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A Human Rights-Based Approach to Country Analysis: 3 Steps Session 5.

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Presentation on theme: "A Human Rights-Based Approach to Country Analysis: 3 Steps Session 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Human Rights-Based Approach to Country Analysis: 3 Steps Session 5

2 Session objectives Understand the value added of a HRBA in country analysis and UN programming Apply the HRBA to the analysis of real country development challenges in three basic steps: causal, role and capacity gap analysis

3 Road Map - Preparation process of the UNDAF Country Analysis - Review existing analysis (assessment) - UNCT supported analysis - Identify UNCT comparative advantages Strategic Planning - Strategic priorities for UNDAF/ UNDAF Action Plan Programme Planning & Implementation (Agency or Multi-Agency Joint Programmes) Monitoring & Evaluation HRBA in UN Programming - Linking rights to development challenges - Patterns of discrim., inequality, and exclusion - Capacity gaps of RHs and DBs Empowered rights-holders and accountable duty- bearers contribute to the realization of human rights Strengthened capacities of rights-holders and duty- bearers Mechanisms for participation or RHs and DBs in programe monitoring and evaluation - Positioning human rights issues - Inclusion of stakeholders Human rights principles and standards

4 Options for country analysis Whatever the option is: HRBA, as the other programming principles, provides criteria to ensure a high quality analysis; A strong country analysis is more likely to lead to a strong UNDAF and ultimately strong agency programming. (UNDG) 1.Participation in government-led analytical work 2.Complementary analysis 3.CCA Country analysis

5 Programming without a CCA: Early Country Experiences (Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zambia) Examples Tanzanias Review of Country Analytical Work and Gaps Analysis In order to ensure system-wide ownership of the national development plan, the MKUKUTA, the UNCT Tanzania opted for a hybrid strategy combining a review of existing national, sector and thematic studies underpinning MKUKUTA and conducting a complementary gaps analysis of the national framework of results before moving to the UNDAF process. The UNCT formed seven working groups led by heads of UN agencies. The TORs of these working groups included: 1) Review of key studies and reports 2) Preparation of problem trees 3) Root cause analysis of selected development challenges 4) Conducting a gap analysis The gaps identified during this process will inform the UNDAF formulation and will be integrated into the UNDAF as areas for analytical work and advocacy with a view to influencing the policy framework and priorities of MKUKUTA. While more compact than the preparation of a CCA, this process still allowed the UNCT to form a common assessment of development challenges and priority intervention areas for analysis, advocacy and policy dialogue.

6 Country Analysis GATHERING INFORMATION About development problems from existing sources, esp. national treaty reports and observations and recommendations from treaty bodies ANALYSIS Of root causes & their linkages ASSESSMENT Shortlist major development problems for deeper analysis

7 1. CAUSAL ANALYSIS Getting to root causes Legal, Institutional, and policy frameworks 2. ROLE/PATTERN ANALYSIS 3. CAPACITY GAP ANALYSIS Detailed Steps

8 Analysis in 3 steps 1. WHY? Causal analysis Which rights are implicated that explain why there is a problem? 2. WHO? Who are the duty-bearers? Role-pattern analysis Who are the rights-holders? Who has to do something about it? 3. WHAT? What capacity gaps are preventing Capacity gaps analysis duty bearers from fulfilling their duties? and What capacity gaps are preventing rights-holders from claiming their rights? What do they need to take action?

9 Gender Mainstreaming and HRBA The human rights of women are an integral part of HRBA Non-discrimination is both a principle and a provision of the core international treaties, including CEDAW which is devoted exclusively to eliminating sex discrimination as a means to achieving gender equality. Development of benchmarks by data disaggregated by sex – and other (i.e. age, location, ethnicity and disability) and of indicators for measuring progress in the achievement of gender equality. It is common to find various forms of discrimination intersecting with gender and where they do there is need for sharper focus and targeting.

