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Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23 The Great Depression, the New Deal, and World War II 1929-1945
Essential Questions

2 Section 1 Texans Go To War
The Stock Market Crash of 1929 brought hard times to Texas and the rest of the nation and world. During the era that followed, known as the Great Depression, many Texans were out of work and searching for relief.

3 Section 1 Summary The stock market crashed in 1929
Affected the whole US (including Texas) This time in history is known as the Great Depression During this time, many people were out of work and they needed help

4 Dark Days of October

5 From Boom to Bust 1920s were good time for US businesses but not farming Crop prices fell Banks went out of business because farmers could not pay debts Other businesses that didn’t do well Railroads Coal Mines Textile Industries

6 From Boom to Bust, con’t In 1920s, many people invested in the Stock Market Companies sell stock (shares in their companies) to raise money and grow Stock: ownership in a corporation, usually divided into shares If the company does well, the stockholders get their money back from their investments…usually make more money Stockholder: owner of the stock

7 From Boom to Bust, con’t In 1920s, people began to speculate on the stock market…they risked their money hoping that prices would rise quickly…then they would sell the stock and make a quick profit Speculate: to buy or sell stock in hopes of making money from changes in the stock market Other people used credit to buy stock they really couldn’t afford (buying on margin) For a few years, rising prices as companies grew made a lot of people rich But, then the Stock Market crashed (October, 1929) Crash: a sudden decline or failure

8 The Stock Market Crash of 1929
Thursday, October 24, 1929 Stock holders sold a lot of stock (13 million shares)….Prices fell Friday, October 25-Saturday, October 26, 1929 To balance the falling prices, banks bought stocks…prices fell again Monday, October 28 Prices fell again Tuesday, October 29, 1929 Stock holders sold more stock…trying to not lose any more money (16 million shares) So much money was lost on this day…became known as Black Tuesday

9 Stock Market Crash, con’t
After Black Tuesday, stock prices kept falling and people/banks lost 26 billion dollars Prices of stock were lower than people bought them for…no way to make money on them People couldn’t pay debts Banks ran out of money…people lost all money they had in banks Factories, stores, businesses closed People lost jobs

10 The Great Depression Lasted from 1929-beginning of WWII …longest and worst economic depression in US history People lost homes and farms About ¼ of US workers didn’t have jobs At first, Texas was not as bad off as other parts of the country …not as many Texans had invested in the stock market, still more farmers, etc Unemployment Rate wasn’t as high in Texas as in the North Unemployment Rate: the percentage of people who are out of work

11 The Great Depression, con’t
But as depression years continued, Texans couldn’t sell as much cotton…prices dropped and less demand By 1933, many Texas businesses closed and many Texans were out of work

12 Images of Depression

13 Cities Try to Help Texans Cope
People ran out of money State couldn’t help much So, city governments and civic organizations stepped in to help In Dallas/Ft. Worth…city chambers of commerce sponsored gardening projects to help people grow food Some cities had plays/musicals to help raise money Some city governments paid Texans to build parks, buildings, clean up cities, work on streets and sewers, etc Some cities allowed homeless Texans to live in public buildings But eventually even money for these type of things ran out

14 Drought and Dust Torment Rural Texans
Bad draught hit Great Plains area of US in mid 1930s (around 1935) Since the farmers couldn’t grow crops, the fields were just dirt Then, the wind began to blow and dust covered everything …call black blizzards So strong it blast the paint off cars Blocked sunlight for hours Killed animals and damaged people’s eyes and lungs

15 Drought and Dust, con’t Between , things were so bad in Texas Panhandle that 1/3 of farm families left…same thing going on in OK, KS, CO, NM This region became known as the Dust Bowl

16 America Dust and Depression

17 Dust Bowl Years

18 The Dust Bowl

19 Women and Minorities Face Hard Times
Depression years were especially hard on women, African Americans, and Hispanics Minorities fired to free up job for white person Women teachers were fired if husband had job White men had priority on jobs Many African American men/families were homeless

20 Women/Minorities, con’t
So, many African Americans joined the Democratic Party and the NAACP…this group worked to end discrimination Hispanics were denied monetary help They ended up leaving Texas In 1929, LULAC was formed (League of United Latin American Citizens) Helped Hispanics in Texas and helped to end discrimination

21 Minorities During the Depression

22 Section 2 Texans Look for a New Deal
Roosevelt’s New Deal began to bring Texans much needed relief from the Great Depression. However, recovery was slow. To cheer Texans, the state threw a giant party to celebrate its centennial.

