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Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS Rob Horner University of Oregon

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Presentation on theme: "Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS Rob Horner University of Oregon"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS Rob Horner University of Oregon

2 Goals Define current status of PBIS implementation in the U.S. Summarize features of Schools that are successful at implementing and sustaining PBIS with functional outcomes for students. Define features of Districts that establish the capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance. Define features of States that establish capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance

3 Why SWPBIS? The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Predictable Consistent Positive Safe

4 SWPBIS: Building Effective Schools

5 Main Messages PBIS works. Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)

6 Main Message: Build Capcity Schools Implement with high fidelity at all three tiers Expect more from your districts and states District/ Region Build Training, Coaching, Evaluation and Technical Expertise needed Build capacity to sustain PBIS Adapt to geography and size States Provide functional leadership Implement with a full slice of the educational system Align initiatives Provide the data systems, training, coaching and evaluation needed

7 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

8 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS)? School-wide PBIS is: A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

9 Establishing a Social Culture Common Vision/Values Common Language Common Experience MEMBERSHIP

10 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Culturally Knowledgeable Staff Behavior Culturally Relevant Support for Student Behavior OUTCOMES Culturally Equitable Academic & Social Competence Culturally Valid Decision Making School-wide PBIS

11 Standardized Assessments

12 Experimental Research on SWPBIS Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), 100-115 Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473. Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148. Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26. Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 133-145. Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), 1-14. Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) 118-128. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf, P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):149-156 Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012 SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: 1.Reduction in problem behavior 2.Increased academic performance 3.Increased attendance 4.Improved perception of safety 5.Reduction in bullying behaviors 6.Improved organizational efficiency 7.Reduction in staff turnover 8.Increased perception of teacher efficacy 9.Improved Social Emotional competence

13 Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000 January, 2014 19,960

14 Number of Schools Implementation SWPBIS (Tier I) by State January 2014 14 States with more than 500 schools

15 Total number of schools using SWPBIS Total number of schools measuring fidelity Schools at Tier I fidelity Number of PBIS schools (Green) Implementing, (Red) measuring fidelity and (Blue) at Tier I fidelity by state >75% ------------------- Connecticut Florida Illinois Iowa Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri North Carolina Oregon South Carolina Vermont Wisconsin

16 Building Capacity: Schools Focus on core features that deliver valued outcomes. PBIS is a framework for organizing practices that deliver core features. The core features should be documented to produce valued outcomes. PBIS Selection and teaching of school-wide Expectations School-wide Expectations Improved Social and Academic Competence for Students Framework Practice Core Feature Valued Outcomes

17 Schools Define and distinguish between Practices Core features Valued outcomes

18 Procedures Core Features Valued Outcomes Core Features Effective Procedure Values Science Technology Cultural/ Contextual Fit

19 Implications Certify, and Promote core features Do not certify people Do not certify manuals or programs Measure Core Features… use for decision-making Measure fidelity by assessing if core feature is in place Provide examples of multiple practices (ways) to achieve core features Focus on contextual fit variables that guide selection of effective practices.

20 Building Capacity: Schools Anticipate implementation error patterns

21 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT 27 Main Ideas: 1.Invest in prevention first 2.Multiple tiers of support intensity 3.Early/rapid access to support

22 Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Reading Behavior Math Health

23 Building Capacity: Schools Measure fidelity of implementation As a DV to assess implementation practices As an IV to improve level of adoption. Fidelity measures should focus on the core features of any practice.



26 School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports 2014 Algozzine, B., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H., Horner, R., Lewis, T., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway, J., McIntosh, K., & Sugai, G (2014). School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. October 2014

27 PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

28 Building Capacity: Schools Focus on efficiency of practices Time Money Expertise of personnel Match with existing organizations/ systems. 1. Efficiency for adoption 2. Efficiency for sustained performance NOTE: Differences in Efficiency across Multiple Tiers of Support

29 Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher) 1000 Referrals/yr 2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time 500 Hours1000 Hours Teacher Time250 Hours500 Hours Student Time750 Hours1500 Hours Totals1500 Hours3000 Hours

30 Pre PBIS Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

31 What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle School Savings in Administrative time ODR = 15 min Suspension = 45 min 13,875 minutes 231 hours 29, 8-hour days Savings in Student Instructional time ODR = 45 min Suspension = 216 min 43,650 minutes 728 hours 121, 6-hour school days

32 Building Capacity: Schools Use Implementation Science Implementation Drivers Stages of Implementation Improvement Cycles WHEN Stages WHO Teams HOW Drivers WHAT Interventions HOW Cycles

33 Performance Assessment (fidelity) Coaching Training Selection Integrated & Compensatory Systems Intervention Facilitative Administration Decision Support Data System Adaptive Technical Competency Drivers Organization Drivers Leadership Drivers Consistent Uses of Innovations Reliable Benefits Integrated & Compensatory Implementation Drivers An Active Implementation Framework Implementation Drivers An Active Implementation Framework

34 Stages of Implementation Exploration Installation Initial Implementation Full Implementation Innovation Sustainability Implementation occurs in stages: Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005 2 – 4 Years

35 Stages of ImplementationFocusStageDescription Exploration/ Adoption Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. InstallationSet up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. ElaborationExpand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Improvement/ Regeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices. Getting it right Making it better Should we do it Steve Goodman

36 Improvement Cycles

37 Main Messages Sustained and High Fidelity Implementation of SWPBIS requires active District Support. Especially for Tiers II and III ----------------------------------------------------------- Student = unit of impact Schools = unit of analysis District = unit of implementation

38 Leadership Team Active Coordination Funding Visibility Political Support TrainingCoachingEvaluation Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations Behavioral Expertise Policy Sugai et al.,

39 Implications for Schools Build commitment from Administration, Faculty, Students and Families that attention to social culture is important Implement SCHOOL-WIDE, multi-tiered systems. Build on what you already do well Never stop doing what already works Always implement the smallest change that produces the largest effect. Never adopt something new without defining what you will STOP doing to create the resources needed for new adoption. Measure fidelity of implementation as well as impact Measure fidelity frequently, and use the information to guide improvement. Report outcomes to families, faculty, community and administration.

