Managerial tasks w Planning w Organizing w Leading w Control Innovations - learning cycle ( 80% of improvements came from the human side not from automation Failures in IT or ERP applications are based on human factors )
Learning capability (Source: Boerner, Macher and Teece, 2001) The ability of an organisation to learn, adapt, change and renew itself over time: 1) Managerial and organisations processes refer essentially to how things get done in firms; 2) The strategic position of a firm pertains to its current endowment of technology and IP as well as its customer base and upstream relations with suppliers; and 3) Paths are available to a firm.
Knowledge management Definition: w An approach to adding and creating value by more actively leveraging know-how, experience, and judgment resident within and, in many cases, outside of an organization
Human resources w Recruiting the right people w Stimulating them to internalize the information knowledge, skills and attitudes needed for success w Creating systematic technological and organizational structures to capture, focus and leverage intellect w Demanding and rewarding top performance from all players
Individual learning w Process w Non-linear w Cumulative w Need of communication and interaction
From individual to organizational learning - some definitions w Learning institution/organization/ knowledge-creating company is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour to reflect new knowledge and insights.
Characteristics of organizational learning w It is cumulative. w Not simply the sum of the absorptive capacities of its employees. w The structure of communication between the external environment and the organization + among the subunits of the organization + the character and distribution of expertise within the organization.
Categories of learning in the innovation literature (Source: Boerner et al., 2001) Type of learningLocusInnovative focus Learning-by-doingInternal to the firmProduction activities Learning-by-searchingPrimarily internal to the firmCommercial focus mainly R&D related Scientific learningInternal and external to the firm Absorption of new scientific and technological knowledge Learning-by-usingInternal to the firmUse of products and inputs Spillover learningExternal to the firmAbsorbing external knowledge and imitating the practices of rivals
4 basic patterns for creating knowledge in any organization (Source: Nonaka and Takeuchi 1995) w From tacit to tacit (socialization) w From explicit to explicit (articulation) w From tacit to explicit (combination) w From explicit to tacit (internalization)
w Knowledge is changed both by learning and by forgetting. w The flows of learning, remembering, and forgetting and the selection mechanism are all shaped by institutional factors.
DISCUSS w Trade-off between diversity and commonality of knowledge across individuals. w Trade-off between Inward-looking versus outward-looking learning capacities.
Some approaches in structuring institutional learning w For effective implementation of learning organization: Meaning, management and measurement needs to be clarified!!!!
Creating systems and processes that support: Systematic problem solving Experimentation with new approaches Learning from their own experience and past history Learning from the experiences and best practices of others w Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization.
Measurement w Learning curves/ Experience curves w Half-life curve
Be aware: Learning organizations are not built overnight. So, try to: foster an environment that is conducive to learning. open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas.
Learning Processes 1 building learning/KM enablers 2 building and utilizing networks 3 becoming a learning organization
Knowledge Processes w Generating new knowledge w Accessing valuable knowledge from outside w Using accessible knowledge in decision making w Embedding knowledge in processes, products and services w Representing knowledge in documents, databases, and software w Facilitating knowledge growth through culture and incentives w Transferring existing knowledge into other parts of the organization w Measuring the impact of knowledge management
Popular KM Projects w Creating an intranet To support knowledge access and exchange within the organization w Data Warehousing/Knowledge Repositories To capture explicit, codified info wrapped in varying levels of the context To contribute to the maintenance of the firms shared intelligence and organizational memory. w Implementing Decision-Support Tools To improve the ability of employees to make decisions Codified best practices w Groupware to support collaboration To encourage the sharing of ideas in a much more free-flowing manner. To facilitate knowledge generation and transfer
A recent study on TM (Source: Armbrecht et al., 2001) 1. Instill Goals and Strategies w Balanced Scorecard w Regular Reinforcement w Integrated Developmental Business Organisation 2. Enhance Access to Tacit Knowledge w Expertise/Skills Database w Communities of Practice w New-pot-of-coffee Alert w Project Team/Group Seminar w Moderated Discussion Groups w Collaboration Tools w Inverse Poster Presentations w Mind Mapping
3. Provide Search and Retrieval Tools w Portals w Web-searching w Taxonomy- Standardized information classification and indexing scheme. w Technology Yellow Pages w Personalisation w Data and Textual Archives w Desktop Library
4. Promote Creativity w IP Analysis w Website Analysis w Creativity Rooms w Data Mining w Outside Intervention
5. Capture New Learning w Team Learning Through Project Execution w Know-how Web Sites/KM Web Site w Project Process Debriefing w E-Notebooks w Learning Centre of Excellence 6. Provide Supportive Culture w Eliminate Silos w Management Support w Sharing Culture w Employee Orientation/Tours/Link Person or Mentor
Learning Identification Create/acquire knowledge Transfer knowledge Reuse knowledge Protection: IP portfolio Output Acquisition Exploitation Selection Networks Learning enablers: IT infrastructure Learning organisation Knowledge maps, Culture, Teams