10 Analysis – in three steps Causality Analysis 1 Role Analysis 2 Capacity Gap Analysis 3 Why? Which rights are at stake? Who has to do something about it? What do they need to take action? Assessment Who has been left behind?

11 HRBA to Information Gathering What information: Civil, cultural, economic, political and social context Disaggregated according to normative grounds of non-discrimination, e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, rural and urban, etc. Sources of information: Rely on national information, assessments and analyses Variety of sources including information from International, regional and national human rights mechanisms Information and analysis process: Participatory, inclusive, accountable and sensitive to cultures What information: Civil, cultural, economic, political and social context Disaggregated according to normative grounds of non-discrimination, e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, rural and urban, etc. Sources of information: Rely on national information, assessments and analyses Variety of sources including information from International, regional and national human rights mechanisms Information and analysis process: Participatory, inclusive, accountable and sensitive to cultures

12 Purpose of the Assessment: Identify the main development challenges What is happening? To whom? Where? e.g. High incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity amongst rural indigenous girls from the southern districts Purpose of the Assessment: Identify the main development challenges What is happening? To whom? Where? e.g. High incidence of maternal mortality and morbidity amongst rural indigenous girls from the southern districts HRBA to the Assessment A rights-based development challenge should be people focused. In other words: Who is left behind? A rights-based development challenge should be people focused. In other words: Who is left behind?

13 What is it? The essential first step for HRBA and RBM A technique for identifying causes of a problem which can then be used to formulate appropriate responses We can map the problem and its causes in the form of a problem tree Step 1: Causality Analysis

14 Why a causal analysis? If a problem is caused byconditionsthree

15 Why a causal analysis? If a problem is caused byconditionsthree All three conditions shouldbeaddressed

16 CAUSALITY ANALYSIS Manifestation Immediate Causes Underlying causes Root Causes Causes of a Problem

17 Development problem Root causes Society, patterns of discrimination, exclusion and powerlessness Underlying causes Services, Access, Policies, Practices Immediate causes Status Causal analysis: why?

18 Problem Tree High incidence of maternal mortality among rural women from southern districts Early pregnancies Inadequate obstetric care services at the community level Contraceptive methods seen as promoting Women infidelity Little awareness of sexual and reproductive rights Insufficient public service accountability and private sector regulation Gender discrimination Poor planning and implementation capacity and little priority to maternal health In the national budget Root causes Root causes Underlying causes Underlying causes Immediate causes Immediate causes Manifestations Lack of sensibility and a civil service culture

19 Immediate Causes Underlying Causes Root Causes Problem 1: HIV/AIDSProblem 2: Girls Education Core Problem Area Gender Discrimination

20 Using the information from the case study… Formulate the problem in terms of what is happening, to whom and where – write it on a card Discuss and identify the immediate, underlying and root causes Build a problem tree Use the problem tree to identify the rights standards and principles that are not being fulfilled Group Work: Causality analysis/problem tree

21 Analysis in 3 steps 1. WHY? Causal analysis Which rights are implicated that explain why there is a problem? 2. WHO? Who are the duty-bearers? Role-pattern analysis Who are the rights-holders? Who has to do something about it? 3. WHAT? What capacity gaps are preventing Capacity gaps analysis duty bearers from fulfilling their duties? and What capacity gaps are preventing rights-holders from claiming their rights? What do they need to take action?

22 HRBA to Analysis in three steps Causality Analysis 1 Role Analysis 2 Capacity Gap Analysis 3 Why? Which rights are at stake? Who has to do something about it? What do they need to take action? Assessment Who is left behind?

