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1 LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA. 2 Kent Duffy Senior Airport Planner Federal Aviation Administration Airport Capacity Session LONG BEACH,

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Presentation on theme: "1 LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA. 2 Kent Duffy Senior Airport Planner Federal Aviation Administration Airport Capacity Session LONG BEACH,"— Presentation transcript:


2 2 Kent Duffy Senior Airport Planner Federal Aviation Administration Airport Capacity Session LONG BEACH, CALIFORNIA

3 3 Agenda FAA Airport Capacity Guidance Airport Capacity and Delay AC Replacement NextGen and Airport Capacity Planning

4 4 FAA Airport Capacity Guidance Methods, approach, data sources, and coordination for capacity analysis will vary substantially with airport complexity and project scope Multiple FAA sources for capacity guidance: –AC 150/5070-6B Airport Master Plans –AC 150/ Airport Capacity and Delay –FAA Airport Benefit Cost Analysis Guidance –FAA JO T Air Traffic Control –AC 150/5300 Airport Design Goal is to develop a capacity analysis that is reasonable, defensible, and adequate to inform project decisions

5 Plan for the Capacity Analysis supporting multiple needs Master Plan Capacity Analysis Method/ Approach Baseline Capacity Alternatives Screening and Selection NEPA Noise/Emissions Document BCA Delay Savings

6 Choose an appropriate Method/Approach Method/ApproachExample Model Types Rules of Thumb/HandbookCapacity and Delay AC Analytical/SpreadsheetsAirport Capacity Model Airport Delay Model Queuing ModelsDELAYS Step-Event ModelsTAAM, SIMMOD ADSIM, RDSIM Human-in-the-LoopTower Simulators Reach consensus with Sponsor, FAA, operators, and other stakeholders in advance on approach Less More Data, level of detail, complexity, time/cost

7 Data Sources Operational Data –Surveillance data: FAA ASR, PDARS, airport systems (e.g., ANOMS) –Aviation System Performance Metrics Air Carrier movements: Gate Out, Wheels Off, Wheels On, Gate In (OOOI) ETMS, ASQP, and other sources ATC and Operators –Coordination with the ATCT and/or TRACON is vital, early and throughout the project –Airline Chief Pilots can be excellent resources –Airline Gate Schedules Other –National Climatic Data Center – hourly weather observations –Bureau of Transportation Statistics – Airline Performance/Delays/Costs Comprehensive, detailed data sources exist to support capacity analysis

8 8 Metrics and Limitations Range of potential metrics: –Annual Capacity/Annual Service Volume (ASV) –Hourly Capacity/Throughput –15-minute demand/capacity throughput can be helpful in examining impact of schedule peaks –Pareto curves can be useful in showing capacity ranges during Arrival Push, Departure Push, and Mixed Operations –Average Delay and 90 th or 95 th Percentile Delay Recognize Limitations, particularly for runway-centric models –Ability of the airspace to move aircraft to/from the runway –Taxi movements, runway crossings, and gates can be significant constraints –Weather: VFR/MVFR/IFR and Minimum Vectoring Altitude Typical Metrics

9 9 Key Points In an era of airline schedule uncertainty, evaluate demand levels not specific years Recognize effect of airline schedule peaks on results ASV is a screening tool not project justification Identifying airports as congested or having unacceptable delay is a moving target Recognize limitations of data and models in interpreting results Be wary of inadequate analysis – there is never time to do it right, but there is always time to do it over Adequate coordination with ATC and operators can substantially improve confidence in the analysis

10 10 Capacity and Delay AC Replacement AC 150/ Legacy 150/ ~1983 New AC -6 ~2012? ACRP 3-17 Capacity ACRP 3-20 Delay Data Sources NextGen Performance Factors NPIAS Order Update Tech Center Draft AC + Rules of Thumb Policy and Technical Guidance Airside/Airspace Capacity and Delay Factors

11 NextGen: Evolution of ATC Surveillance Based Control Where we know the aircraft is Procedural Based Control Where we think the aircraft is Trajectory Based Control Where we know the aircraft will be Landmark Navigation Radio Beacons Position Reports VOR/DME RADAR Performance Based Navigation Precise Aircraft Position 4DT Trajectory Based Operations Past Today NextGen

12 Mid-Term NextGen Surveillance and Navigation Improvements Service Todays (Legacy) ATC NextGen – Incremental Roll-Out Airborne Surveillance RadarADS-B Out ADS-B In Precise aircraft position w/ADS-B out Traffic and Flight Information Broadcasts w/ADS-B In NavigationVOR, DMEArea Navigation (RNAV) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) RNAV everywhere and RNP where beneficial Instrument Approach Access ILS, VORWAAS/LPV (near Cat I) GBAS (potential Cat II/III) 500 LPVs per year to all qualifying runways GBAS can support 26 IAPs from single installation Surface Surveillance Eyeball Legacy ASDE ASDE-X with Data Distribution Units Multi-Lateration ADS-B Surface Traffic Management Surface Collaborative Decision Making NextGen systems provide various benefits to airports of different sizes and missions

13 Todays Runway Capacity Arrival + Departure Hourly Capacity Time Optimum Capacity (VFR) Reduced Capacity (IFR) Delays Recovery

14 NextGen Runway Capacity Arrival + Departure Hourly Capacity Time Optimum Capacity (VFR) Reduced Capacity (IFR) Maintain Capacity during Inclement Weather Equivalent Visual Operations More precise merging and spacing Reduced Separation?

15 Backup

16 NextGen is a system of systems that will provide benefits to different sizes of Airports Mid-Term NextGen Benefits Non-Hub Small Hub Medium & Large Hubs Improved access with WAAS/LPV approaches More precise surveillance with ADS-B Improved safety and situational awareness with moving maps, TIS-B, FIS-B, and reduced runway incursions Deconflict airspace in complex multi-airport regions with RNAV and RNP Maintain visual capacity during inclement weather with Equivalent Visual Operations More efficient surface movements with surveillance and Surface Trajectory Management Enhanced flexibility in future airport development plans with revised planning standards for Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) and NAVAIDs critical areas Reduced environmental impact with Optimized Profile Descents and RNAV/RNP routes that are noise-sensitive General use at Airports Design Flexibility Capacity & Efficiency Access & Surveillance Safety Environment

17 NextGen and Airport Capacity Planning NextGen improvements to precisely separate aircraft and redesign airspace should help airports to better maintain optimum (visual) runway throughput during most inclement weather Several approaches to Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Operations (CSPO) that are enabled by ADS-B, RNAV/RNP, PRM-A, and new automation –Increased use of dependent, staggered approaches can improve efficiency for runways spaced less than 2,500 feet apart using FAA Order criteria –Revised blunder assumptions may lead to reductions in the runway separation needed for independent arrivals to as low as 3,000 feet with RNAV/RNP/LPV/GLS or ILS –PRM-A may allow for independent arrivals to runways spaced as low as 2,500 feet –In the long-term, ongoing research on paired or tandem approaches is aimed at further reducing runway spacing for simultaneous arrivals NAVAID critical areas on the airport surface may be substantially reduced if ground-based NAVAIDS are decommissioned in favor of LPV and GLS approaches Single Runway Ground NAVAIDs Parallel Runways As NextGen evolves, airport planning standards will be revised so that airports can integrate these factors into their long-term planning

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