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Consultative Workshop on Desalination and Renewable Energy Bridging the Water Demand Gap: Desalination Dr. Fulya Verdier, Dr. Rudolf Baten Fichtner GmbH.

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Presentation on theme: "Consultative Workshop on Desalination and Renewable Energy Bridging the Water Demand Gap: Desalination Dr. Fulya Verdier, Dr. Rudolf Baten Fichtner GmbH."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consultative Workshop on Desalination and Renewable Energy Bridging the Water Demand Gap: Desalination Dr. Fulya Verdier, Dr. Rudolf Baten Fichtner GmbH & Co.KG Muscat, Oman February P07/FICHT v1

2 Mena Water Outlook, Part II Study objectives Identification of water gap Potential of solar powered desalination to bridge the gap Study approach Key criteria for technology selection Basic features of selected desalination technologies Definition of typical plants Current water situation in the countries of the MENA region Expected water gap in until 2050 Costs of desalinated water Potential of CSP to supply the required energy (separate presentation) Energy needs for desalination in the MENA region by country Focus on renewable energy sources - more specifically on CSP Implementation scenario Definition of typical plants Potential of CSP to supply the required energy Cost estimates P07/FICHT v1

3 Desalination & CSP P07/FICHT v1 Main drivers for new desalination projects Extent of water gap Financial strength of country (e.g. % of GDP spent for desalination) Experience with existing desalination facilities Attractiveness to investors (political stability) Development aid Main drivers for new CSP projects Peaking energy prices and undesired dependency on fossil fuel Limited availability of fossil fuel sources Reduction of carbon footprint Attractiveness to investors (political stability) Government incentives and regulations

4 Desalination & CSP P07/FICHT v1 Key considerations for desalination plants MED, MSF and SWRO desalination technologies are well-proven Significant improvements achieved (i.e. energy efficiency) Capital and energy intensive Footprint of secondary importance Key considerations CSP plants CSP still in development status, including storage capacities Operational constraints due to limited solar radiation, back-up required Capital and energy intensive Footprint significant Is CSP the bottleneck?

5 Desalination & CSP P07/FICHT v1 Design constraints for desalination plants Desalination plants are best operated at base load mode Design constraints for CSP plants Variable steam supply from CSP depending on solar irradiance (day/night) Fossil-fired back-up power plant Expensive heat storage Maximum live steam temperature is 370°C (compared to °C) Relative large footprint, especially for higher Solar Multiple (SM) Plants Largest CSP capacity to date ~ 100 MWe

6 MED: Working principle of an MED unit P07/FICHT v1

7 MED: Process flow diagram of a 14 effect MED unit P07/FICHT v1

8 MED: Key design considerations (I) Capacity Unit production capacity (current maxium: 38,000 m³/d) Number of duty / standby units Energy demand Electrical energy demand (1.5 to 2.5 kWh/m³) Heat demand (order of magnitude: 70 kWh/m³) Steam demand calls for cogeneration of water and power Temperature profile Temperature of heating steam (upper process temperature) Seawater temperature (lower process temperature) Number of effects (performance ratio) P07/FICHT v1

9 MED: Key design considerations (II) Durability Plant availability and service time Material selection (e.g. Titanium tubes in top rows and alu brass tubes in below rows) Operational features Robust in regard to seawater salinity and bio-fouling potential High distillate quality Supplier market Major MED Suppliers: SIDEM (Veolia); others are following P07/FICHT v1

10 MED: One of 12 Fujairah F2 IWPP 38,640 m³/d MED Units P07/FICHT v1

11 SWRO: Working principle of a spiral wound module P07/FICHT v1 Source: Dr.ir. S.G.J. Heijman, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, !4e616e6f66696c f6e20616e f736d6f pdf, accessed on Feed at high pressure (100%) Permeate at low pressure ( 40%) Concentrate at high pressure ( 60%)

12 SWRO: RO section of the Singapore 136,000 m³/d Plant P07/FICHT v1

13 SWRO: Key design considerations (I) Operational features Large membrane area and narrow flow cross section cause susceptibility to bio-fouling Pre-treatment process to be adopted to the seawater conditions Seawater salinity and temperature affect the power demand No perfect salt rejection – usually a second pass required Energy Electrical energy demand (order of magnitude: 4 kWh/m³) Absence of heat demand allows for stand alone configuration Method of energy recovery (Pelton turbine, turbocharger or isobaric system) P07/FICHT v1

