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Sulphur Chemistry and Acid Rain over China. How to Compute the Contribution of.

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Presentation on theme: "Sulphur Chemistry and Acid Rain over China. How to Compute the Contribution of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sulphur Chemistry and Acid Rain over China. How to Compute the Contribution of Each Province? Ding Zhongyuan 1, Ruibin Wang 1, Liu Fang 1, Claude Derognat 2, Genevieve Guerinot 2, Matthias Beekmann 3, Armand Albergel 2 1 China National Environmental Monitoring Center Beijing China 2 ARIA Technologies SA Boulogne-Billancourt France 3 Institut Pierre Simon Laplace CNRS France

2 Summary Software « CHIMERE » at the CNEMC: Comparison with CNEMC data One year modeling ( Year 2000) Flux exchanges between provinces

3 Processes taken into account evening noon morning COV NOx COV NOx COV Deposition Winds limit layer FREE TROPOSPHERE 100 m Temperature 2000 m Winds altitude MIXING LAYER hv Inversion

4 Algorithms Chemical mechanism : adapted for SO 2, H 2 SO 4 gaseous and aqueous chemistry MELCHIOR reduced : 48 species and 128 chemical reactions Photolytic rate : attenuated by cloudiness Wet and dry deposition for SO 2 an H 2 SO 4 : The Dry Deposition Velocity is calculated with a resistance approach as proposed by Wesely et al., (1989) In the case of the wet deposition, the following processes are considered : In-cloud scavenging of : - SO 4 aerosol - Gaseous species (now SO 2 and H 2 O 2 ) Sub-cloud scavenging of : - SO 4 aerosol - Highly soluble gaseous species (now HNO 3 )

5 15° 55° 150° 90° 1° x 1° Showcase Grid – Latitude : 15°N-55°N resolution 1° Longitude : 90°E-150°E resolution 1° – 7 levels including the all PBL from surface to 400 hPa – 60x40=2400 meshes x 7 levels

6 Input data Land Cover : USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) 15 land use categories Meteorology : ECMWF ( Centre Européen de Prévisions météorologiques à moyen terme) Emissions : –ACE-Asia (Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterisation Experiment) Y2000 resolution 1°x1° http ://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasiahttp ://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia –Seasonal modulation from GEIA (1985)

7 Y2000 data collection Emissions

8 Pollution by activity type and Season modulation IndustryHousingTransportationHeating SO235 %14 %2 %49 % NOx23 %8 %42 %27 % VOCs30 %36 %33 %1 % CO14 %10 %34 %42 % No seasonal modulation (industry and transportation) Seasonal modulation as SO2 ( GEIA )

9 ACE-Asia SO 2 area emissions

10 ACE-Asia SO 2 large point sources emissions

11 CO emissions

12 NO emissions

13 VOC Speciation Spéciation de Klimont et al (2002) Espèces contenues dans MELCHIOR Ethane Propane Butane Autres alcanes Ethène Propène Autres alcènes Acétylène Benzène Toluène Autres aromatiques Formaldéhyde Autres aldéhydes Cétone Halocarbones Autres COVs Ethane n-butane Ethène Propène ½ Propène + ½ n-butane O-xylène Formaldéhyde Acétaldéhyde Butan-2-one Non-réactifs n-butane COV dans MELCHIORSpéciation Ethane N-butane Ethène Propène O-xylène Formaldéhyde Acétaldéhyde Butan-2-one 5.9 % 41.1 % 11 % 14.5 % 22.4 % 1.1 % 1.8 % 1 % COV dans MELCHIORSpéciation Ethane N-butane Ethène Propène O-xylène Formaldéhyde Acétaldéhyde Butan-2-one 26.3 % 35.6 % 7.1 % 15.6 % 6.6 % 1.3 % 5.9 % 1.3 % Correspondance between VOC Klimont et al (2002) and MELCHIOR VOC CHINA VOC speciation Europe VOC

