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Rob Horner University of Oregon

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1 Rob Horner University of Oregon
Building the Capacity of Schools, Districts and States to Implement School-wide PBIS Rob Horner University of Oregon

2 Goals Define current status of PBIS implementation in the U.S.
Summarize features of Schools that are successful at implementing and sustaining PBIS with functional outcomes for students. Define features of Districts that establish the capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance. Define features of States that establish capacity to implement PBIS at scales of social significance

3 Why SWPBIS? The fundamental purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective and equitable learning environments. Predictable Positive Consistent Safe

4 SWPBIS: Building Effective Schools

5 Main Messages Effective (academic, behavior)
PBIS works. Effective (academic, behavior) Equitable (all students succeed) Efficient (time, cost)

6 Main Message: Build Capcity
Schools Implement with high fidelity at all three tiers Expect more from your districts and states District/ Region Build Training, Coaching, Evaluation and Technical Expertise needed Build capacity to sustain PBIS Adapt to geography and size States Provide functional leadership Implement with a full “slice” of the educational system Align initiatives Provide the data systems, training, coaching and evaluation needed

7 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS)
The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

8 What is School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS)?
School-wide PBIS is: A multi-tiered framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to achieve behavioral and academic outcomes for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

9 Establishing a Social Culture
Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values

10 Culturally Knowledgeable
School-wide PBIS Culturally Equitable Academic & Social Competence OUTCOMES Culturally Relevant Support for Student Behavior Culturally Valid Decision Making PRACTICES DATA SWPBS: Four Elements SWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety. SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the school SWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices. The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation. SYSTEMS Culturally Knowledgeable Staff Behavior

11 Outcomes Practices Systems Data Standardized Assessments
School-wide behavior expectations Class-wide Behavior expectations and routines Academic Success Social Emotional Competence Practices School-wide Instruction on Expectations Class-wide Instruction on Routines Active Supervision Effective Recognition Corrective Consequences Function-based Support Systems Team-based Supportive Leadership Selection, Training, Coaching Multi-tiered Support Policies and funding Data Universal Screening Progress Monitoring Implementation Fidelity Standardized Assessments

12 Experimental Research on SWPBIS
SWPBIS Experimentally Related to: Reduction in problem behavior Increased academic performance Increased attendance Improved perception of safety Reduction in bullying behaviors Improved organizational efficiency Reduction in staff turnover Increased perception of teacher efficacy Improved Social Emotional competence Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Ross, S. W., Endrulat, N. R., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Adult outcomes of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions. 14(2) Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2): Bradshaw, Pas, Goldweber, Rosenberg, & Leaf, 2012

13 Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000
January, 2014 19,960

14 14 States with more than 500 schools
Number of Schools Implementation SWPBIS (Tier I) by State January 2014 14 States with more than 500 schools

15 Number of PBIS schools (Green) Implementing, (Red) measuring fidelity and (Blue) at Tier I fidelity by state >75% Connecticut Florida Illinois Iowa Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri North Carolina Oregon South Carolina Vermont Wisconsin Total number of schools using SWPBIS Total number of schools measuring fidelity Schools at Tier I fidelity

16 Building Capacity: Schools
Focus on “core features” that deliver valued outcomes. PBIS is a framework for organizing practices that deliver core features. The core features should be documented to produce valued outcomes. Framework Practice Core Feature Valued Outcomes PBIS Selection and teaching of school-wide Expectations School-wide Expectations Improved Social and Academic Competence for Students

17 Schools Define and distinguish between Practices Core features
Valued outcomes

18 Procedures  Core Features
Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Technology Technology Cultural/ Contextual Fit Core Features Science Values Valued Outcomes

19 Implications Certify, and Promote “core features”
Do not certify people Do not certify manuals or programs Measure “Core Features”… use for decision-making Measure fidelity by assessing if “core feature” is in place Provide examples of multiple practices (ways) to achieve core features Focus on “contextual fit” variables that guide selection of effective practices.

20 Building Capacity: Schools
Anticipate implementation error patterns

21 Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Main Ideas: Invest in prevention first Multiple tiers of support intensity Early/rapid access to support ~80% of Students 27

22 Math Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Behavior Health Reading

23 Building Capacity: Schools
Measure “fidelity of implementation” As a DV to assess implementation practices As an IV to improve level of adoption. Fidelity measures should focus on the “core features” of any practice.



