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Module 3: Drought Risk Management Framework

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1 Module 3: Drought Risk Management Framework
Jan Hassing UNEP-DHI CENTRE

2 Goal and objectives of the session
At the end of the session the participants will: Know the main elements required for a drought risk management framework Understand the roles of policy, governance, risk identification and early warning, awareness and knowledge management, preparedness and early warning in effective drought risk management Understand the importance of pro-active drought risk management

3 Drought Risk Management required – a wake up call

4 Presentation outline A few basic concepts
The UNISDR Drought Risk Management Framework – Unpacking the 5 principles Policy and governance Drought risk identification, risk monitoring and early warning Awareness and knowledge management Reducing underlying factors of drought risk Enhancing mitigation measures and preparedness

5 Root causes of droughts

6 Droughts and IWRM IWRM – Integrated Water Resources Management- during drought, whatever water is left has to be managed according to the IWRM principles – reallocation, reduction in allocations - The three pillars of IWRM: Enabling Environment, Institutional Roles and Mangement Instruments are valid as a structure

7 Why is drought so difficult to come to grips with
Slow on-set – no universal definition – when does it start – when does it finish – when to declare emergency (Elephant) Time scale – months – years Time lag of impacts Early warning – difficult to find descriptive indices Large areal coverage – many diverse ”downstream” impacts

8 Why is drought so difficult to come to grips with
No visibility (diffcult to raise public interest and empathy and thus funds) Droughts differs in characteristics between climate regimes Impacts are locally defined by unique economic, social and environmental characteristics, ”domino effects” In contrast to floods, drought is dealing with something, which is not there (intangible)

9 The UNISDR drought risk management framework
Why this framework? “because more pro-active actions are needed, not only reactions” “Prevention is better than cure” Based on Hyogo Framework for Action The UNISDR Drought Risk Management Framework Why this framework?

10 The 5 main elements of the UNISDR framework
Is UNISDR being implemented in your country? Do other frameworks exist? How do they differ? 1. Policy and governance   5. Strengthening preparedness 2. Drought risk identification, impact assessment, and early warning 4. Reducing underlying factors of drought risk The 5 DRMF elements and the associated guiding principles Outline 5 main elements of framework. Short discussion about other frameworks. 3. Drought awareness and knowledge management

11 Governance and policy – why is it important?
Policies and Governance Introduction Policies and governance for drought risk reduction Why are they important?

12 Policy and Governance – guidance to consider
Political commitment and alliances Vertical and horizontal levels: transboundary, national, RBO, local authority, community Mainstreaming Drought Risk Management in sustainable development Policy into practice requires decentralization and community participation in planning and implementation Capacity building and knowledge development (continuous – ”use it or loose it”) and at all levels

13 Governance Setting up a stakeholders coordination mechanism
? Civil society organisations The scientific community Local government Community organisations Private sector International bodies Setting up a stakeholders coordination mechanism National governments The media Regional institutions and organisations

14 Policy and Governance – guidance to consider
Preparedness plan for drought risk management incl. impacts Preparedness and mitigation preceeds emergency response (relief) Preparedness incl risk assessment and monitoring of progressing of drought Long term efforts / investments needed

15 Main components of a drought policy
6. Allow for modifications to be made in response to changing circumstances 4. Incorporate both short and long-term strategies 7. Develop cooperation and coordination in a spirit of partnership 3. Strengthen the capacities of government and communities at all scales 1. Provide for effective participation 2. Highlight the root causes of the issues related to drought at all scales 5. Link drought early warning with mitigation and response actions Sure glad the hole isn’t at our end. Components of a drought policy 8. Designate agencies and stakeholders responsible 9. Strengthen drought preparedness and management

16 Water conservation and rainwater harvesting as coping tools in drought risk management

17 Capacity is essential to reduce vulnerability
Drought risk identification, risk monitoring and early warning – guidance to consider Drought risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability (human, economic, environmental). Exposure is a function of intensity, area coverage, frequency Capacity is essential to reduce vulnerability Impact assessment, priorities, socio-economic considerations Monitoring and early warning can result in early adaptation (save water, fill reservoirs, dig wells, etc.) Climate change will affect drought risks

18 Awareness and knowledge management
“Knowledge is power” Drought awareness and knowledge management Guiding principles

19 Awareness, knowledge management and education – guidance to consider
Awareness on prevention and resilience can reduce risks (and give large savings, monetary and in human suffering) Awareness creation through dialogues, networks, stakeholder fora Public awareness programs with engagement of media (radio, TV, newspapers, posters, pamphlets etc) Education (school and adult) Training in combination with extension services

20 Awareness challenges And as a natural part of climate not simply as a rare and random event Drought must be recognized as a natural hazard, not just as a natural event To convince policy and other decision makers that investments in mitigation are more cost effective than post-impact assistance or relief programmes. To erase misunderstandings about drought and society’s capacity to mitigate its effects Challenges to developing a culture of drought prevention and resilience

21 Reducing underlying factors of drought risk – guidance to consider
Reduce vulnerability / increase resilience Effective natural resource management, social and economic development practices and land use Reflect factors that reduce vulnerability in poverty reduction strategies, development plans, sector plans and programmes and environmental and natural resources strategies A national platform for practitioners and institutions

22 Capacity building for drought risk management
Important questions: Whom (different groups need different levels of knowledge – from orientation training to high level technical training) What (depending on the function of the institution/group in the framework) Which toolbox should be available How to monitor capacity – enrollment, tests during training, understanding of implications, use of knowledge in organisation, change of procedures, making a difference on the ground

23 Reducing underlying factors of drought risk – guidance to consider
Areas of overlap and synergies between environmental programs and and drought risk reduction strategies (make joint assessments) Focus on vulnerable groups to reduce impact of droughts most efficiently Livelihood diversification Recovery planning Insurance mechanisms, microcredits & financing to accelerate drought recovery process

24 Enhancing mitigation measures and preparedness – guidance to consider
Authorities, individuals and communities ready to act and having knowledge, capacity and resources at hand Prevention, mitigation and preparedness is more rewarding than emergency relief Both top down and bottom up needed Local needs and indigneous knowledge (the thinking beeach tree)

25 When rains strike too late

26 Drought preparedness plan – 10 steps to achieve a policy
Appoint drought task force Define objectives of drought preparedness plan Seek stakeholder participation Inventorize resources anf groups at risk Prepare draft plan

27 Drought preparedness plan – 10 steps to achieve a policy
6. Fill scientific and institutional gaps Integrate science and policy (evidence based preparedness) Publicise plan and build awareness Education and training Evaluate and revise drought preparedness plan

28 Information management and exchange
How can information and knowledge be shared? Information management and exchange

29 Education and training
Photo top right: (UNISDR; 2011)

30 Monitoring of drought progression – monitoring of efficiency of mitigation measures
Tracking progress and establishing baseline: Monitoring and Evaluation To know where you are and whether you are progressing towards the place you want to get to

31 Indicators “Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted” Albert Einstein Indicators

32 Drought ????? – Thank you for your attention

33 In 4 groups discuss and note:
Exercise In 4 groups discuss and note: functions/actions/interventions needed in the 3 phases of preparedness, mitigation and emergency response in order to minimize drought impacts Design an institutional/stakeholder framework and allocate the stated functions in an appropriate manner to the best suited member

34 Example Institution Preparedness Mitigation Emergency Response
Ministry of XXX Drought resistent crops Etc….. RBO YYY Early Warning… Etc… Relief agency Provision of Food & shelter Etc….

35 Governance Setting up a stakeholders coordination mechanism


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