Presentation on theme: "Rob Horner University of Oregon"— Presentation transcript:
1Rob Horner University of Oregon www.pbis.org Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBISRob HornerUniversity of Oregon
2Goals Define current status of PBIS implementation in the U.S. Summarize features of Schools that are successful at implementing and sustaining PBIS with functional outcomes for students.Define features of Districts that establish the capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance.Define features of States that establish capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance
3Why SWPBIS?The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments.PredictablePositiveConsistentSafe
6Main Message: Build Capcity SchoolsImplement with high fidelity at all three tiersExpect more from your districts and statesDistrict/ RegionBuild Training, Coaching, Evaluation and Technical Expertise neededBuild capacity to sustain PBISAdapt to geography and sizeStatesProvide functional leadershipImplement with a full “slice” of the educational systemAlign initiativesProvide the data systems, training, coaching and evaluation needed
7School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters.A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainabilityMultiple tiers of intensity
8What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS)? School-wide PBIS is:A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students.Evidence-based features of SWPBISPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.Implementation of the systems that support effective practices
9Establishing a Social Culture Common LanguageMEMBERSHIPCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
10Culturally Knowledgeable School-wide PBISCulturally Equitable Academic &Social CompetenceOUTCOMESCulturally RelevantSupport forStudentBehaviorCulturally ValidDecisionMakingPRACTICESDATASWPBS: Four ElementsSWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety.SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the schoolSWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices.The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation.SYSTEMSCulturally KnowledgeableStaff Behavior
11Outcomes Practices Systems Data Standardized Assessments School-wide behavior expectationsClass-wide Behavior expectations and routinesAcademic SuccessSocial Emotional CompetencePracticesSchool-wide Instruction on ExpectationsClass-wide Instruction on RoutinesActive SupervisionEffective RecognitionCorrective ConsequencesFunction-based SupportSystemsTeam-basedSupportive LeadershipSelection, Training, CoachingMulti-tiered SupportPolicies and fundingDataUniversal ScreeningProgress MonitoringImplementation FidelityStandardized Assessments
12Experimental Research on SWPBIS SWPBIS Experimentally Related to:Reduction in problem behaviorIncreased academic performanceIncreased attendanceImproved perception of safetyReduction in bullying behaviorsImproved organizational efficiencyReduction in staff turnoverIncreased perception of teacher efficacyImproved Social Emotional competenceBradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012
13Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000 January, 201419,960
1414 States with more than 500 schools Number of Schools Implementation SWPBIS (Tier I) by StateJanuary 201414 States with more than 500 schools
15Number of PBIS schools (Green) Implementing, (Red) measuring fidelity and (Blue) at Tier I fidelity by state>75%ConnecticutFloridaIllinoisIowaKentuckyMichiganMinnesotaMissouriNorth CarolinaOregonSouth CarolinaVermontWisconsinTotal number of schools using SWPBISTotal number of schools measuring fidelitySchools at Tier I fidelity
16Building Capacity: Schools Focus on “core features” that deliver valued outcomes.PBIS is a framework for organizing practices that deliver core features. The core features should be documented to produce valued outcomes.FrameworkPracticeCoreFeatureValuedOutcomesPBISSelection and teaching of school-wide ExpectationsSchool-wide ExpectationsImproved Social and Academic Competence for Students
17Schools Define and distinguish between Practices Core features Valued outcomes
19Implications Certify, and Promote “core features” Do not certify peopleDo not certify manuals or programsMeasure “Core Features”… use for decision-makingMeasure fidelity by assessing if “core feature” is in placeProvide examples of multiple practices (ways) to achieve core featuresFocus on “contextual fit” variables that guide selection of effective practices.
21Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorSCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsMain Ideas:Invest in prevention firstMultiple tiers of support intensityEarly/rapid access to support~80% of Students27
22MathRemember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students.Avoid creating a new disability labeling system.BehaviorHealthReading
23Building Capacity: Schools Measure “fidelity of implementation”As a DV to assess implementation practicesAs an IV to improve level of adoption.Fidelity measures should focus on the “core features” of any practice.
