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Promoting Positive Youth Development, Health, and Well-Being through Life Skills Training Christopher Williams, Ph.D. Pamela Werb, MEd National Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Promoting Positive Youth Development, Health, and Well-Being through Life Skills Training Christopher Williams, Ph.D. Pamela Werb, MEd National Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Promoting Positive Youth Development, Health, and Well-Being through Life Skills Training Christopher Williams, Ph.D. Pamela Werb, MEd National Health Promotion Associates This product is supported by Florida Department of Children and Families Substance Abuse and Mental Health Program Office funding.

2 Overview Background Theory and Description Effectiveness Potential for Educational Outcomes Botvin LifeSkills Training Implementation Considerations Q & A

3 Background


5 Priority Health-Risk Behaviors Monitored by CDC (YRBSS) Behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity Tobacco use Alcohol and other drug use Motor vehicle accidents Other unintentional injuries Violence (Suicide, Homicide) Sexual behaviors Unhealthy dietary behaviors Inadequate physical activity

6 Prevention Science Advances in Etiology and Prevention Multiple health behaviors Toward a unified field Convergence Similar etiologic factors and course Shared methods and theories Similar effective approaches

7 Institute Of Medicine Classification: Continuum of Care

8 Early Prevention Efforts: Ineffective Health Information Scare Tactics School Assembly Programs Ineffective Drug information programs increased use in some studies

9 Evidence-Based Approaches Tested and Proven Effective Well-Designed (Randomized Control Trials) Carefully Executed Rigorous Research Methods Appropriate Data Analysis Published in Peer-Reviewed Journal One or More Replications

10 Etiology Studies Show Hypothesized Mediating Variables Associated with Adolescent Substance Use Assertiveness Refusal skills Decision-making Problem-solving skills Peer substance use Perceived norms Social anxiety Risk-taking Positive drug expectancies Substance Use Behavior + _

11 Life Skills Training Intervention Effects Observed on Key Hypothesized Mediating Variables Assertiveness Refusal skills Decision-making Problem-solving skills Locus of control Peer substance use Perceived norms Social anxiety Risk-taking Positive drug expectancies + _

12 Life Skills Training: Conceptual Model and Brief Description

13 Risk and Protective Factors Drug Use Model of Adolescent Drug Use and Focus of LST Program Social Environment Family Socio- Cultural Personal Competence Skills Social Competence Skills Drug Resistance Skills/ Cognitions Life Skills Training Contextual Factors Individual Factors

14 Life Skills Training Major Components Personal Competence Social Competence Resistance Skills, Attitudes and Norms

15 Personal Competence Skills Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Personal Behavior Change Skills Stress and Anxiety Management

16 Social Competence Skills Communication Skills Greetings and Brief Social Exchanges Meeting New People Conversational Skills Complimenting Skills Assertive Skills

17 Resistance Skills/Norms Awareness of Drug Use Influences Anti-Drug Use Norms Resistance Skills

18 Effectiveness

19 Evidence of Effectiveness Over 30 Peer-Reviewed Studies Short, Intermediate, and Long-term Majority and Minority Youth Tobacco Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use Other Health Outcomes Independent Replication


21 Methodological Issues RCT: Cluster Randomization Validity of Self Report IDs for Tracking Individual Students Pretest Equivalence Differential Attrition/Data Loss Appropriate Analysis (ICCs, Covariates)



24 Short-Term Effects

25 Life Skills Training Source: *Botvin et al. (1982), ** Botvin, Baker et al. (1984), *** Botvin, Baker, Renick et al.(1984). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percent Using Monthly Tobacco*Alcohol**Marijuana*** LSTControl

26 Booster Effects Life Skills Training Source: *Botvin et al. (1983), ** Botvin et al. (1990) 0 5 10 15 20 Percent Using Weekly Tobacco*Marijuana** LST + BoosterLSTControl

27 Long-Term Effects: 5 Years (Grade 12)

28 Long-Term Effects: Smoking Source: *Botvin et al. (1995), ** Botvin et al. (2004) 28% Reduction 20% Reduction 29% Reduction 21% Reduction Life Skills Training 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percent Using Weekly Smoking* (White Sample) Weekly Smoking** (Minority Sample) Daily Smoking* (White Sample) Daily Smoking** (Minority Sample) LSTControl

29 Long-Term Effects: Gateway Poly-drug Use & Illicit Drug Use Life Skills Training Source: *Botvin et al. (1995), ** Botvin et al. (2000) 50% Reduction 56% Reduction 38% Reduction 25% Reduction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percent Using Polydrug Use* (Weekly) Narcotics** (Lifetime) Hallucinogens** (Lifetime) Illicit Drug Use** (Lifetime) LSTControl

30 Life Skills Training Binge Drinking (Botvin et al., 2001)

31 Long-Term Effects: 5 Years (Grade 12)

32 Violence and Delinquency Source: Botvin et al., Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach. Prevention Science, 2006

33 Long-Term Follow-Up: 12 Years (Young Adult) Illicit Drug Use

34 Research Design Grade7th8th9th10th12thYoung Adult Follow-Up LSTO X OX O OOO ControlsO O OOOO Note: X = preventive intervention (LST) O = observation point (self-report survey) Mean age of sample = 24 34

35 Long-Term Follow-Up by Condition


37 Potential Educational Outcomes Attendance, Engagement, and Commitment Safe, Supportive Learning Environment Ability to Handle Academic Pressures Pro-social Engagement with Teachers and Peers Promotion of Social and Emotional Learning Better Choices In and Out of Classroom

38 Q & A

39 Break

40 What is Botvin LifeSkills Training?

41 Personal Self-Management Skills General Social Skills Resistance Skills

42 Program Providers Health Educators Prevention Specialists Peer Leaders Teachers

43 Teaching Methods Facilitate Discussion Teach Skills Provide Reinforcement Provide Opportunities for Skills Practice

44 What is the age range for LST? Ages 8 - 18 The Botvin LifeSkills Training evidence-based approach spans multiple age groups. Materials are adapted for age and developmental appropriateness.

