Presentation on theme: "The effects of acute/ Short term exercise on the respiratory system"— Presentation transcript:
1 The effects of acute/ Short term exercise on the respiratory system Respiratory response: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume.
2 Short Term - The mechanics of breathing When we start to exercise, such as during a warm up the mechanics of breathing alter considerablyThis can help to explain how we breathe in faster and deeper during exercise, and therefore help you to answer part of the first two questions.This increases the amount of air that reaches the alveoli in the lungs.
3 Mechanics of breathing - Inspiration During exercise,More muscles are involvedThe sternocleidomasoid, sclanes and pectoralis major are now involved as well as the diaphragm and external intercostal musclesThis means that the sternum lifts further and faster than it does at restMuscles work harderThe external intercostals and diaphragm in particular flattens with more force
4 Mechanics of breathing - Expiration During exerciseBecomes an active processInternal intercostal muscles now contractThey pull the rib cage downMore muscles are involvedRectus abdominus/obliques now contract as wellThe diaphragm pushes up harder into the thoracic cage.
5 Changes to lung volumeGive an example based on a football player that is working at maximum intensityEg. He has just sprinted flat out to get on to a through ball.What changes would you expect to see in the different lung volumes from rest to this maximal exertion.There is an example on the next slide that will help you with this, and allow you to illustrate your answer
6 Respiratory volumes Tidal Volume The volume of air inspired or expired per breath (Approx 500ml at rest)Inspiratory Reserve VolumeThe amount of space that is available to draw in more airEg; Breathe in normally, then breathe in more. This extra capacity is your IRVExpiratory Reserve VolumeThe amount of space that is available to breathe out, once you have exhaled normallyEg: Breathe out normally, then force out more air. This is your ERV.
7 Respiratory volumes Residual Volume Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity Take in as much breath as possibleThis is your total lung capacityERV+IRV+TV+RV (Approx 6000ml)Residual VolumeBreathe out as much as possibleThere is always some air left in your lungsThis is your RV (Approx 1200ml)Vital CapacityBreathe in as much as you can, and then force as much air out of your lungs as possible.This is your IRV+ERV+TV, and is your Vital Capacity
8 Lung volumes example Lung Volume Resting Volume Change due to exercise Tidal Volume (X)500ml per breathIncreases up to 4 timesFrequency12-15Increases up to 60Minute Ventilation (VE)6l/minUp to 175l/min in large aerobically trained athletesInspiratory reserve Volume3000mlDecreasesExpiratory reserve Volume1200mlVital Capacity4700mlSlight decreaseResidual VolumeTotal Lung capacity5900ml
9 Short term effects – why does our rate of breathing get faster and deeper Breathing is controlled by the Respiratory control centreLocated in the medulla oblongataSplit into inspiratory and expiratory centresControls the respiratory muscles that initiate breathingThey are under involuntary neural controlWe don’t normally consciously control our breathing rate
10 During exercise Chemeroceptors located in the veins A number of things stimulate the Respiratory Control Centre to work harderWhen our muscles use Oxygen, we produce Carbon Dioxide.Chemeroceptors located in the veinssend information to the RCCDetect the increased content of Carbon Dioxide in the blood and the decrease in OxygenThis stimulates the RCC to increase the rate and depth of breathing.
11 Long term effects – Vital Capacity Maximum amount of air that you can produce after you breathe out as hard as you canAfter 6 weeks of training, your respiratory muscles will become stronger.This means that you will be able to use your external intercostal muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscles to breathe in deeperAnd your internal intercostal muscles, abdominals and obliques to push more air out of the bodyThis will result in an increase in vital capacity
13 Assessment Ideas… Leaflet Information Brochure Power Point Spider Diagrams for each system-Remember… If you are going for Merit: you only explain in further detail (using examples, sports and wider reading) the musculoskeletal, CV and Respiratory systems.
14 Some added help, questions for you to answer in your work… What are the acute effects of exercise on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems- What causes these responses? What happens during steady state and maximal exercise- What are the acute effects of exercise on the skeletal and muscular systems- What are the acute effects of exercise on the energy systems- What causes these responses, how do the energy systems work together, What happens during exercise of different intensities and maximal exercise.