262014 Tiered Fidelity Inventory October 2014 School-wide PBIS OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports2014Algozzine, B., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H., Horner, R., Lewis, T., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway, J., McIntosh, K., & Sugai, G (2014). School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
27PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.
28Building Capacity: Schools Focus on “efficiency” of practicesTimeMoneyExpertise of personnelMatch with existing organizations/ systems.1. Efficiency for adoption2. Efficiency for sustained performanceNOTE:Differences in Efficiency across Multiple Tiers of Support
29Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher)1000 Referrals/yr2000 Referrals/yrAdministrator Time500 Hours1000 HoursTeacher Time250 HoursStudent Time750 Hours1500 HoursTotals3000 Hours
31121, 6-hour school days 29, 8-hour days What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle SchoolSavings in Administrative timeODR = 15 minSuspension = 45 min13,875 minutes231 hours29, 8-hour daysSavings in Student Instructional timeODR = 45 minSuspension = 216 min43,650 minutes728 hours121, 6-hour school days
32Building Capacity: Schools WHATInterventionsUse Implementation ScienceImplementation DriversStages of ImplementationImprovement CyclesWHENStagesWHOTeamsHOWDriversHOWCycles
33Implementation Drivers An Active Implementation Framework Performance Assessment (fidelity)CoachingTrainingSelectionIntegrated & CompensatorySystemsInterventionFacilitativeAdministrationDecision SupportData SystemAdaptiveTechnicalCompetency DriversOrganization DriversLeadership DriversConsistent Uses of InnovationsReliable BenefitsIntegrated & Compensatory
34Stages of Implementation Implementation occurs in stages:ExplorationInstallationInitial ImplementationFull ImplementationInnovationSustainability2 – 4 YearsFixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005
35Stages of Implementation FocusStageDescriptionExploration/AdoptionDecision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation.InstallationSet up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan.Initial ImplementationTry out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts.ElaborationExpand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation.Continuous Improvement/ RegenerationMake it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices.Should we do itGetting it rightImplementation is not an eventA mission-oriented process involving multiple decisions, actions, and correctionsMaking it betterSteve Goodman
37Main MessagesSustained and High Fidelity Implementation of SWPBIS requires active District Support.Especially for Tiers II and IIIStudent = unit of impactSchools = unit of analysisDistrict = unit of implementation
38Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations VisibilityPoliticalSupportFundingPolicyLeadership TeamActive CoordinationTrainingCoachingBehavioralExpertiseEvaluationLocal School/District Teams/DemonstrationsSugai et al.,
39Implications for Schools Build commitment from Administration, Faculty, Students and Families that attention to social culture is importantImplement SCHOOL-WIDE, multi-tiered systems.Build on what you already do wellNever stop doing what already worksAlways implement the smallest change that produces the largest effect.Never adopt something new without defining what you will STOP doing to create the resources needed for new adoption.Measure fidelity of implementation as well as impactMeasure fidelity frequently, and use the information to guide improvement.Report outcomes to families, faculty, community and administration.
40Implications for Schools Expect more support from your district (or regional unit)Initial personnel orientationData systemsFidelityUniversal Screen and Progress MonitorStandardized AssessmentsSupport for Tier II, and Tier III implementationRole of school psychologist, counselor, social workerTier IITier IIIIncreased structureAssessment: FBA, Mental Health, Academic, PhysicalIncreased frequency of recognition/ feedbackComprehensive support planSelf-assessmentFidelity measuresLink home and schoolOutcome measures
42Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions Three different conditions:Stand alone districtUrban districtClusters of rural / small districtsCommon Goals:Different Organizational Challenges
43Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions Initial ImplementationBuild commitment (focus on valued outcomes)Establish leadership teamInvest in Exemplars… but build capacity as you do thisInvest in building district capacity toImplement with fidelityImplement with depthImplement with breadth (scale)Implement with sustainabilityFull ImplementationUse of evaluation dataIterative commitment events.
