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ENG 400: British Literature. Struggles between king and Parliament led to a bloody civil war, culminating in the execution of Charles I, and subsequently,

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Presentation on theme: "ENG 400: British Literature. Struggles between king and Parliament led to a bloody civil war, culminating in the execution of Charles I, and subsequently,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENG 400: British Literature

2 Struggles between king and Parliament led to a bloody civil war, culminating in the execution of Charles I, and subsequently, to a bloodless revolution deposing Charles IIs successor, James II. Industrial and Agricultural revolutions boosted manufacturing and farming production. Revolutions in America and France showed that people could change their form of government.


4 Charles I (crowned in 1625) Clashed with Parliament Needed money for wars, but Parliament refused funding Turned to other means Extorted loans from wealthy Pressed poor into service Dissolved Parliament for 11 years Exacerbated religious controversy Insisted that clergymen conform Persecuted and tortured dissenters

5 1645: Parliaments forces, led by Oliver Cromwell, defeated the royalist army 1647: King Charles I taken as prisoner 1649: Radical Puritans dominate Parliament King Charles I tried and convicted of treason; beheaded on January 30 th

6 After Charles Is beheading, England without king Oliver Cromwell led new government, called English Commonwealth 1653: dissolved Parliament and named himself Lord Protector Ruled as virtual dictator until death in 1658

7 1658: At time of Cromwells death, England tired of taxation, violence, and disorder 1660: Parliament offered crown to exiled son of Charles I, restoring the monarchy Charles II had spent his exile in France Copied fashions and lifestyle of Paris Was an avid patron of the arts and sciences

8 1685: Charles II died, succeeded by his brother James James II, a devout Catholic, had religious differences with Puritan Parliament Parliament invited James IIs daughter, Mary, to rule jointly with her husband, William of Orange Rather than fight, James escaped to France Known as the Glorious Revolution because it was accomplished without bloodshed


10 1689: William and Mary agreed to respect a Bill of Rights passed by Parliament Guaranteed Parliament right to approve all taxes Forbade monarch to suspend the law Established a limited, or constitutional monarchy Balance of power shifted away from monarch and over to Parliament Eventually, Parliament became the ruling force of the country Today, monarch is largely ceremonial

11 By late 1600s, new farm tools made it possible for farms to produce much more food More food population surge New tools reduced need for farmhands many people left the countryside Former farmhands became factory hands who ran machines in growing towns (early Industrial Revolution)

12 British inventions after 1750 made the spinning and weaving of cloth more efficient Steam engine perfected and adapted to run power loom Factories built to produce large quantities of cotton cloth Merchants sold textile goods all over world

13 Scientific revolution Enlightenment thinking Enlightenment beliefs: through reason and observation of nature, human beings could discover the order underlying all things 1687: Sir Isaac Newton published study of gravity By 1750, realities of industrialization eclipsed social theories of Enlightenment Progress had led to misery for millions of people. Writers and intellectuals began to lose faith in the ability of human reason to solve every problem.

14 By late 1700s, progress celebrated by the Enlightenment thinkers seemed to be causing millions to suffer As they lost faith in the power of human reason, writers turned away from the standards of neoclassicism

15 Theme Overview John Bunyan and The Pilgrims Progress Amelia Lanier and Eves Apology in Defense of Women Richard Lovelace and his poetry Jonathan Swift and A Modest Proposal

16 Tradition: a societys approved values, beliefs, roles, and practices Reform: attempts to change traditional practices and ideas Notes: Reformers often base their ideas on traditional beliefs. Both traditionalists and reformers explore multiple meanings of values terms such as strength, honor, and freedom. Arguments on either side are usually based in differing political, religious, and philosophical assumptions.

17 John Bunyan Apprenticed to his father, a tinker and had little formal education Drafted into army; fought on side of Parliament Married a Puritan in 1648 and converted Became popular preacher by 1655 Arrested and jailed for 12 years when Charles II took throne (preaching outside the Church of England) Studied the Bible, using at as a guide to write books Began Pilgrims Progress during second, shorter prison term The Pilgrims Progress Combines simple, vivid language and characters with humor and suspense Enormously popular, outsold every other religious work in English except the King James Bible

18 Allegory: a literary form in which all the parts of a story have a symbolic meaning Symbols : objects, people, or places that stand for something beyond themselves Every element of an allegory is symbolic. Reading an allegory involves understanding it on the Literal level: Pilgrims Progress tells the story of an adventure-packed journey Symbolic level: It tells the complex story of a Christian souls journey through life to salvation The purpose of an allegory is to teach a moral lesson.

19 heedless (adj) not taking notice inattentive wallowed (v) Rolled around in mud, water, etc. burden (n) something that weighs one down a heavy load or responsibility

20 endeavored (v) made a serious attempt tried dominions (n) territories governed by an individual or group substantial (adj) large in size or strength

21 Legacy and Importance Saw need for womens rights before modern movements Questioned societys vision of women and limited roles allowed to them Today, considered a visionary feminist who spoke out against injustice From Court Life to Working Woman Father, husband, and son were all court musicians Family not wealthy, despite court connections After husbands death, opened school outside London Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum (Hail, God, King of the Jews), published in 1611 Volume of poetry containing Eves Apology in Defense of Women Questioned privileges of upper class Called for womens social and religious equality

22 Breach (n) Breaking or being broken Failure to observe the terms of an agreement discretion (n) care in what one does and says Strait (adj) strict Reprove (v) rebuke find fault for an action

23 Son of a wealthy family, considered very charming While at Oxford, wrote a play, painted, and played music. Was a firm royalist, or supporter of Charles I Sent to demand that Parliament restore kings authority; immediately arrested While in prison, wrote To Althea, From Prison When released, spent his fortune equipping kings army After king was defeated, joined the wars in Spain Upon return to England, imprisoned again by the Puritans (To Lucasta, on Going to the Wars) Cause and date of death unknown

24 inconstancy (n) fickleness changeableness fettered (adj) chained hermitage (n) a place of isolation and quiet

25 Born in Dublin, Ireland, to English parents Enjoyed the social, literary, and political power of England Disturbed by brutal treatment of the Irish by their English overlords Satirical writing threatened career in Church; remained staunch defender of Anglican faith Considered a generous and educated man who despised fanaticism, selfishness, and pride. Spent large part of income on charitable causes in Dublin Wrote many pamphlets on cruel treatment of the Irish Was frustrated by lack of public response to Irish plight

26 Satire: writing that uses humor to expose and ridicule vice (wrongdoing) and folly (stupidity) Strategies for satire include Understatement: downplaying actual meaning Hyperbole: exaggeration Sarcasm: using positive words to express a negative meaning Irony: contradiction between reality and appearance or between actual and intended meaning of words

27 A Modest Proposal Satirical response to uncaring attitudes toward Irish Aimed to Call attention to Irelands needs Shame powerful individuals who refused to take action Key Issues Poverty in Ireland triggered other social problems, like starvation and homelessness. Much of land owned by absentee English landlords who charged high rents and took Irish resources. English upper class/aristocracy grew wealthy by reducing the Irish to poverty. Reductio ad absurdum : a satirical strategy that involves pretending to agree with a point of view, and then exaggerating it to the point of being ridiculous

28 Censure (v) Strongly disapprove condemn Commodity (n) Product that is bought or sold Collateral (adj) related side (benefit or consequence) Conjecture (v) guess

29 contrive (v) think up devise deference (n) courteous regard or respect encumbrance (n) burden expedient (n) device or strategy used in a difficult situation solution

30 incur (v) acquire or bring upon oneself schism (n) division of a group into factions or sides sustenance (n) food or money to support life

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