14 SWRO: Key design considerations (II) Capacity and plant design Plant capacity (current maximum: 500,000 m³/d) Modularity allows a high number of process configurations (e.g. train or centre design) Durability Plant availability and service time Material selection (e.g. super duplex for high pressure section) Supplier market Major Suppliers: Befesa, Cobra/Tedagua, Degremont (Suez), GE, Hyflux, IDE, OTV (Veolia) P07/FICHT v1

15 SWRO: Flow diagram of a typical SWRO process P07/FICHT v1 Source: Victorian Desalination Project

16 SWRO: Artists view of the Hamma (Algeria) 200,000 m³/d plant P07/FICHT v1 Source: IDA Yearbook

17 Desalination Market P07/FICHT v1 Cumulative capacity put online in and outside the GCC countries

18 Desalination Market P07/FICHT v1 Online Desalination Capacity sorted by technology and daily capacity

19 Desalination Market Forecast Contracted Capacity by Technology ( ) P07/FICHT v1

20 Desalination Market P07/FICHT v1 Additional Desalination Capacity ( ), 12 MENA countries in TOP 20 !

21 Study Approach 21 DATA Water Demand & Availability Installed Capacities Power Water Potential CSP Desalination TYPICAL PLANTS => Number & Location in MENA Region 6543P07/FICHT v1 Solar & Land Assessment Desalination & CSP Potential Assessment TECHNOLOGY DesalinationCSP +

22 22 Desalinated Water-Share in MENA Source: FAO: Aquastat Water scarcity 1000 m³/cap/yr Water Resources and Water Withdrawals ( ) 6543P07/FICHT v1

23 Technology Screening P07/FICHT v1

24 Plant Configurations Dual-purpose plant (MED-CSP) located at coast with seawater cooling Stand-alone plant with RO located at coast and CSP located in inland with air cooling 24 Source: DLR, P07/FICHT v1

25 Key Study Features P07/FICHT v1 Mediterranean Gulf Red Sea Increasing seawater TDS & temp. Seawater Quality 3 macro-regions Product Water Quality TDS < 200 mg/l Potable Industrial Irrigation MED SWRO MEDIUM 100,000 m³/d LARGE 200,000 m³/d Desalination Process MED / SWRO MEDIUM 100,000 m³/d SMALL 20,000 m³/d

26 MED Typical Plant Design P07/FICHT v1 Plain MED Plant Basic Design Plant design parametersDimensionData Net output capacitym 3 /d100,000 Average annual availability%94 Number of unitsNo.3 Unit capacity netm 3 /d33,333 Recovery % 18 Performance Ratiokg/2326 kJ11.7 (1) Effects / unitNo.14 Seawater design temperature°C28 Steam conditions Steam pressurebar0.35 Steam temperature°C~ 73 (1) Considering potential future developments

27 P07/FICHT v1 MED Plant Capacity [m³/d] Electrical Energy Demand [kWh/m³] Electrical Equivalent for Heat Demand [kWh/m³ distillate] 100, (1) [ ] (2) (1) Including seawater pumping, evaporation, post-treatment without potable water pumping (2) Based on seawater at 28°C and final condensation at 38°C MED Plant Capacity [m³/d] Area Requirement [ha] 100, Energy requirement Area requirement MED Typical Plant Requirements

28 MED Typical Plants P07/FICHT v1 Source: SIDEM Fujairah F2 MED SWRO Hybrid Plant, UAE 464,600 m³/d

29 SWRO Typical Plant Design P07/FICHT v1 SWRO Plant Basic Design Net output capacitym³/d100,000 Average annual availability%94 Number of passesNo.2 Second pass capacity controlTypeSplit partial configuration in 1 st pass Energy recovery systemTypeIsobaric (Pressure Exchanger) 1 st pass RO2 nd pass RO Recovery%4090 Type of membranesType SW standard membrane R = 98% BW high boron rejection, caustic soda dosing Average membrane fluxl/m 2,h Average annual membrane replacement rate % / y1512