40 Implications for Schools Expect more support from your district (or regional unit) Initial personnel orientation Data systems Fidelity Universal Screen and Progress Monitor Standardized Assessments Support for Tier II, and Tier III implementation Role of school psychologist, counselor, social worker Tier IITier III Increased structureAssessment: FBA, Mental Health, Academic, Physical Increased frequency of recognition/ feedback Comprehensive support plan Self-assessmentFidelity measures Link home and schoolOutcome measures

41 Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions

42 Three different conditions: Stand alone district Urban district Clusters of rural / small districts Common Goals: Different Organizational Challenges

43 Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions Initial Implementation Build commitment (focus on valued outcomes) Establish leadership team Invest in Exemplars… but build capacity as you do this Invest in building district capacity to Implement with fidelity Implement with depth Implement with breadth (scale) Implement with sustainability Full Implementation Use of evaluation data Iterative commitment events.

44 Building Capacity: District/ Region Real implementation means providing the technical assistance to establish durable systems. Selection of Personnel Training Coaching Performance Feedback Data systems for effective decision-making Problem solving by teams and administration Effective engagement of families and community Position Description Faculty Evaluation Annual Orientation Preference is given for individuals with demonstrated knowledge and skill in implementation of school-wide academic and behavior supports

45 Building Capacity: District/ Region Data systems Fidelity of implementation Universal Screening Progress Monitoring Standardized student outcomes Stages of Implementation Exploration Installation Initial implementation Full implementation Measure District Capacity District Capacity Assessment www.

46 Building Capacity: States Lead with clarity Establish a leadership team with the goal of improving the capacity for implementation Implement to change the full system Focus on a slice of the full system as your implementation target Guide adoption of practices Define core features expected in schools Align initiatives to avoid competition and conflict Braid initiatives at the point of common budget Provide that data systems needed for capacity development Fidelity, and Impact at the school level Implementation capacity at the district level Invest in functional capacity for implementation Training, Coaching, Evaluation, Technical Expertise

47 Building Capacity: States State Implementation Stages Exploration Initial Implementation (Exemplars). Scaling paper (100-200 schools) Evaluation data Reinvestment State capacity Evaluation data Policy change State District/ Region Schools

48 Building Capacity: States 1. Selection of effective practices 2. Establish expectations Schools should create a coherent social culture that promotes learning. Students should graduate with academic AND social skills 3. Establish iterative improvement system Report on social culture of school 4. Build the training, coaching and evaluation capacity at the state level. 5. Align initiatives and expectations to promote efficiency and outcomes.

49 Oregon Promising Practices Standard Operating Procedure: Promising Practices Promoting Educational Effectiveness in Oregon: Standard Operating Procedure for Identifying and Implementing Educational Innovations -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Practices may be (a) Standard, (b) Emerging, (c) Scaleworthy or (d) Not recommended Criteria for Selection an Educational Practice: 1.Practice addresses a major educational goal 2.Procedures are operationally defined 3.Practice include a professional development protocol 4.Practice include a measure of fidelity and procedures for improvement 5.Practice has been validated as effective in a peer- reviewed publication 6.Practice has been demonstrated as feasible and effective in at least 50 schools in Oregon 7.Practice is documented to as, or more efficient than current alternatives.

50 Cascade of Competence Schools Districts Regions State State Conferences State Dept Trainers Local Content Specialists National Trainers District/Regional Trainers Local Coaching Evaluation/ Strategic Planning

51 Alignment: Align at the common budget point Effective Procedure Core Features Valued Outcomes Core Features

52 Alignment Teacher Effectiveness PBIS School- wide Support Restorative Practices Define and teach positive behavior Appropriate Classroom Behavior 1.Expectations 2. Recognition 3. Consequences 4. Data System Consequences 1. Questions 2. Restore 3. Teach

53 Building a Coherent Decision System Building State capacity to gather information Documenting outcomes for students Documenting fidelity Documenting capacity

54 School-level decision-making


56 Individual Decision-systems

57 Cumulative Mean ODRs Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09 Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May

58 PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

59 Assessing Capacity State Capacity Assessment District Capacity Assessment

60 An Example






66 Implementation Fidelity (SET) Elementary and Middle 2009-10

67 Implementation Fidelity (SET) By Factor for Elem and Middle 2009-10



70 Summary Implementation at scale is possible Consider the cluster of core features needed for scaling Admin support, Technical capacity, 100-200 demonstrations Small demonstrations may be necessary but insufficient Build in system for adapting the program to fit the local context while retaining the core features. Consider an implementation plan with established procedures for improving efficiency of implementation Measure fidelity of implementation as a part of effective practice. Sustained implementation requires continuous regeneration Always emphasize, measure and report on valued outcomes



73 Reflection Schools 1. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are using PBIS? 2. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are benefiting students 3. Do we have clear expectations for the District/Regions District 1. Does our district have the capacity to select and implement effective practices…. Like PBIS. 2. Does our district have the capacity to sustain effective practices (data, training, coaching, evaluation) State/ Commonwealth (build district capacity… 1. Do we have a way to help districts/ state offices select effective practices and align federal/state initiatives? 2. Do we have a way to Train/Coach/ Evaluate across the three types of districts/regions. 3. Do we have Decision Systems that promote implementation and improvement.

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