Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Product and Service Design

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Product and Service Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Product and Service Design
CHAPTER 4 Product and Service Design

2 Product and Service Design
Major factors in design strategy Cost Quality Time-to-market Customer satisfaction Competitive advantage Product and service design – or redesign – should be closely tied to an organization’s strategy

3 Product or Service Design Activities
Translate customer wants and needs into product and service requirements Refine existing products and services Develop new products and services Formulate quality goals Formulate cost targets Construct and test prototypes Document specifications

4 Reasons for Product or Service Design
Economic Social and demographic Political, liability, or legal Competitive Technological

5 Objectives of Product and Service Design
Main focus Customer satisfaction Secondary focus Function of product/service Cost/profit Quality Appearance Ease of production/assembly Ease of maintenance/service

6 Designing For Operations
Taking into account the capabilities of the organization in designing goods and services

7 Legal, Ethical, and Environmental Issues
FDA, OSHA, IRS Product liability Uniform commercial code Ethical Releasing products with defects Environmental EPA

8 Regulations & Legal Considerations
Product Liability - A manufacturer is liable for any injuries or damages caused by a faulty product. Uniform Commercial Code - Products carry an implication of merchantability and fitness.

9 Designers Adhere to Guidelines
Produce designs that are consistant with the goals of the company Give customers the value they expect Make health and safety a primary concern Consider potential harm to the environment

10 Other Issues in Product and Service Design
Product/service life cycles How much standardization Product/service reliability Range of operating conditions

11 Life Cycles of Products or Services
Figure 4.1 Time Introduction Growth Maturity Saturation Decline Demand

12 For Products and Services
CHAPTER 5 Capacity Planning For Products and Services

13 Capacity Planning Capacity is the upper limit or ceiling on the load that an operating unit can handle. The basic questions in capacity handling are: What kind of capacity is needed? How much is needed? When is it needed?

14 Importance of Capacity Decisions
Impacts ability to meet future demands Affects operating costs Major determinant of initial costs Involves long-term commitment Affects competitiveness Affects ease of management Globalization adds complexity Impacts long range planning

15 Capacity Design capacity Effective capacity Actual output
maximum output rate or service capacity an operation, process, or facility is designed for Effective capacity Design capacity minus allowances such as personal time, maintenance, and scrap Actual output rate of output actually achieved--cannot exceed effective capacity.

16 Efficiency and Utilization
Actual output Efficiency = Effective capacity Utilization = Design capacity Both measures expressed as percentages

17 Efficiency/Utilization Example
Design capacity = 50 trucks/day Effective capacity = 40 trucks/day Actual output = 36 units/day Actual output = units/day Efficiency = = 90% Effective capacity units/ day Utilization = Actual output = units/day = 72% Design capacity units/day

18 Determinants of Effective Capacity
Facilities Product and service factors Process factors Human factors Operational factors Supply chain factors External factors

19 Strategy Formulation Capacity strategy for long-term demand
Demand patterns Growth rate and variability Facilities Cost of building and operating Technological changes Rate and direction of technology changes Behavior of competitors Availability of capital and other inputs

20 Key Decisions of Capacity Planning
Amount of capacity needed Timing of changes Need to maintain balance Extent of flexibility of facilities Capacity cushion – extra demand intended to offset uncertainty

21 Steps for Capacity Planning
Estimate future capacity requirements Evaluate existing capacity Identify alternatives Conduct financial analysis Assess key qualitative issues Select one alternative Implement alternative chosen Monitor results

22 Make or Buy Available capacity Expertise Quality considerations
Nature of demand Cost Risk

23 Developing Capacity Alternatives
Design flexibility into systems Take stage of life cycle into account Take a “big picture” approach to capacity changes Prepare to deal with capacity “chunks” Attempt to smooth out capacity requirements Identify the optimal operating level

24 Economies of Scale Economies of scale Diseconomies of scale
If the output rate is less than the optimal level, increasing output rate results in decreasing average unit costs Diseconomies of scale If the output rate is more than the optimal level, increasing the output rate results in increasing average unit costs

25 Evaluating Alternatives
Figure 5.3 Production units have an optimal rate of output for minimal cost. Minimum cost Average cost per unit Rate of output Minimum average cost per unit

26 Evaluating Alternatives
Figure 5.4 Minimum cost & optimal operating rate are functions of size of production unit. Small plant Average cost per unit Medium plant Large plant Output rate

27 Planning Service Capacity
Need to be near customers Capacity and location are closely tied Inability to store services Capacity must be matched with timing of demand Degree of volatility of demand Peak demand periods

28 Cost-Volume Relationships
Figure 5.5a Amount ($) Q (volume in units) Total cost = VC + FC Total variable cost (VC) Fixed cost (FC)

29 Cost-Volume Relationships
Figure 5.5b Amount ($) Q (volume in units) Total revenue

30 Cost-Volume Relationships
Figure 5.5c Amount ($) Q (volume in units) BEP units Profit Total revenue Total cost

31 Break-Even Problem with Step Fixed Costs
Figure 5.6a Quantity FC + VC = TC Step fixed costs and variable costs. 1 machine 2 machines 3 machines

32 Break-Even Problem with Step Fixed Costs
Figure 5.6b $ TC BEP 2 3 TR Quantity 1 Multiple break-even points

33 Assumptions of Cost-Volume Analysis
One product is involved Everything produced can be sold Variable cost per unit is the same regardless of volume Fixed costs do not change with volume Revenue per unit constant with volume Revenue per unit exceeds variable cost per unit

34 Financial Analysis Cash Flow - the difference between cash received from sales and other sources, and cash outflow for labor, material, overhead, and taxes. Present Value - the sum, in current value, of all future cash flows of an investment proposal.

35 Calculating Processing Requirements

36 Location/Criteria PS11 Guitar site location

37 Demand/ patients/ staffing/ variation at St. Alexius Hospital
Capacity/Design STA11 Demand/ patients/ staffing/ variation at St. Alexius Hospital

38 Process Flow Improvement
SU6 Redesign of layout at Toyota

Download ppt "Product and Service Design"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google