Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Tourism: Capacity Building & Educational Needs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sustainable Tourism: Capacity Building & Educational Needs Dr. Acolla Lewis-CameronUniversity of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad
2 Outline Analyse the unique context of SIS Examine the role of education in achieving sustainable tourism developmentExplore specific tourism educational needsRecommend ways in which tourism education can contribute to sustainable tourism development in SIS
3 SIS- A Unique ContetThe tourism industry in many SIS is the mainstay of the local economies with a significant degree of foreign ownershipThe small scale of an island’s physical resources cause it to be far more susceptible to the negative effects of mass development and greatly increased usage which tourism brings
4 Economic DependenceTourism is often times the only or one of (2) activities that sustains these economiesThe share of tourism in GDP ranges from a 1/3 to ½ for most islandsIt is the main generator of employment for the region – (1) in every (4) jobs
5 Foreign DominanceCapitalisation of government incentives by transnationals – tax-free concessionsLoss of control over local resourcesLack of planningExcessive foreign exchange leakagesPoor linkages in the local economies
6 Fragile Natural Environment Waste water discharge from hotels & cruise shipsDestruction of coral reefs e.g. Cayman IslandsConstruction of tourist facilities in environmentally sensitive areas e.g. Maracas Beach, Montego Bay AirportBeach erosion; dumping of wasteImpact of climate change & natural disasters e.g. hurricanes
7 The Sustainability Challenge Creating & maintaining a sustainable tourism society is a major challenge for SIS in the face ofOverdependence on tourismNegative effects of climate changeDepletion of natural resources
8 Sustainable Tourism“Tourism which is developed & maintained in an area (community, environment) in such a manner & at such a scale that it remains viable over an indefinite period & does not degrade or alter the environment (human & physical) in which it exists to such a degree that it prohibits the successful development & well being of other activities & processes” (Butler, 1993:29)
9 Tradeoffs among the Three Main objectives of Sustainable Development Economic EfficiencySocial EquityPreservation of the Environment
10 Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) ESD involves approaches to teaching and learning that integrate goals for conservation, social justice, appropriate development and democracy into a vision and mission of personal and social change for sustainabilityIt challenges the way people think about the world, the way they live in it and relate with each other. (UNESCO, 2010)
11 ESD- Key PrinciplesEnable students to link issues of tourism and sustainability to their own lives/actionsCreate learning spaces/opportunities within tourism activities to explore or deepen understanding of sustainabilityFacilitate students to uncover and reflect on their assumptions, values and beliefs or worldviews through tourism activities and discuss how sustainable these are.
12 Tourism Educational Needs- The SIS Context Shift from problem identification to problem resolutionMore holistic view of the tourism industryBroader influence on curriculum space- greater stakeholder inputNeed for a participatory, interactive, integrative, reflective, analytical, as well as value-driven approach to tourism education
13 Tourism Curriculum: A Contested Space Vocational Tourism Educationtourism is viewed as a phenomenon that should be organised and managed in such a way that it brings profit to tourism businesses and satisfaction to the paying tourist.narrow concentration on consumers and producersis to produce graduates who can be readily recruited to the labour market, and who can make a positive contribution to profitability or other aims of tourism organisations
14 Tourism Curriculum: A Contested Space Liberal Tourism Educationprovides students with a holistic understanding of tourism as a phenomenon and not simply as an industryit encourages students to adopt a critical perspective on the tourism knowledge gainedstudents are encouraged to consider alternative tourism scenarios such as tourism and the environment, tourism and politics that focus on the wider issues in the society
15 Curriculum Space & its Influences- need for broader stakeholder input
16 Education and Sustainable Tourism Integrated Tourism EducationIncorporating Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) principles into tourism education curriculumExperiential learning- hands on participatory activitiesLive projectsCommunity programmes
17 Education and Sustainable Tourism InternshipsEstablishing internships within the industry that serve as a knowledge transfer partnership where students are able to use their knowledge/expertise at the organization to help achieve their goals or moreover the goals of the industry.In the UK there is an established programme called Knowledge Transfer Partnerships (KTP) “The partnership involves one or more recently qualified persons (Associates) to facilitate this transfer of skills and expertise. The Associate works full-time within the company on a project central to their needs and is jointly supervised by company personnel and a senior academic.”
18 Education and Sustainable Tourism Developing research councilsResearch councils are statutory bodies that advise the government on current research being undertaken in different academic fields and how it contributes to policy development.The Australian Research Council works with the mission “to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community”. It has been successful in developing partnership projects between industry and higher education to foster international competitiveness in the industry.
19 Education and Sustainable Tourism Research centres as part of universitiesWithin many universities there are research centres that unite academics in related fields to conduct continuous research in their particular area of study.According to the University of Surrey one of the many schools with a formidable research centre “Research Centres strengthen and reinforce areas of existing research excellence within the School; whilst bringing together researchers from across the School who are currently working in different disciplines, subject groups or who are external to the School.”
20 Education and Sustainable Tourism Research units in ministriesHaving direct access to research allows ministries to obtain the needed information to guide policy development by meeting the needs of the ministries with respect to specific areas of research.In turn they can partner with universities to use graduate students to carry out research topics/themes generated from these units.
21 Education and Sustainable Tourism Establishment of an e-LoungeAn environment for the meeting of the minds; exchange of ideas; dissemination of research; updates on cutting innovations; facilitation of surveys for new products; expert advice.