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4p. 145 A.Q. 1ab, 2ac1a. Describe the general trend of human population growth over time. 1a. The general trend of human population growth over time is that for tens of thousands of years, the human population grew very slowly. Then, about 500 years ago, the population started to grow exponentially and increased dramatically. The growth rate slowed in the second half of the twentieth century; the population is still growing, but at a slower rate. 1b. What factors contributed to the pattern of growth shown in figure 5-11? 1b. Factors that contributed to the pattern of growth shown include harsh living conditions that resulted in high death rates that occurred through most of human history. Rapid population growth occurred when advances, such as improved nutrition, healthcare, and sanitation, decreased the death rate.
5p. 145 A.Q. 1ab, 2ac2a. Why do populations in different countries grow at different rates? 2a. Populations in different countries grow at different rates because they have different birthrates, death rates, and age structures. 2c. Are age-structured diagrams useful in predicting future population trends? 2c. Your answer here!
6p. 141 A.Q. 1ab, 2b, 4 1a. What is a limiting factor? 1a. A limiting factor is a factor that controls the growth of a population.1b. How do limiting factors affect the growth of populations?1b. Limiting factors affect the growth of populations by determining the carrying capacity of environments for populations.2b. What is the relationship between competition and population size?2b. The relationship between competition and population size is that competition between individuals increases as population size increases.Study the factors that limit population growth in figure Classify each factor as biotic or abiotic.4. Biotic factors in the figure include competition, predation, parasitism, and disease. Unusual weather and natural disasters are abiotic factors.
7p. 148 #9, 10, 13, 15 9. What is carrying capacity? Give an example. 9. Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals of a particular species a particular environment can support. One is example is how many reindeer can live on St. Paul Island continuously.10. How is the carrying capacity of a city’s roads similar to the carrying capacity of an ecosystem?The carrying capacity of a city’s roads and the carrying capacity of an ecosystem are similar because they are both limited by the resources available. In the case of a city’s roads, the carrying capacity depends on factors such as the number and width of roads and the number of intersections. In an ecosystem, the carrying capacity depends on factors such as the amount of space and food.
8p. 148 #9, 10, 13, 1513. How might increasing the amount of a limiting nutrient in a pond affect the carrying capacity of the pond?13. Increasing the availability of a limiting nutrient would increase the carrying capacity of the pond.15. Describe how a predator-prey relationship can control both the predator population and the prey population.15. A predator-prey relationship can be a mechanism of population control for both species. The population size of predators is limited by the number of prey available to eat. In turn, the number of prey is limited by the predation.
10Open: Emigration & Immigration Can Occur Types of PopulationsOpen: Emigration & Immigration Can OccurExamples?Closed: No Emigration& ImmigrationExamples?
11Before Quiz:Complete Scantron info; subject = PopulationsDuring Quiz:Test dividers up until everyone is doneMay use reindeer (2.2), yeast (2.1), and vocab sheetDon’t write on quizAfter Quiz:Turn in quizzes IN ORDER up front (1’s go on top)Turn in 2.2 & 2.1Leave dividers upProductive time: work on unit 2 vocab sheetNO ELECTRONICS!
12Unit 2 VocabularyRate (of growth)- how fast a population increases or decreases in size during a given time period; expressed as a percentage
13Unit 2 VocabularyRate (of growth)- how fast a population increases or decreases in size during a given time period; expressed as a percentage10. Human population growth- how our population size is increasing rapidly
14Unit 2 VocabularyFood calorie (kilocalorie)- a measure of the energy stored in food; actually 1000 calories in terms of chemistry
15Unit 2 VocabularyMalnourished- affected by improper nutrition; missing key nutrients, variety in dietUndernourished- having insufficient food
16Unit 2 VocabularyPyramid of numbers- shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem31. Pyramid of mass (pyramid of biomass)- shows the relative amount of matter contained within each trophic level
17Unit 2 Vocabulary32. Pyramid of energy- shows the relative amount of energy contained within each trophic level33. 10% rule- only 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to another; the rest is lost, especially as heat
18Unit 2 VocabularyPrimary productivity- a measure of the synthesis of compounds like sugar; usually happens through photosynthesisGross primary productivity- how much chemical energy producers create in a given amount of time
19Unit 2 VocabularyPrimary productivity- a measure of the synthesis of compounds like sugar; usually happens through photosynthesisGross primary productivity- how much chemical energy producers create in a given amount of timeNet primary productivity- how much chemical energy producers create after subtracting what chemical energy the producers use themselves