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Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 1 CHAPTER 9 Balancing D emand Against P roductive Capacity.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 1 CHAPTER 9 Balancing D emand Against P roductive Capacity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 1 CHAPTER 9 Balancing D emand Against P roductive Capacity

2 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 2 What is Productive Capacity? Productive capacity can take several forms in services Physical facilities designed to contain customers Physical facilities designed for storing or processing goods Physical equipment used to process people, possessions, or information Labor Infrastructure Financial success in businesses that are limited in capacity depends largely on how capacity is used

3 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 3 From Excess Demand to Excess Capacity Excess demand Too much demand relative to capacity at a given time Demand exceeds optimum capacity Upper limit to a firms ability to meet demand at a given time Optimum capacity Point beyond which service quality declines as more customers are serviced Excess capacity Too much capacity relative to demand at a given time Four conditions potentially faced by fixed-capacity services:

4 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 4 Addressing Problem of Fluctuating Demand Two basic approaches: Adjust level of capacity to meet demand Need to understand productive capacity and how it varies on an incremental basis Manage level of demand Use marketing strategies to smooth out peaks, fill in valleys Many firms use a mix of both approaches

5 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 5 Capacity Management Strategies Capacity is fixed, but more people are served at the same level of capacity Stretch and shrink: Offer inferior extra capacity at peaks (e.g. bus/train standees, stretch servers at restaurants) Use facilities for longer/shorter periods (e.g. extended bank hours) Reduce amount of time spent in process by minimizing slack time

6 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 6 Adjusting Capacity to Match Demand Schedule downtime during periods of low demand Cross-train employees Use part-time employees Invite customers to perform self-service Ask customers to share Create flexible capacity Rent or share extra facilities and equipment

7 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 7 Demand Varies by Market Segment Demand may seem random, but analysis may reveal different predictable demand cycles for different segments Keep good records of transactions to analyze demand patterns Sophisticated software can help to track customer consumption patterns Record weather conditions and other special factors that might influence demand (i.e. competitor actions)

8 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 8 Predictable Demand Patterns and Their Underlying Causes (1) day week month year other employment billing or tax payments/refunds pay days school hours/holidays climate / weather changes public/religious holidays natural cycles Predictable Cycles of Demand Levels Underlying Causes of Cyclical Variations

9 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 9 Demand Management Strategies Take no action Let customers sort it out Reduce demand Higher prices Communication encouraging use of other time slots Increase demand Lower prices Communication, including promotional incentives Vary product features to increase desirability More convenient delivery times and places Inventory demand by reservation system Inventory demand by formalized queuing

10 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 10 When Demand Exceeds Supply: Inventorying Demand Ask customers to wait in line (queue), usually on a first-come first-served basis Offer customers the opportunity to reserve or book capacity in advance

11 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 11 Waiting In Line Almost nobody likes to wait An average person may spend up to 30 minutes/day waiting in lineequivalent to 20 months in an 80 year lifetime Not all queues take physical waiting in a single location Queues may be physical but geographically dispersed Some queues are virtual

12 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 12 Alternative Queuing Configurations

13 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 13 Virtual Waits Customers despise having their time wasted while waiting Virtual queues can eliminate the need to wait Customers register their place in line on a computer / phone, kiosk, etc. System estimates the time customer will need to wait Customers return later to claim their place when alerted by the system

14 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 14 Perceptions of Waiting Time 1.Unoccupied time feels longer than occupied time 2.Solo waits feel longer than group waits 3.Physically uncomfortable waits feel longer than comfortable ones 4.Pre- and post-process waits feel longer than in- process waits 5.Unexplained waits are longer than explained waits Sources: Maister; Davis & Heineke; Jones & Peppiatt Cont.

15 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 15 6.Unfamiliar waits seem longer than familiar ones 7.Uncertain waits are longer than known, finite waits 8.Unfair waits are longer than fair waits 9.Anxiety makes waits seem longer 10.People will wait longer for more valuable services Ten Propositions to Make Waiting More Bearable (2) Sources: Maister; Davis & Heineke; Jones & Peppiatt

16 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 16 Benefits of Reservations Controls and smoothes demand Data captured helps organizations Prepare financial projections Plan operations and staffing levels Benefits businesses. Allows management to make sure some time is kept free for emergency jobs Pre-sells service Informs and educates customers in advance of arrival Saves customers from having to wait in line for service (if reservation times are honored)

17 Slide © by Lovelock, Wirtz and Chew 2009 Essentials of Services MarketingChapter 1 - Page 17 Characteristics of Well-Designed Reservations System Fast and user-friendly for customers and staff Answers customer questions Offers options for self service (e.g. Web) Accommodates preferences (e.g., room with view) Deflects demand from unavailable first choices to alternative times and locations


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