23 Section 2 Summary After the Great Depression, President Roosevelt’s New Deal provided jobs, etc But, the economy was slow to recover To cheer up the Texans, the state threw a giant party to celebrate the Texas centennial

24 Roosevelt Offers a New Deal
In 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt (democrat) was elected president of US (defeated republican Herbert Hoover) VP was John Nance Garner nicknamed Cactus Jack; from Texas President Roosevelt promised Americans that better days were coming (that Depression would end) Campaign Song: “Happy Days are Here Again” Franklin D. Roosevelt John Nance Garner

25 New Deal, con’t Roosevelt passed new laws and created new programs
To create jobs and improve the economy Program was called the New Deal Famous Texans during these years Sam Rayburn: US Congressman Helped pass laws that outlawed the actions that led to Great Depression Jesse Jones: Directed Reconstruction Finance Corporation which gave money to banks and corporations to get business started again Created the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Insures the money that people deposit into banks…so people won’t lose money if banks fail

26 Programs Put Texans to Work
2 New Deal Programs helped Texans WPA: Works Progress Administration PWA: Public Works Administration Gave people jobs building buildings…schools, post offices, hospitals, etc Gave writers, musicians, and artists jobs Texans worked for these agencies from Built River Walk in San Antonio Built San Jacinto Monument Built dams on lakes Wrote travel guides, performed plays, painted murals, etc

27 Providing Jobs for Youth
NYA: National Youth Administration Supported by Lyndon B. Johnson Gave jobs to young people aged 16-25 Worked in offices, libraries, schools Built playgrounds and roadside parks CCC: Civilian Conservation Corps Young people worked from Earned $30.00/month Built dams, state parks, helped to fight floods if needed, helped preserve farmland, etc

28 Helping Farmers New Deal programs helped farmers
Programs to help soil conservation programs AAA: Agricultural Adjustment Administration Paid farmers to plant fewer acres of crops…produced less/prices went up Soil Conservation Service, AAA, CCC Taught farmers how to keep soil from blowing away Helped farmers plant trees Helped create ponds/reservoirs to collect water

29 “Ma” Ferguson Returns Regardless of New Deal programs, things were still tough in Texas In 1932, “Ma” Ferguson elected again for governor (replaced Governor Ross Sterling) Cut state spending Cut taxes on many things except for oil tax She also did some corrupt things Gave federal relief funds to friends/political supporters Fired some of the Texas Rangers…replaced them with some of her friends/supporters

30 An Era of Lawlessness Crime nationwide increased during Depression years In Texas…lots of killing and crime George “Machine Gun” Kelly Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow Texas Rangers tracked them down Killed by lawman Frank Hamer 1934, Texas elected new governor James V. Allred Created Department of Public Safety Created Texas Employment Commission Got tired of corrupt ways of “Ma” Ferguson Governor James Allred

31 Texas Celebrates Its Centennial
1936: Texas celebrated 100 years (Centennial) of freedom from Mexico Centennial: one-hundredth anniversary Wanted a big celebration Built Fair Park in Dallas for 25 million Housed 50 buildings Cavalcade of Texas (showed 4 centuries of life in Texas) Hall of Negro Life Called Texas Centennial Exposition Site of first World’s Fair in the Southwest Construction provided jobs for many Texans

32 Section 3 World War II Brings Changes to Texas
Government spending during World War ll finally put an end to the Great Depression. Brave Texans served in battle and others contributed whatever they could on the home front.

