs and Gansus wind power needs to transmit to Three Chinas (East China, North China, Central China)" receiver-side grid at a large scale. Northeast: based on taking full advantage of all regions' consumption and trans-provincial adjustment, it needs to deliver to " Three Chinas". Western Inner Mongolia: apart from consumption within the region, wind power should be delivered to Three Chinas" receiver-side grid. Wind power fromHebei, Shandong and Jiangsu coordinately consumes within Three Chinas" grid. (3) Wind power flow pattern

26 According to the plan, by 2020, the national wind power development scale will reach 200 million kW. Wind power consumption within the province will reach 96 million kW, trans- provincial consumption 14 million kW within regional grid and trans-regional grid consumption 90 million kw. Trans-provincial trans-regional consumption will amount o 50% by then, then the proportion of wind curtailment can be controlled below 5%. Proportion wind power consumption in main regions in Trans-regional delivery Trans-provincial delivery Intra-provincial consumption Central and eastern region receiver-side NE (Eastern Inner Mongolia) NWSichuan, Chongqing and Tibet ShanxiWestern Inner Mongolia South

27 To promote efficient use of clean energy like wind power, sending and receiver-side of the power grid have to satisfy the requirements of high-efficient integration and coordinated operation among various energies. With increased scale of trans-regional power flow, the receiving propotion in receiver-side regions such as Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and Shandong, four eastern provinces of Central China and East China will be increased and the running complexity of power system will be greater in the future. There are higher requirements for resource allocation capabilities and coordinated operation platform functions of sending and receiver-side power grids, eg, require larger coverage and strong grid structure and further improved dynamic balancing ability and greater safety and stability level. 27

28 Sending side running curve Receiver side grid running curve 28 Wind powerThermal power Connection lineDirect current delivery Hours Base load of external power Minimum output of conventional coal power Medium load of external power Pumped storage PV Solar curtailment Heat supply units Hydro Regulating output of conventional coal power Wind power Wind curtailment

29 Jiuquan-Hunan Jiuquan Hunan Xilingol League-Nanjing Currently, specialized plannings for national renewable energy sources, wind power and photovoltaic power have been issued, while transmission channels of new energy bases have not been implemented yet, including Xilingol League-Nanjing and Western Inner Mongolia- Changsha UHV AC power transmission projects targeted at Western Inner Mongolia wind power, and Jiuquan-Hunan, Hulun Buir- Shandong, Zhangbei-Nanchang UHV power transmission projects targeted at northwest, northeast and Zhangjiakou respectively. Western Inner Mongolia -Changsha 29

30 Way 1 Separate transmission of coal or wind power Way 2 "Coal and wind power" combined transmission Ways of wind power transmission Way 1 Separate transmission of coal or wind power" Sending–side wind power is transmitted to the receiver side through long distance line. Sending–side coals supply to coal plants in the receiver side through long-distance railway transmission, and the average tariff in the receiver-side grid will be measured based on the ground tariff and feed-in tariff. Way 2 "Coal and wind power" combined transmission Sending–side combined wind power and coal power to be transmitted to the receiver side through long distance line, and the ground tariff of receiver-side grid will be calculated. (4) The technical and economical problem of wind power delivery 30 Wind power Coal Thermal power Wind power Coal Thermal power Receiver-side grid Sending-side grid Transmission line Railway Measuring point

31 Using coal power channel to transmit clean energy like wind power, improve the economics and safety of transmission and promote the large-scale development of clean energy. Xinjiang, Erdos, Xilingol League areas are quite rich in wind energy and coal resources with close distribution, which has good conditions for combined transmission. The main way for transmission of clean energy is joint delivery of wind, solar and coal. In Eastern Inner Mongolia and Northeast areas with poor overlapping distribution of wind power and coal resources and limited delivery capacity of conventional energy in some areas, wind power-centered delivery method can be explored and demonstrated as the possible way for large- volume clean energy transmission under the premise of technical feasibility. 31

32 Combined delivery way Small scale wind power transmission, dominated by coal power and complemented by wind power Controllable transmission power curve, better matching with receiver-side load More utilization hours, and low transmission cost About 5% of wind curtailment 100% capacity replacing benefits Large scale wind power transmission, dominated by coal power and complemented by wind power Bigger fluctuation of transmission power Less utilization hours, and high transmission cost about 10% of wind curtailment Less capacity replacing benefits Wind power-centered delivery way 32 Thermal power Wind power Wind curtailment Thermal power Wind power Wind curtailment

33 5. Conclusion 33

34 Adjusting energy structure and coping with climate change are the main direction for China's energy development. Vigorously developing clean energies, such as wind power and solar power is the significant measure to promote China's energy structure adjustment, ensure the safety of energy supply and coordinate the development of energy and environment. The development of China's wind and solar power and electricity consumption center presents reverse distribution situation, which determines that it is a must for accelerating the construction of trans- provincial power transmission channel and promoting the large-scale power transmission from "Three Norths" while developing such peak regulating power as pumped storage power, gas filed power plant and so on; Meanwhile, it also requires to strengthen the interconnection of North China-East China and Central China-receiver-side grid so ad to provide a larger market platform for accepting external wind power. In addition, it also needs strengthening the construction of distribution system to support the development of distributed power. 34

35 Thank you!


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