26 2014 Tiered Fidelity Inventory October 2014 School-wide PBIS
OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports 2014 Algozzine, B., Barrett, S., Eber, L., George, H., Horner, R., Lewis, T., Putnam, B., Swain-Bradway, J., McIntosh, K., & Sugai, G (2014). School-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

27 PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory
Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

28 Building Capacity: Schools
Focus on “efficiency” of practices Time Money Expertise of personnel Match with existing organizations/ systems. 1. Efficiency for adoption 2. Efficiency for sustained performance NOTE: Differences in Efficiency across Multiple Tiers of Support

29 Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg
Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg. 45 minutes per incident for student 30 min for Admin 15 min for Teacher) 1000 Referrals/yr 2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time 500 Hours 1000 Hours Teacher Time 250 Hours Student Time 750 Hours 1500 Hours Totals 3000 Hours

30 Pre PBIS Year Year Year 3

31 121, 6-hour school days 29, 8-hour days
What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle School Savings in Administrative time ODR = 15 min Suspension = 45 min 13,875 minutes 231 hours 29, 8-hour days Savings in Student Instructional time ODR = 45 min Suspension = 216 min 43,650 minutes 728 hours 121, 6-hour school days

32 Building Capacity: Schools
WHAT Interventions Use Implementation Science Implementation Drivers Stages of Implementation Improvement Cycles WHEN Stages WHO Teams HOW Drivers HOW Cycles

33 Implementation Drivers An Active Implementation Framework
Performance Assessment (fidelity) Coaching Training Selection Integrated & Compensatory Systems Intervention Facilitative Administration Decision Support Data System Adaptive Technical Competency Drivers Organization Drivers Leadership Drivers Consistent Uses of Innovations Reliable Benefits Integrated & Compensatory

34 Stages of Implementation
Implementation occurs in stages: Exploration Installation Initial Implementation Full Implementation Innovation Sustainability 2 – 4 Years Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005

35 Stages of Implementation
Focus Stage Description Exploration/ Adoption Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. Installation Set up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Initial Implementation Try out the practices, work out details, learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. Elaboration Expand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Improvement/ Regeneration Make it easier, more efficient. Embed within current practices. Should we do it Getting it right Implementation is not an event A mission-oriented process involving multiple decisions, actions, and corrections Making it better Steve Goodman

36 Improvement Cycles © 2012 Karen A. Blase and Dean L. Fixsen

37 Main Messages Sustained and High Fidelity Implementation of SWPBIS requires active District Support. Especially for Tiers II and III Student = unit of impact Schools = unit of analysis District = unit of implementation

38 Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations
Visibility Political Support Funding Policy Leadership Team Active Coordination Training Coaching Behavioral Expertise Evaluation Local School/District Teams/Demonstrations Sugai et al.,

39 Implications for Schools
Build commitment from Administration, Faculty, Students and Families that attention to social culture is important Implement SCHOOL-WIDE, multi-tiered systems. Build on what you already do well Never stop doing what already works Always implement the smallest change that produces the largest effect. Never adopt something new without defining what you will STOP doing to create the resources needed for new adoption. Measure fidelity of implementation as well as impact Measure fidelity frequently, and use the information to guide improvement. Report outcomes to families, faculty, community and administration.

40 Implications for Schools
Expect more support from your district (or regional unit) Initial personnel orientation Data systems Fidelity Universal Screen and Progress Monitor Standardized Assessments Support for Tier II, and Tier III implementation Role of school psychologist, counselor, social worker Tier II Tier III Increased structure Assessment: FBA, Mental Health, Academic, Physical Increased frequency of recognition/ feedback Comprehensive support plan Self-assessment Fidelity measures Link home and school Outcome measures

41 Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions

42 Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions
Three different conditions: Stand alone district Urban district Clusters of rural / small districts Common Goals: Different Organizational Challenges

43 Building Capacity: Districts/ Regions
Initial Implementation Build commitment (focus on valued outcomes) Establish leadership team Invest in Exemplars… but build capacity as you do this Invest in building district capacity to Implement with fidelity Implement with depth Implement with breadth (scale) Implement with sustainability Full Implementation Use of evaluation data Iterative commitment events.