23 Rights holders Who are they? What are their claims? Duty bearers Who are they? What are their duties? Rights holders Who are they? What are their claims? Duty bearers Who are they? What are their duties? Step 2: Role Analysis Check what the human right standards say about their claims and duties Check also what role is expected from rights-holders & duty bearers in national laws, procedures and policies

24 Duty-bearers Respect Protect Fulfill Prevent others from interfering with the enjoyment of rights Refrain from interfering with the enjoyment of rights Adopt appropriate measures towards full realization of rights Human rights obligations Right to water Do not disconnect supply without due process Pro-poor price regulation when supply is privatized Ensure, over time, everyone is connected

25 Example: Right to Education Rights Holder: Children with disabilities Claim: ensure access to quality primary and secondary education without discrimination Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (1): School Administration Obligations: improve physical accessibility to classroom and toilets, ensure teachers attendance Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (2): Provincial Direction of Education OBs.: carry out regular inspections in public and private schools and address individual complaints Capacity gaps: Duty Bearer (3): Ministry of Education OBs.: promote inclusive education policies, train teachers, adapt textbooks Capacity gaps:

26 1. From your causal analysis, select one of the causes in which you want to focus on and highlight why you chose it 2. Identify a main right-holder and a critical claim 3. Identify the max. 3 duty-bearers who should do something about that claim and their most critical obligations Group Work: Role Analysis

27 Example: Right to Education Rights Holder: Claim: Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (1): Obligations: Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (2): OBs.: Capacity gaps: Duty Bearer (3): OBs.: Capacity gaps:

28 Analysis in 3 steps 1. WHY? Causal analysis Which rights are implicated that explain why there is a problem? 2. WHO? Who are the duty-bearers? Role-pattern analysis Who are the rights-holders? Who has to do something about it? 3. WHAT? What capacity gaps are preventing Capacity gaps analysis duty bearers from fulfilling their duties? and What capacity gaps are preventing rights-holders from claiming their rights? What do they need to take action?

29 HRBA to analysis in three steps Causality analysis 1 Role analysis 2 Capacity gap analysis 3 Why? Which rights are at stake? Who has to do something about it? What do they need to take action? Assessment Who is left behind?

30 Duty Bearers capacity elements: Can? - Knowledge -Resources (human, technical and financial) -Organizational abilities Want? -Responsibility/motivation /leadership Should? - Authority Rights-holders capacity elements: Can? - Knowledge - resources - individual abilities Want? - Security - motivation Enabling environment - right to participate - Information - freedom of association and expression Step 3: Capacity Gap Analysis

31 Based on the role analysis 1.Go back to the right-holders claim and select the 2 to 3 most critical corresponding duty-bearers obligations 2.For each RH and DB, identify their key capacity gaps The things that prevent duty bearers from performing their roles and rights-holders from claiming their rights 3. List the key capacity gaps identified Group Work: Capacity Gap Analysis

32 Example: Right to Education Rights Holder: Claim: Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (1): Obligations: Capacity gaps: Duty-bearer (2): OBs.: Capacity gaps: Duty Bearer (3): OBs.: Capacity gaps:

33 Gallery Your opportunity to visit other groups and give feedback Organise your 3 steps on the wall Choose one person to stay with your analysis to answer questions – Causality Analysis: Is there a logical flow in the causality analysis and clarity of problems, particularly at lower level of framework? – Role Analysis: Are the claims and obligations intuitive and presented in plain language – when you read an obligation can you imagine a corresponding action? – Capacity Gaps: Is there sufficient attention to capacity gaps that address the lower levels of the framework – related to critical gaps in legal, institutional and policy and budgetary frameworks? – Gender Dimension: How well does the analysis reflect the different ways that women and men experience the development challenge? Will the capacities address the root causes of gender inequality? !! Remember to leave comments on post-it notes

34 What next? Linking HRBA with RBM

35 HRBA and RBM are mutually reinforcing RBM: is a content unspecific programming approach to manage positive change Analyses development problems in order to formulate SMART results. Helps apply HRBA in programming HRBA: is a normative approach based on human rights standards and principles Analyses development problems by aligning them with human rights issues in order to formulate relevant results provides normative content to RBM


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