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3.1 – Population Dynamics IB Topics 3.1.1-3.1.4. Current Human Population There are about 7 billion people living on Earth For about 200,000 years, there.

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Presentation on theme: "3.1 – Population Dynamics IB Topics 3.1.1-3.1.4. Current Human Population There are about 7 billion people living on Earth For about 200,000 years, there."— Presentation transcript:

1 3.1 – Population Dynamics IB Topics

2 Current Human Population There are about 7 billion people living on Earth For about 200,000 years, there were between 1-15 million people on Earth

3 Milestones 1 Billion: Billion: Billion: Billion: Billion: Billion: Billion: 2012

4 Demographics If you reduce the worlds population to a village of 100 people… world-of-100/

5 Predicted Growth Some predict a stabilization of human population, while others predict a continued increase Global Population Forecast

6 Calculating Rates Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The number of live births per 1000 people Equation:

7 Calculating Rates Crude Death Rate (CDR) The number of deaths per 1000 people Equation: Natural Increase Rate (NIR) CBR-CDR

8 Calculating Rates Fertility The average number of births per women of child-bearing age Equation:

9 Calculating Rates Doubling Time The amount of time it takes for a population to double Equation:

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11 Population Pyramids

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15 Demographic Transition Model

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17 3.2 – Resources – Natural Capital IB Topics

18 Natural Capital Natural resources/natur al assets Can become natural income Goods or services

19 Resources Non-renewable Cannot be replenished at the same rate they are used Renewable Living resources that can be replenished at the rate they are used via human processes Replenishable Non-living resources that can be replenished via natural processes

20 Nature of a Resource The value of a resource changes with human technology/cult ure

21 Sustainability Using resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration Living within the means of nature Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

22 Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Ex: fishing, hunting, energy

23 3.3 – Energy Sources IB Topics

24 Making Energy Electricity is delivered to homes and businesses via alternating current (AC) AC power is generated when electromagnets are spun using a turbine

25 Energy Sources Worldwide 85% of the worlds energy comes from fossil fuels.

26 Energy Production in Wisconsin

27 Pollution from Energy in Wisconsin

28 Renewable Energy in Wisconsin

29 Energy Production Examples: WI: Pleasant Prairie Coal Plant 1190 MW Oak Creek Coal Plant 1135 MW Point Beach Nuclear Plant 1033 MW Other Examples: Three Gorges Dam 22,500 MW Hoover Dam 2080 MW Nellis Solar Power Plant 14MW (70,000 panels) Big Wind Turbine 1.6 MW Typical Geothermal Plant 40 MW

30 Energy SourceDescriptionProsCons Fossil Fuels Nuclear Wind Hydro Solar Geothermal Biofuels

31 Fossil Fuels

32 Nuclear Power

33 Wind Power

34 Hydropower

35 Solar Power

36 Geothermal Power

37 Biofuels

38 Oil Palms

39 Future Solutions Hydrogen Nuclear Fusion Carbon Sequestration

40 3.4 – Soil Systems IB Topics – 3.4.5

41 Soil Soil is eroded rock, nutrients, decaying organic matter, and water

42 Soil Formation Soil is produced by: Weathering of rock Deposition of sediments by erosion Decomposition of organic matter in dead organisms

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44 Soil Horizons Soils generally have distinct horizons: A horizon Humus (decaying organic matter with mineral particles) E horizon Not always present, pale layer where minerals have been leached B horizon Organic matter and mineral deposits C horizon Weathered rock/bedrock

45 Soil Texture Soil type depends on the particle size Sand = Biggest Silt = Medium Clay = Smallest

46 Soil Texture

47 Soil Types Potential to hold organic matter DrainageWater holding capacity Air Spaces Plants and animals Primary Productivity Sandy Soil Clay Soil Loam Soil

48 Soil Types Potential to hold organic matter DrainageWater holding capacity Air Spaces Plants and animals Primary Productivity Sandy SoilLowVery Good LowLargeFewLow Clay SoilLowPoorVery HighSmallFewVery Low Loam SoilMediumGoodMedium ManyHigh

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50 Nutrients Macronutrients Nitrogen (needed for chlorophyll) Phosphorous (needed for photosynthesis) Potassium (needed for fruiting and growth) Calcium Magnesium Sulfur

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52 Nutrients Micronutrients Boron Copper Chloride Iron Manganese Zinc

53 Nitrogen cycle Atmospheric Nitrogen has to be fixed (usually by bacteria) for plants to use it.

54 Soil Degradation Water erosion Wind erosion Acidification Groundwater use Pollution Desertification Climate change Overgrazing Deforestation Roads

55 Soil Degradation

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57 Soil Conservation Mechanical/physi cal barriers Organic farming Afforestation Contour plowing Terracing Crop rotation Soil conditioners

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