44 Building Capacity: District/ Region
Real implementation means providing the technical assistance to establish durable systems. Selection of Personnel Training Coaching Performance Feedback Data systems for effective decision-making Problem solving by teams and administration Effective engagement of families and community “Preference is given for individuals with demonstrated knowledge and skill in implementation of school-wide academic and behavior supports” Position Description Faculty Evaluation Annual Orientation

45 Building Capacity: District/ Region
Data systems Fidelity of implementation Universal Screening Progress Monitoring Standardized student outcomes Stages of Implementation Exploration Installation Initial implementation Full implementation Measure District Capacity District Capacity Assessment www.

46 Building Capacity: States
Lead with clarity Establish a leadership team with the goal of improving the capacity for implementation Implement to change the full system Focus on a slice of the full system as your implementation target Guide adoption of practices Define core features expected in schools Align initiatives to avoid competition and conflict Braid initiatives at the point of common budget Provide that data systems needed for capacity development Fidelity, and Impact at the school level Implementation capacity at the district level Invest in functional capacity for implementation Training, Coaching, Evaluation, Technical Expertise

47 Building Capacity: States
State Implementation Stages Exploration Initial Implementation (Exemplars). Scaling paper ( schools) Evaluation data Reinvestment State capacity Policy change State District/ Region Schools

48 Building Capacity: States
1. Selection of effective practices 2. Establish expectations Schools should create a coherent social culture that promotes learning. Students should graduate with academic AND social skills 3. Establish iterative improvement system Report on social culture of school 4. Build the training, coaching and evaluation capacity at the state level. 5. Align initiatives and expectations to promote efficiency and outcomes.

49 Oregon Promising Practices
Criteria for Selection an Educational Practice: Practice addresses a major educational goal Procedures are operationally defined Practice include a professional development protocol Practice include a measure of fidelity and procedures for improvement Practice has been validated as effective in a peer-reviewed publication Practice has been demonstrated as feasible and effective in at least 50 schools in Oregon Practice is documented to as, or more efficient than current alternatives. Standard Operating Procedure: Promising Practices Promoting Educational Effectiveness in Oregon: Standard Operating Procedure for Identifying and Implementing Educational Innovations Practices may be (a) Standard, (b) Emerging, (c) Scaleworthy or (d) Not recommended

50 Cascade of Competence State Regions State Conferences Districts
State Dept Trainers Schools Local Content Specialists Evaluation/ Strategic Planning National Trainers District/Regional Trainers Local Coaching

51 Alignment: Align at the common budget point
Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Effective Procedure Core Features Core Features Core Features Valued Outcomes

52 Alignment School-wide Support Teacher Effectiveness
PBIS School-wide Support Restorative Practices Define and teach positive behavior Expectations 2. Recognition 3. Consequences 4. Data System Consequences1. Questions 2. Restore 3. Teach Appropriate Classroom Behavior

53 Building a Coherent Decision System
Building State capacity to gather information Documenting outcomes for students Documenting fidelity Documenting capacity

54 School-level decision-making


56 Individual Decision-systems

57 Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May
Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09 Cumulative Mean ODRs

58 PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory
Assesses PBIS implementation at all three tiers.

59 Assessing Capacity State Capacity Assessment
District Capacity Assessment

60 An Example






66 Implementation Fidelity (SET) Elementary and Middle 2009-10

67 Implementation Fidelity (SET) By Factor for Elem and Middle 2009-10



70 Summary Implementation at scale is possible
Consider the cluster of core features needed for scaling Admin support, Technical capacity, demonstrations Small demonstrations may be necessary but insufficient Build in system for adapting the program to fit the local context while retaining the core features. Consider an implementation plan with established procedures for improving efficiency of implementation Measure fidelity of implementation as a part of effective practice. Sustained implementation requires continuous regeneration Always emphasize, measure and report on valued outcomes



73 Reflection Schools District
1. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are using PBIS? 2. Do we have a regular way to assess if we are benefiting students 3. Do we have clear expectations for the District/Regions District 1. Does our district have the “capacity” to select and implement effective practices…. Like PBIS. 2. Does our district have the capacity to sustain effective practices (data , training, coaching, evaluation) State/ Commonwealth (build district capacity… 1. Do we have a way to help districts/ state offices select effective practices and align federal/state initiatives? 2. Do we have a way to Train/Coach/ Evaluate across the three types of districts/regions. 3. Do we have “Decision Systems” that promote implementation and improvement.

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