44Building Capacity: District/ Region Real implementation means providing the technical assistance to establish durable systems.Selection of PersonnelTrainingCoachingPerformance FeedbackData systems for effective decision-makingProblem solving by teams and administrationEffective engagement of families and community“Preference is given for individuals with demonstrated knowledge and skill in implementation of school-wide academic and behavior supports”Position DescriptionFaculty EvaluationAnnual Orientation
45Building Capacity: District/ Region Data systemsFidelity of implementationUniversal ScreeningProgress MonitoringStandardized student outcomesStages of ImplementationExplorationInstallationInitial implementationFull implementationMeasure District CapacityDistrict Capacity Assessment www. Scalingup.org
46Building Capacity: States Lead with clarityEstablish a leadership team with the goal of improving the capacity for implementationImplement to change the full systemFocus on a slice of the full system as your implementation targetGuide adoption of practicesDefine core features expected in schoolsAlign initiatives to avoid competition and conflictBraid initiatives at the point of common budgetProvide that data systems needed for capacity developmentFidelity, and Impact at the school levelImplementation capacity at the district levelInvest in functional capacity for implementationTraining, Coaching, Evaluation, Technical Expertise
47Building Capacity: States State Implementation StagesExplorationInitial Implementation (Exemplars).Scaling paper ( schools)Evaluation dataReinvestmentState capacityPolicy changeStateDistrict/ RegionSchools
48Building Capacity: States 1. Selection of effective practices2. Establish expectationsSchools should create a coherent social culture that promotes learning.Students should graduate with academic AND social skills3. Establish iterative improvement systemReport on social culture of school4. Build the training, coaching and evaluation capacity at the state level.5. Align initiatives and expectations to promote efficiency and outcomes.
49Oregon Promising Practices Criteria for Selection an Educational Practice:Practice addresses a major educational goalProcedures are operationally definedPractice include a professional development protocolPractice include a measure of fidelity and procedures for improvementPractice has been validated as effective in a peer-reviewed publicationPractice has been demonstrated as feasible and effective in at least 50 schools in OregonPractice is documented to as, or more efficient than current alternatives.Standard Operating Procedure: Promising PracticesPromoting Educational Effectiveness in Oregon:Standard Operating Procedure for Identifying and Implementing Educational InnovationsPractices may be (a) Standard, (b) Emerging, (c) Scaleworthy or (d) Not recommended
50Cascade of Competence State Regions State Conferences Districts State Dept TrainersSchoolsLocal Content SpecialistsEvaluation/Strategic PlanningNational TrainersDistrict/Regional TrainersLocal Coaching
51Alignment: Align at the common budget point Effective ProcedureEffective ProcedureEffective ProcedureEffective ProcedureCore FeaturesCore FeaturesCore FeaturesValued Outcomes
52Alignment School-wide Support Teacher Effectiveness PBISSchool-wide SupportRestorative PracticesDefine and teach positive behaviorExpectations2. Recognition3. Consequences4. Data SystemConsequences1. Questions2. Restore3. TeachAppropriate Classroom Behavior
53Building a Coherent Decision System Building State capacity to gather informationDocumenting outcomes for studentsDocumenting fidelityDocumenting capacity
70Summary Implementation at scale is possible Consider the cluster of core features needed for scalingAdmin support, Technical capacity, demonstrationsSmall demonstrations may be necessary but insufficientBuild in system for adapting the program to fit the local context while retaining the core features.Consider an implementation plan with established procedures for improving efficiency of implementationMeasure fidelity of implementation as a part of effective practice.Sustained implementation requires continuous regenerationAlways emphasize, measure and report on valued outcomes
73Reflection Schools District 1. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are using PBIS?2. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are benefiting students3. Do we have clear expectations for the District/RegionsDistrict1. Does our district have the “capacity” to select and implement effective practices…. Like PBIS.2. Does our district have the capacity to sustain effective practices (data , training, coaching, evaluation)State/ Commonwealth (build district capacity…1. Do we have a way to help districts/ state offices select effective practices and align federal/state initiatives?2. Do we have a way to Train/Coach/ Evaluate across the three types of districts/regions.3. Do we have “Decision Systems” that promote implementation and improvement.