14 VOC emissions with speciation

15 Ratio VOC Biogenic / Anthropogenic Summer Summer Winter Winter Biogenic VOC emission are significant in the south

16 Evaluation using CNEMC data (Year 2000)

17 Evaluation using CNEMC data 1.50 ground station measurements SO 2 et de NO2 Hourly base 1 June december Rain episode : measurements of H2SO4 and of the rainfall amount

18 [SO4] bias Under-estimation of the SO4 in the rain water Under-estimation of the SO4 in the rain water A part due to the rainfall data A part due to the rainfall data 1200 « episodes » over 54 sites « episodes » over 54 sites.

19 Rainfall bias High under-estimation of rainfall when using ECMWF coarse data High under-estimation of rainfall when using ECMWF coarse data 1200 « episodes » over 54 sites « episodes » over 54 sites.

20 Season cycle model values ×5 Summer : Rain, SO4 concentrations Summer : Rain, SO4 concentrations Winter : Rain, SO4 concentration Winter : Rain, SO4 concentration

21 [SO2] air concentration Mean concentration from june 2000 to december 2000 Mean concentration from june 2000 to december 2000 Question of Urban or background measurements (Continental scale) Question of Urban or background measurements (Continental scale) Spatial distribution OK Spatial distribution OK

22 [NO 2 ] air concentration Question of Urban or background measurements (Continental scale) (traffic ?) Question of Urban or background measurements (Continental scale) (traffic ?)

23 Time Series Examples Station du N-E Station du Sud NE: Bias OK NE: Bias OK Au S et S-O : High Bias (emission ? Or model resolution ?) Au S et S-O : High Bias (emission ? Or model resolution ?)

24 Main results (Year 2000)

25 Season Cycle on SO 2 Mean [SO2] at 15 h TU lors de: Mean [SO2] at 15 h TU lors de: Winter (D,J,F) Spring (M,A,M) Winter (D,J,F) Spring (M,A,M) Summer (J,J,A) Autumn (S,O,N) Summer (J,J,A) Autumn (S,O,N) Autumn Summer Spring Winter

26 Autumn Spring Summer Winter OZONE ppb

27 WINTER Sulfur deposition Cumulated deposition Cumulated deposition total (D T ), total (D T ), dry (D S) dry (D S) wet (D H ) ) wet (D H ) ) précipitations (Pr) précipitations (Pr) Winter (D,J,F) Winter (D,J,F) Dry deposition mostly Dry deposition mostly West to East transfer West to East transfer DTDTDTDT Pr DHDHDHDH DSDSDSDS

28 SUMMER Sulfur deposition Wet deposition more efficient Wet deposition more efficient DHDHDHDH Pr DTDTDTDT DSDSDSDS Cumulated deposition Cumulated deposition total (D T ), total (D T ), dry (D S) dry (D S) wet (D H ) wet (D H ) precipitations (Pr) precipitations (Pr) Winter (D,J,F). Winter (D,J,F).

29 Evaluation pollutant fluxes exchange between geographical zones

30 Area definition Provinces names 1All other (including sea…) 2Shandong 3Hebei, Beijing,Tianjin 4Jilin, Neimenggu, Heilongliang 5Lianing 6Xinjinag, Quinghai,Xizang, Gansu, Ningxiahu 7Sichuan, Choncquing 8Guizhou 9Shaanxi 10Shanxi 11Henan 12Hubei, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangxi 13Shangai, Jiangsu 14Zheijang, Fujian 15Guanghing, Hainan 16Yunnan, Gangxi 17Taiwan 18Corée du Nor 19Corée du sud 20Japon 21Mongolie 22Indochine

31 Year 2000 Where does the emitted SO 2 give acid rain ? Where does the sulphur come from ?

32 Where does sulphur pollution come from?

33 Next steps ?

34 Focus on one or two target area –Improve resolution (10 to 5 km) –Nested in the CHIMERE-CHINE –Using a more precise emission inventory Use of CHIMERE particle version


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