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Exploring Wind Energy. What Makes Wind Global Wind Patterns.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Wind Energy. What Makes Wind Global Wind Patterns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Wind Energy

2 What Makes Wind

3 Global Wind Patterns

4 5000 BC Sailboats used on the Nile indicate the power of wind AD First windmills developed in Persia 1300 AD First horizontal- axis windmills in Europe 1850s Daniel Halladay and John Burnham build Halladay Windmill; start US Wind Engine Company Late 1880s Thomas O. Perry conducted 5,000 wind experiments; starts Aermotor Co mpany 1888 Charles F. Brush used windmill to generate electricity in Cleveland, OH Early 1900s Windmills in CA pumped saltwater to evaporate ponds 1941 In VT, Grandpas Knob turbine supplies power to town during WWII 1979 First wind turbine rated over 1 MW began operating 1985 CA wind capacity exceeded 1,000 MW 1993 US WindPower developed first commercial variable-speed wind turbine 2004 Electricity from wind generation costs 3 to 4.5 cents per kWh 2011 Wind power provided over 12% of renewable energy used in US History of Wind Energy

5 Why Wind Energy? o Clean, zero emissions - NO x, SO 2, CO, CO 2 - Air quality, water quality - Climate change o Reduce fossil fuel dependence - Energy independence - Domestic energynational security o Renewable - No fuel-price volatility

6 Renewable Electric Capacity Worldwide US DOE, EERE 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book The NEED Project 2014

7 US Electricity Generation from Renewables

8 Top Installed Wind Power Capacity THE TOP TWENTY-FIVE STATES for Installed Wind Capacity, in MW as of December 31, Texas12,21214 Pennsylvania1,340 2 Iowa5,54915 Michigan988 3 California5,13716 Idaho973 4 Oregon3,15317 South Dakota Oklahoma3,13418 New Mexico Minnesota2,98619 Wisconsin649 7 Washington2,80820 Montana Kansas2,71221 West Virginia583 9 Colorado2,30122Missouri North Dakota1,67923 Nebraska New York1,63824 Maine Indiana1,54325 Utah Wyoming1,410 National Renewable Energy Laboratory The NEED Project 2014

9 Annual Installed U.S. Wind Power Capacity AWEA U.S. Wind Industry Annual Market Report Year Ending 2011

10 Installed Wind Capacities Total: 2,500 MW 2011 Total: 46,919 MW

11 Top Twenty States for Wind Energy Potential Potential Installed Capacity (MW) 1. Texas 1,901, Kansas952, Montana944, Nebraska917, South Dakota882, North Dakota770, Iowa570, Wyoming552, Oklahoma516, Alaska494, New Mexico492, Minnesota489, Colorado387, Missouri274, Illinois249, Indiana148, Wisconsin103, Michigan59, Ohio54, California34,110 Potential Installed Capacity (MW)

12 U.S. Wind Resource Map

13 Transmission Challenges

14 China Leads the World in Wind Capacity Total Installed MW

15 Why Such Growth? …costs are low! Increased Turbine Size R&D Advances Manufacturing Improvements cents/kWh cents/kWh cents/kWh 2011 Less than 5 cents/kWh

16 Modern Wind Turbines Turbines can be categorized into two classes based on the orientation of the rotor. The NEED Project 2014

17 Vertical-Axis Turbines Advantages o Omni-directional - accepts wind from any direction o Components can be mounted at ground level - ease of service - lighter weight towers o Can theoretically use less materials to capture the same amount of wind Disadvantages o Rotors generally near ground where wind is poorer o Centrifugal force stresses blades o Poor self-starting capabilities o Requires support at top of turbine rotor o Requires entire rotor to be removed to replace bearings o Overall poor performance and reliability

18 Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Small (<10 kW ) o Homes o Farms o Remote Applications (e.g., water pumping, Telecom sites, ice making) Large (250 kW-2+ MW) o Central Station Wind Farms o Distributed Power o Schools Intermediate( kW) o Village Power o Hybrid Systems o Distributed Power

19 Large Wind Turbines Common Utility-Scale Turbines o 328 base to blade o Each blade is 112 o 200 tons total o Foundation 20 deep o Rated at megawatts o Supply about 500 homes

20 Wind Turbine Components

21 How a Wind Turbine Operates The NEED Project 2014

22 Installation of Wind Turbines The NEED Project 2014

23 Wind Turbine Perspective Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections Workers Blade 112 long The NEED Project 2014

24 Wind Farms

25 Offshore Wind Farms

26 Residential Wind Systems and Net Metering

27 Potential Impacts and Issues Property Values Noise Visual Impact Land Use Wildlife Impact Properly siting a wind turbine can mitigate many of these issues.

28 Impacts of Wind Power: Noise The NEED Project 2014

29 Wildlife Impacts

30 Future of Wind Power AWEA 4 th Quarter 2011 Market Report

31 For More Information The NEED Project Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy The NEED Project 2014

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