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Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.1- Population Dynamics.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.1- Population Dynamics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.1- Population Dynamics

2 Current Human Population There are about 7 billion people living on Earth For about 200,000 years, there were between 1-15 million people on Earth

3 Milestones 1 Billion: 1804 2 Billion: 1927 3 Billion: 1960 4 Billion: 1974 5 Billion: 1987 6 Billion: 1999 7 Billion: 2012

4 Demographics If you reduce the worlds population to a village of 100 people, how many would: Be Male Be White Be Christian Live in substandard housing Be able to read Be malnourished Be without access to safe water Have internet access Have a college education Have HIV Be US citizens Control 1/3 of the wealth

5 Predicted Growth Some predict a stabilization of human population, while others predict a continued increase

6 Calculating Rates Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The number of live births per 1000 people Equation:

7 Calculating Rates Crude Death Rate (CDR) The number of deaths per 1000 people Equation: Natural Increase Rate (NIR) CBR-CDR

8 Calculating Rates Fertility The average number of births per women of child- bearing age Equation:

9 Calculating Rates Doubling Time The amount of time it takes for a population to double Equation:

10 Population Pyramids

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14 Demographic Transition Model

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16 Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.2- Resources – Natural Capital

17 Natural Capital Natural resources/natural assets Can become natural income Goods or services

18 Resources Non-renewable Cannot be replenished at the same rate they are used Renewable Can be replenished at the rate they are used via human processes Replenishable Non-living resources that can be replenished via natural processes

19 Nature of a Resource The value of a resource changes with human technology/culture

20 Sustainability Using resources at a rate that allows natural regeneration Living within the means of nature Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

21 Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.3 – Energy Resources

22 Making Energy Electricity is delivered to homes and businesses via alternating current (AC) AC power is generated when electromagnets are spun using a turbine

23 Energy Sources Worldwide 90% of the worlds energy comes from fossil fuels.

24 Fossil Fuels

25 Nuclear Power

26 Wind Power

27 Hydropower

28 Solar Power

29 Geothermal Power

30 Biofuels

31 Oil Palms

32 Future Solutions Hydrogen Nuclear Fusion Carbon Sequestration

33 Topic 3 – Human Population, Carrying Capacity, and Resource Use Topic 3.4 – Soil Systems

34 Soil Soil is eroded rock, nutrients, decaying organic matter, and water

35 Soil Formation Soil is produced by: Weathering of rock Deposition of sediments by erosion Decomposition of organic matter in dead organisms

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37 Soils generally have distinct horizons: A horizon Humus (decaying organic matter with mineral particles) E horizon Not always present, pale layer where minerals have been leached B horizon Organic matter and mineral deposits C horizon Weathered rock/bedrock Soil Horizons

38 Soil type depends on the particle size Sand = Biggest Silt = Medium Clay = Smallest Soil Texture

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40 Soil Types Potential to hold organic matter DrainageWater holding capacity Air Spaces Plants and animals Primary Productivity Sandy SoilLowVery Good LowLargeFewLow Clay SoilLowPoorVery HighSmallFewVery Low Loam SoilMediumGoodMedium ManyHigh

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42 Nutrients Macronutrients Nitrogen (needed for chlorophyll) Phosphorous (needed for photosynthesis) Potassium (needed for fruiting and growth) Calcium Magnesium Sulfur

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44 Micronutrients Boron Copper Chloride Iron Manganese Zinc nutrients

45 Atmospheric Nitrogen has to be fixed (usually by bacteria) for plants to use it. Nitrogen cycle

46 Water erosion Wind erosion Acidification Groundwater use Pollution Desertification Climate change Overgrazing Deforestation Roads Soil Degradation

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49 Mechanical/physical barriers Organic farming Afforestation Contour plowing Terracing Crop rotation Soil conditioners Soil conservation

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