33 Section 3 Summary The end of the Great Depression happened when the government started spending more money during World War II Many Texans contributed in many ways during the war…on the battlefield and at home When World War II started, the Great Depression ended

34 The World at War Again Great Depression affected other countries as well as the US In some countries, dictators rose up and said they could make life better Once they were in power, they started attacking other countries This started World War II World War II: US entered into World War II: 1941

35 The World at War Again, con’t
Allies Great Britain, France, Soviet Union Axis Germany, Italy, Japan US entered war when Japan dropped bomb on Pearl Harbor on December 7,1941 US sided with the Allies US declared war on Japan first then added Germany and Italy a few days later

36 The World at War Again, con’t
750, 000 Texans served in World War II Including 12, 000 women Demand for goods for the war helped Texas businesses Dallas/Ft. Worth built airplanes Texas Gulf Coast towns launched warships and cargo vessels Texas oil helped with fuel

37 The War Effort in Texas Texas trained many soldiers
Had 15 major military bases Had 40 airfields Naval flight training base in Corpus Christi was largest in world Texas had prisoner-of-war camps 50, 000 prisoners-of-war Prisoners worked on farms and military bases to help Allies

38 The War Effort in Texas, con’t
Texans “sacrificed” with food They planted Victory Gardens They bought war bonds They collected scrap iron and old tires Women worked while men were at war See “Women in the Workforce” on p. 489

39 A Bounty of Texas Heroes
Dwight D. Eisenhower Born in Texas …lived most of life in Denison, TX Supreme Allied Commander General Planned D-Day into Normandy, France in 1944 Accepted Germany’s surrender in 1945 Elected president…mainly due to his valor during the war Valor: personal bravery

40 Bounty of Texas Heroes, con’t
Admiral Chester W. Nimitz Commander of Pacific Fleet Turned back Japanese navy Was present when Japanese surrendered about the USS Missouri on September 2, 1945 Oveta Culp Hobby Wife of former Texas Governor, William Hobby Colonel of Women’s Army Corp (WAC) Joined Navy, Coast Guard, and Marines Served as Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASP) Provided air support for Allies

41 Dwight Eisenhower Chester Nimitz Oveta Culp Hobby
Oveta Culp Hobby

42 Bounty of Texas Heroes, con’t
22,000 Texans died in World War II Many Texans received medals and commendations for bravery 30 Texans received the Congressional Medal of Honor …highest award given for bravery beyond call of duty Johnnie Hutchins (US Navy) Saved ship from a torpedo Steered ship out of torpedo’s path…died holding on the wheel of the ship Had a ship named after him

43 Diverse Groups Unite in the War Effort
Minority Texans received honors 5 Medal of Honor recipients were Hispanic An Hispanic doctor, Dr. Hector Garcia, received the Bronze Star and 6 battle stars African Americans won medals Doris Miller (a man) Awarded the Navy Cross Manned a machine gun at Pearl Harbor and KIA Navy named a ship after him Cuba Gooding, Jr. played Miller in the 2001 movie, Pearl Harbor Leonard Harmon Died while protecting a wounded ship mate In 1943, was first African American to have a ship named after him…the USS Harmon

44 Congressional Medal of Honor
US Army Doris Miller Johnnie Hutchins

45 Audie Murphy Most decorated soldier in war US Army
Received 33 awards Received every US medal for valor Received the Medal of Honor During a battle in France, he jumped into a burning tanker ship, took control of the ship’s guns, and killed or wounded 50 enemy soldiers, stopped an enemy tank From Farmersville, TX 35 miles northeast of Dallas Became an actor

46 Texas After the War World War II ended in 1945
US President: Franklin D. Roosevelt Serving his 4th term He died in office VP Harry Truman took over as President Texas made the gradual change from a rural state to an urban state More sophisticated More dependent on industry and not as much on farming African Americans, Hispanics, and women were determined to have equal rights

47 Picture Sources

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