30 P07/FICHT v1 selected seawater design parameters Pre-treatment Specific Energy Consumption 1 [kWh/m³] Mediterranean Sea & Atlantic TDS 39,000 mg/l & °C FF13.5 MF / UF4.0 Beach wells / sand filters 3.8 – 3.9 Red Sea & Indian TDS 43,000 mg/l & °C FF1 3.7 – 3.8 Beach wells / sand filters 4.2 Arabian TDS 46,000 mg/l & °C DAF + FF24.2 – 4.3 Beach wells / sand filters 4.3 SWRO Typical Plant: Energy Requirement

31 SWRO Design: Area Requirement P07/FICHT v1 SWRO Plant Capacity [m³/d] Pre-treatment Area Requirement 1) [ha] 200,000 FF110 MF / UF9 DAF + FF ,000 FF16 MF / UF5 DAF + FF27 20,000 Beach wells / sand filters 1 1) FF1 including open gravity filters

32 Evaluation Cases 4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions: MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling SWRO at cost, CSP inland with solar only operation and air cooling P07/FICHT v1

33 CAPEX & OPEX 33 Key Cost Data - Typical Plants 6543P07/FICHT v1

34 CAPEX & OPEX P07/FICHT v1 Arabian Gulf DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Mediterranean DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Cost Distribution – MED Typical Plant

35 CAPEX & OPEX P07/FICHT v1 Arabian Gulf DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Mediterranean DNI 2400 kWh/m²/yr Fuel NG Cost Distribution – SWRO Typical Plant

36 Evaluation Cases 4 evaluation cases are conducted in all macro-regions: MED-CSP at coast with seawater cooling SWRO and CSP at coast with seawater cooling SWRO at coast and CSP inland with air cooling SWRO at cost, CSP inland with solar only operation and air cooling For the electricity generation by CSP plant DNI classes: 2000 / 2400 / 2800 kWh/m²/y Fossil fuel options: Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) / Natural Gas (NG) Electricity mix for solar only option P07/FICHT v1

37 P07/FICHT v1 Mediterranean Red Sea Gulf Levelized Water Costs by MED

38 38 Source: NETL 6543P07/FICHT v1 Red Sea Mediterranean Gulf Levelized Water Costs by SWRO

39 Bridging the Water Gap in MENA P07/FICHT v1 Water supply (MCM/y) based on within the average climate change scenario for MENA

40 Bridging the Water Gap in MENA P07/FICHT v1 Excerpt: OMAN Water Production in MCM/y Efficiency Gains Unsustainable Extractions CSP Desalination Conventional Desalination Wastewater Reuse Surface Water Extractions Groundwater Extractions Total Demand BaU No of Desalination Plants* installed *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d

41 Bridging the Water Gap in MENA P07/FICHT v1 Excerpt: SAUDI ARABIA Water Production in MCM/y Efficiency Gains Unsustainable Extractions CSP Desalination Conventional Desalination Wastewater Reuse Surface Water Extractions Groundwater Extractions Total Demand BaU No of Desalination Plants* installed *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d

42 Bridging the Water Gap in MENA P07/FICHT v1 Excerpt: LIBYA Water Production in MCM/y Efficiency Gains Unsustainable Extractions CSP Desalination Conventional Desalination Wastewater Reuse Surface Water Extractions Groundwater Extractions Total Demand BaU No of Desalination Plants* installed *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d

43 Bridging the Water Gap in MENA P07/FICHT v1 Excerpt: MOROCCO Water Production in MCM/y Efficiency Gains Unsustainable Extractions CSP Desalination Conventional Desalination Wastewater Reuse Surface Water Extractions Groundwater Extractions Total Demand BaU No of Desalination Plants* installed *Reference desalination plant capacity: 100,000 m³/d

44 Conclusions P07/FICHT v1 Desalination has the potential to close the water gap (basically) Limitations may arise from environmental and financial aspects In most evaluation cases, SWRO appears more favorable, however certain circumstances may call for MED Energy is the major cost item for desalinated water Future developments of electricity cost will highly influence water production costs


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