Presentation on theme: "Module 3: Drought Risk Management Framework Jan Hassing UNEP-DHI CENTRE."— Presentation transcript:
Module 3: Drought Risk Management Framework Jan Hassing UNEP-DHI CENTRE
2 Goal and objectives of the session At the end of the session the participants will: Know the main elements required for a drought risk management framework Understand the roles of policy, governance, risk identification and early warning, awareness and knowledge management, preparedness and early warning in effective drought risk management Understand the importance of pro-active drought risk management
3 Drought Risk Management required – a wake up call
4 Presentation outline A few basic concepts The UNISDR Drought Risk Management Framework – Unpacking the 5 principles Policy and governance Drought risk identification, risk monitoring and early warning Awareness and knowledge management Reducing underlying factors of drought risk Enhancing mitigation measures and preparedness
5 Root causes of droughts
6 Droughts and IWRM IWRM – Integrated Water Resources Management- during drought, whatever water is left has to be managed according to the IWRM principles – reallocation, reduction in allocations - The three pillars of IWRM: Enabling Environment, Institutional Roles and Mangement Instruments are valid as a structure
7 Why is drought so difficult to come to grips with Slow on-set – no universal definition – when does it start – when does it finish – when to declare emergency (Elephant) Time scale – months – years Time lag of impacts Early warning – difficult to find descriptive indices Large areal coverage – many diverse downstream impacts
8 Why is drought so difficult to come to grips with No visibility (diffcult to raise public interest and empathy and thus funds) Droughts differs in characteristics between climate regimes Impacts are locally defined by unique economic, social and environmental characteristics, domino effects In contrast to floods, drought is dealing with something, which is not there (intangible)
9 The UNISDR drought risk management framework Why this framework? because more pro-active actions are needed, not only reactions Prevention is better than cure Based on Hyogo Framework for Action
10 The 5 main elements of the UNISDR framework 1. Policy and governance 2. Drought risk identification, impact assessment, and early warning 3. Drought awareness and knowledge management 5. Strengthening preparedness 4. Reducing underlying factors of drought risk Is UNISDR being implemented in your country? Do other frameworks exist? How do they differ?
11 Governance and policy – why is it important?
12 Policy and Governance – guidance to consider Political commitment and alliances Vertical and horizontal levels: transboundary, national, RBO, local authority, community Mainstreaming Drought Risk Management in sustainable development Policy into practice requires decentralization and community participation in planning and implementation Capacity building and knowledge development (continuous – use it or loose it) and at all levels
13 Governance Setting up a stakeholders coordination mechanism National governments Community organisations The scientific community Local government Private sector The media International bodies Civil society organisations Regional institutions and organisations ?
14 Policy and Governance – guidance to consider Preparedness plan for drought risk management incl. impacts Preparedness and mitigation preceeds emergency response (relief) Preparedness incl risk assessment and monitoring of progressing of drought Long term efforts / investments needed
15 Main components of a drought policy 1. Provide for effective participation 2. Highlight the root causes of the issues related to drought at all scales 3. Strengthen the capacities of government and communities at all scales 4. Incorporate both short and long-term strategies 5. Link drought early warning with mitigation and response actions 7. Develop cooperation and coordination in a spirit of partnership 8. Designate agencies and stakeholders responsible 9. Strengthen drought preparedness and management 6. Allow for modifications to be made in response to changing circumstances Sure glad the hole isnt at our end.
16 Water conservation and rainwater harvesting as coping tools in drought risk management
17 Drought risk identification, risk monitoring and early warning – guidance to consider Drought risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability (human, economic, environmental). Exposure is a function of intensity, area coverage, frequency Capacity is essential to reduce vulnerability Impact assessment, priorities, socio- economic considerations Monitoring and early warning can result in early adaptation (save water, fill reservoirs, dig wells, etc.) Climate change will affect drought risks
18 Awareness and knowledge management Knowledge is power
19 Awareness, knowledge management and education – guidance to consider Awareness on prevention and resilience can reduce risks (and give large savings, monetary and in human suffering) Awareness creation through dialogues, networks, stakeholder fora Public awareness programs with engagement of media (radio, TV, newspapers, posters, pamphlets etc) Education (school and adult) Training in combination with extension services
20 Awareness challenges Drought must be recognized as a natural hazard, not just as a natural event And as a natural part of climate not simply as a rare and random event To erase misunderstandings about drought and societys capacity to mitigate its effects To convince policy and other decision makers that investments in mitigation are more cost effective than post- impact assistance or relief programmes.
21 Reducing underlying factors of drought risk – guidance to consider Reduce vulnerability / increase resilience Effective natural resource management, social and economic development practices and land use Reflect factors that reduce vulnerability in poverty reduction strategies, development plans, sector plans and programmes and environmental and natural resources strategies A national platform for practitioners and institutions
22 Capacity building for drought risk management Important questions: Whom (different groups need different levels of knowledge – from orientation training to high level technical training) What (depending on the function of the institution/group in the framework) Which toolbox should be available How to monitor capacity – enrollment, tests during training, understanding of implications, use of knowledge in organisation, change of procedures, making a difference on the ground
23 Reducing underlying factors of drought risk – guidance to consider Areas of overlap and synergies between environmental programs and and drought risk reduction strategies (make joint assessments) Focus on vulnerable groups to reduce impact of droughts most efficiently Livelihood diversification Recovery planning Insurance mechanisms, microcredits & financing to accelerate drought recovery process
24 Enhancing mitigation measures and preparedness – guidance to consider Authorities, individuals and communities ready to act and having knowledge, capacity and resources at hand Prevention, mitigation and preparedness is more rewarding than emergency relief Both top down and bottom up needed Local needs and indigneous knowledge (the thinking beeach tree)
25 When rains strike too late
26 Drought preparedness plan – 10 steps to achieve a policy 1.Appoint drought task force 2.Define objectives of drought preparedness plan 3.Seek stakeholder participation 4.Inventorize resources anf groups at risk 5.Prepare draft plan
27 Drought preparedness plan – 10 steps to achieve a policy 6. Fill scientific and institutional gaps 7.Integrate science and policy (evidence based preparedness) 8.Publicise plan and build awareness 9.Education and training 10.Evaluate and revise drought preparedness plan
28 Information management and exchange How can information and knowledge be shared?
29 Education and training Photo top right: (UNISDR; 2011)
30 Monitoring of drought progression – monitoring of efficiency of mitigation measures
31 Indicators Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted Albert Einstein
32 Drought ????? – Thank you for your attention
33 Exercise In 4 groups discuss and note: functions/actions/interventions needed in the 3 phases of preparedness, mitigation and emergency response in order to minimize drought impacts Design an institutional/stakeholder framework and allocate the stated functions in an appropriate manner to the best suited member
34 Example InstitutionPreparednessMitigationEmergency Response Ministry of XXXDrought resistent crops Etc….. RBO YYYEarly Warning… Etc… Relief agencyProvision of Food & shelter Etc….
35 Governance Setting up a stakeholders coordination mechanism