# Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann Measure of capacity of the runway Based on the following assumptions: Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures.

## Presentation on theme: "Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann Measure of capacity of the runway Based on the following assumptions: Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures."— Presentation transcript:

Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann

Measure of capacity of the runway Based on the following assumptions: Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures Air Traffic Control rule – no simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO) Air Traffic Control rule – safe Wake Vortex Separation Distances between two flights Static fleet mix Approach procedure does not change

Five considerations: 1. ATC Safety Rule: no Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO) 2. ATC Safety Rule: Maintain Wake Vortex Separation Distance between lead and follow aircraft 3. ATC Controller/Pilot Separation Control Accuracy: ATC/Pilots insert a buffer distance to avoid violating separation rules 4. Fleet Mix: determines the type of aircraft in the lead- follow pairs. The type of aircraft determines the separation distance used. Small aircraft following large aircraft require longer distances than large aircraft following large aircraft. 5. Final Approach Path Distance: the length of time lead- follow aircraft fly the approach in pairs and separation

Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO): MCT = 3600 seconds/ROT Wake Vortex Separation Distance Determined by separation distance Wake vortices generated off wing-tips of aircraft Strength of the vortex is governed by the weight, speed, and shape of the wing of the generating aircraft

MCT = 3600 / (s/v) where t = s/v t = inter-arrival time s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold v = groundspeed of aircraft Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds MCT = 36000 / 96 = 37.5 flights/hour

Separation distance is determined through coordination of ATC and pilot Separation Buffer: MCT = 3600 / ((s/v)+b) t = inter-arrival time s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold v = groundspeed of aircraft b = buffer Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds MCT = 36000 / (96 + 10)= 34 flights/hour

MCT = Min(MCT SRO, MCT WVSD, MCT WVSDB ) SRO = Single Runway Occupancy WVSD = Wake Vortex Separation Distance WVSDB = Wake Vortex Separation Distance and Buffer (ATC/Controller Buffer) Simplified to: MCT = Min(MCT SRO, MCT WVSDB )

MTC = Min ( MTC SRO, MTC WVSDB ) Fleet MixProbability of Type of Aircraft H.3 L.2 M.25 S

1. Runway Occupancy Time (ROT) 2. Probability of lead-follow

E[ROT] = Σ i (p i * ROT i ) E[ROT] = (.3*80) + (.2*65) + (.25*50) + (.25* 45) = 60.75

MTC SRO = 3600/ E[ROT] MTC SRO = 3600/60.75 = 59.26

1. The separation distance between the lead and the follow (sij) 2. The groundspeed of the aircraft (vj) 3. The probability of a lead-follow pair (pij)

Inter-arrival time (t ij ) Inter-arrvial time matrix T E[T ij ] = Σ i Σ j (p ij *( T ij ))

Tij = sij/vj for compression case Tij = ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi ) for separation case

Lead slower than Follow Compression distance- additional distance used by Follow as it catches up to Lead Compression Time = r/(Vj – Vi) Cases: H-H, H-L, H-M, H-S, L-L, L-M, L-S, M-M, M-S, S-S

Lead faster than Follow Separation Distance- additional distance at the runway threshold caused by Lead faster than Follow Separation Time= ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi ) Cases: S-M, S-L, SH, M-L, M-H, H-L.

MTC = 3600 seconds/E[t ij ] E[t ij ]= (.09*120)+(.06*188)+…+(.06*120) =141.9 MCT = 3600 seconds/141.9 = 25.368

MTC = 3600/E[tij] Where tij = Tij + b E[tij]= 146.9 seconds MTC= 3600/ 146.9 = 24.505 arrivals per hour

Recall MTC = Min ( MTC SRO, MTC WVSDB ) MTC = Min (59.26, 24.505) = 24.505 arrivals per hour

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