Presentation on theme: "Major challenges to regulating small- scale fisheries and trade in South-east Asia, with emphasis on LRFFT Meryl J Williams, AsiaPacific-FishWatch APEC."— Presentation transcript:
Major challenges to regulating small- scale fisheries and trade in South-east Asia, with emphasis on LRFFT Meryl J Williams, AsiaPacific-FishWatch APEC Workshop Market-Based Improvement in Live Reef Food Fish Trade Bali, 1-3 March 2011
Exploding 2 Myths Regulations: Just build more capacity!Trade: Just transform the markets!
Governments & industry emphasize exports – Strong economic incentives – Sustainability less important Regulating LRFFT only one of many priorities – Whats wrong with it? – Can these fish be sustainably harvested? – Compared to other small scale fisheries, offshore expansion Regulations can corrupt – LRFFT full of opportunities for corruption and crime Regulations: Just build more capacity!
Crowded regulatory landscape – Devolved authorities Multiple govt levels Pre-existing systems Conservation systems – Neither govt nor self-regulation is enough – Dispersed geographies Challenges of transboundary trade Major capacity gaps – Multiple needs – Improvements will be incremental Information inaccessible – Little public knowledge Regulations: Just build more capacity!
LRFFT supply and demand not readily influenced – Collaboration and confrontation are difficult – Markets Trade bans not likely, not sold through supermarkets, EU China, HK, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore Strong cultural, status drivers – Supply What are fishers alternatives? Trade: Just transform the markets!
Threats to certification (GEF- STAP 2010) – Weak certification standards – Noncompliance with standards – Limited participation – Adverse self-selection Trade barriers low – And often circumvented – Buyers reach the most remote suppliers Need well functioning regulatory system Information difficult to obtain, access – Public awareness complex NYT 2010. Live fish for China, Bali Trade: Just transform the markets!
Creating the Rules of the road ahead Salvage the essential elements from the myths
6 Rules Know the supply chains Understand how cultures influence supply and demand Build capacity to support sustainabil- ity Make existing information visible Dont over- simplify Dont ignore the other risks
Rule 1. Know the supply chains Demand and supply sides Pathways, participants, dynamics Power structures and dependencies PFS=ECY + SEP (van Santen 2006) Politically feasible solution = effective commercial yield + socio-economic and environmental program S. Sulawesi Bajau fisher moving live fish to export companys net cages 2010 NYT James Morgan
Rule 2. Understand how cultures influence supply and demand Demand – Age-cohorts, cultures, classes develop different expectations – What champions and opinion makers could reach key market segments? Supply – Market presentations of LRFF conceal labor processes and social relations of their production (Gaynor 2010) C.W. Kee, The Star, Malaysia, 2006/04/15
Rule 3. Build capacity to support sustainability Work around lack of capacity – Work with positive elements, e.g., scientists, environment groups, journalists, academics, school teachers, religious leaders – Create new stakeholder/interest groups outside and inside supply chains, e.g., scientists, students, local people, women, high-end restaurants – Confrontation and trade bans can work, but use with caution Strengthen the mainstream – Regional and national priorities identified at RPOA-APEC 2010 workshop, approved by RPOA Coordinating Committee http://genderaquafish.org/
RPOA: Regional Plan of Action to Promote Responsible Fishing Practices including Combating IUU Fishing in the Region Indonesia Australia Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia Malaysia Papua New Guinea Philippines Singapore Thailand Timor-Leste Vietnam Framework for Human And Institutional Capacity Building for Marine Capture Fisheries Management in RPOA Member Countries 1. Fisheries management planning 2. Fishing capacity management 3. Strengthening information systems* 4. Strengthening the scientific and economic basis for fisheries management 5. Effective decentralization* 6. Strengthening MCS 7. Strengthening regional and international cooperation 8. Strengthening legal, policy and administrative support * = priorities are country specific
Rule 4. Make existing information accessible Mine existing knowledge Aggregate credible information from all sources AsiaPacific-FishWatch – To make knowledge accessible to consumers – Under construction by Asian Fisheries Society http://asiapacfishwatch.org/
Rule 5. Dont over-simplify Look for synergies within the crowded regulatory landscape
Multiple govt levels on fisheries – RPOA, national, devolved/decentralized Pre-existing systems under social transformations – Customary Institutions in Indonesia (ISCF 2009) – Managing Coastal and Inland Waters (Ruddle & Satria 2010) Conservation driven systems addressing fisheries – COREMAP, CTI, MPAs Rule 5. Dont over-simplify
Avoid seeing like a state (James C. Scott, 1999) Rule 5. Dont over-simplify
Rule 6. Dont ignore other risks, opportunities Watch out for Black Swans, such as – Climate change, earthquakes, urban and agriculture waste, oil/food price shifts – Technology and market changes Beware aquaculture promises for high end LRFFT species! – And the opportunities for action
Replace the Myths with the Rules Know the supply chains Understand how cultures influence supply and demand Build capacity to support sustainabil- ity Make existing information visible Dont over- simplify Dont ignore the other risks
RPOA Table of Human and Institutional Capacity Building Needs for Marine Capture Fisheries, From Da Nang Workshop, December 2010 /2 FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANNING Developing fishery specific management plans, incorporating the ecosystem approach to fisheries and participation FISHING CAPACITY MANAGEMENT Vessel licensing and/or registration Rights based fisheries management Developing alternative livelihoods Commercial capacity reduction schemes STRENGTHENING INFORMATION SYSTEMS Strengthening fishery independent monitoring systems Strengthening Information management Design of information collection systems Strengthening monitoring of Fisheries trade Strengthening fishery dependent monitoring systems STRENGTHENING THE SCIENTIFIC AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT Strengthening scientific analytical capability and capacity to gather information Integrating scientific advice into management planning Economic impact analysis Strengthening capacity for assessment of climate change adaptation/mitigation in fisheries, inc. fishing vessel emissions Research planning
RPOA Table of Human and Institutional Capacity Building Needs for Marine Capture Fisheries, From Da Nang Workshop, December 2010 EFFECTIVE DECENTRALIZATION Strengthening coordination and accountability between national/local levels Strengthening implementation at local level Community-based management of fisheries Strengthening legal basis to support decentralisation STRENGTHENING MCS Strengthening MCS information systems Strengthening MCS Co-ordination Building entry/mid level MCS skills Port State Measures Risk assessment/compliance planning Encouraging Voluntary compliance STRENGTHENING REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION Strengthening capacity for complementary management of transboundary stocks Strengthening capacity for Joint (and common) Stock assessment (RPOA stock assessment platform; defining stock structure) Strengthening capacity for cooperative MCS Strengthen capacity for International engagement STRENGTHENING LEGAL, POLICY AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT Clarifying institutional roles/responsibilities Encourage strengthening of legal frameworks (inc. improving compatibility; capability to address emerging issues) Strengthening capacity of senior execs to promote importance of fisheries Strengthening capacity for internal needs assessment Public performance reporting
  Country specific priorities, depending on unique circumstances of each country; stage and system dependent