45 Sessions per Level LevelGrade Level# of sessionsDuration Elementary Level 1 3 rd 8 sessions45 – 50 mins Elementary Level 2 4 th 8 sessions45 – 50 mins Elementary Level 3 5 th 8 sessions45 – 50 mins Middle School Level 1 6 th 15 core + 3 optional45 – 50 mins Middle School Level 2 7 th 10 core + 2 optional45 – 50 mins Middle School Level 3 8 th 5 core + 4 optional45 – 50 mins High School9 th or 10 th 10 sessions45 – 50 mins Transitions11 th or 12 th 6 sessions45 – 50 mins

46 Elementary Program Content by Grade/Level TopicL1: 3 rd /4 th L2: 4 th /5 th L3: 5 th /6 th Self-Esteem111 Decision-Making111 Smoking Information111 Advertising111 Dealing with Stress111 Communication Skills111 Social Skills111 Assertiveness111 Total Class Periods888

47 Middle School Program Structure & Content By Grade/Level Middle School UNITSL1: 6 th /7 th L2: 7 th /8 th L3: 8 th /9 th Self-Image & Self-Improvement100 Decision-Making211 Substance Use / Drug Abuse411 Advertising/ Media Influences111 Violence and the Media100 Coping with Anxiety221 Coping with Anger111 Communication Skills110 Social Skills211 Conflict Resolution111 Assertiveness211 Resisting Peer Pressure021 Total Class Periods15/1810/125/9

48 High School Program Content UnitSkills# of Lessons 1. Understanding PreventionPersonal Self Management1 2. Decision Making for HealthPersonal Self Management1 3. Drug Use and Risk TakingDrug Resistance1 4. Health in Media and CultureDrug Resistance2 5. Managing Stress and AngerPersonal Self Management1 6. Family CommunicationsGeneral Social2 7. Building Healthy RelationshipsGeneral Social2 Total Class Periods7 Units / 10 Lessons

49 Transitions Program Content UNITCOMPETENCY DOMAIN 1. Goal Setting for SuccessPersonal Self Management Skill 2. Effective CommunicationGeneral Social / Social Environment Skill 3. Managing StressPersonal Self Management Skill 4. Decision Making and RiskPersonal Self Management / Social Environment Skill 5. Managing Time and MoneyPersonal Self Management Skill 6. Building RelationshipsPersonal / General Social / Social Environment Skills 49 PROGRAM FIDELITY: Teach the lessons in order at least one time per week in consecutive weeks, allow 45 – 50 minutes per lesson and deliver all of the activities in the lesson.

50 Skills Training Instruction Demonstration Behavior Rehearsal Feedback Reinforcement Extended Practice

51 Teaching Skills

52 What are the fidelity guidelines? Best results are achieved with provider fidelity Teach the full scope and sequence Teach the units in order Teach at least 1 X week. Can be taught more than one time per week if needed. Use interactive teaching techniques Teach the booster sessions Optimum fidelity is achieved through planning with participation of stakeholders

53 Is implementation fidelity important? YES! There are different ways to monitor fidelity using checklists. 1. Peer observation and feedback 2. Self-monitoring and assessment The LST fidelity checklists help providers: Review key lesson points and instructional objectives during preparation Identify areas that can be challenging Focus on important lesson goals and objectives Receive specific feedback on their ability to adhere to the lesson plan

54 Is there digital support for instruction? Yes. There are digital support slides to help enrich learning and focus participants attention on key concepts, vocabulary, and lesson points. The LST Digital Support Slides help providers: Utilize available technology in the classroom Highlight critical vocabulary and concepts prior to skills practice Summarize essential information from each lesson In addition, many of the program levels have optional CD ROMs or companion websites. These can aide to increase practice outside of the lesson and reinforce concepts when not in class.

55 LST Session Support Slides Each level and each unit Designed to bring attention to: Lesson goals and objectives Key vocabulary and definitions Important summary points Available for Middle School HS and Transitions (2014)

56 LST: Summary Over 30 Peer-Reviewed Studies White, African-American, and Latino Youth Sizeable and Sustained Effects ATOD, Meth, Violence, Risky Driving Replication by Other Researchers $25 Benefit for Each $1 Spent Potential Educational Outcomes

57 Recognition of Excellence Recognized for excellence and quality by: U.S. Department of Education U.S. Justice Department, Office of Juvenile Justice Delinquency and Prevention (OJJDP) Blueprints Model Program National Institute on Drug Abuse White House Office on National Drug Control Policy DOJ Office of Justice Programs

58 Conclusions LST = strong and lasting effects Widely Used All 50 States in US 32 Countries Worldwide Approaches targeting school, family, and community offer greatest potential Promote sustained use of proven approaches Develop prevention infrastructure

59 Q & A

60 Contact us: National Health Promotion Associates Botvin LifeSkills Training TEL: (914) 421-2525 Email: IN FLORIDA Mr. Andrew Martin (FL Regional Coordinator) TEL: (786) 205-1800 Email:

61 Thank You!

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