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Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Richard N. Pitt & Steven Tepper Vanderbilt University.

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Presentation on theme: "Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Richard N. Pitt & Steven Tepper Vanderbilt University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Double Majoring Influences, Identities, & Impacts Richard N. Pitt & Steven Tepper Vanderbilt University Richard N. Pitt & Steven Tepper Vanderbilt University

2 who. First generation students double major less than their peers do and are more likely to choose two similar majors. Black students double major less often than their peers do. At the 9 Teagle institutions, Asian students double major more often than others.

3 who. Men and women double major at similar rates... but combinations differ Mens top five? Two business, economics & engineering, economics & political science, economics & foreign language, economics & math Womens top five? Foreign language & international studies, foreign language & political science, foreign language & psychology, foreign language & human development, foreign language & biology... as do their reasons for picking majors Men want high prestige money-makers Women want majors that represent them... and reasons for double majoring at all Men want to be more competitive Women want breadth and to have two majors that reflect who they are

4 what. Ten Most Popular Major Concentrations Foreign Languages Economics Business Engineering Political Science Biology Psychology English History Mathematics Ten Most Popular Major Combinations Two Business Majors Foreign Language & International Studies Foreign Language & Political Science Economics & Mathematics Economics & Political Science Foreign Language & Biology Foreign Language & Economics Foreign Language & Business Economics & Engineering Foreign Language & Psychology

5 what. Ten Most Popular Major Concentrations Foreign Languages Economics Business Engineering Political Science Biology Psychology English History Mathematics Ten Most Popular Major Combinations Two Business Majors Foreign Language & International Studies Foreign Language & Political Science Economics & Mathematics Economics & Political Science Foreign Language & Biology Foreign Language & Economics Foreign Language & Business Economics & Engineering Foreign Language & Psychology

6 when. Double majors declare their first major about a semester earlier than single majors declare their only major Double majors take about a semesters worth of additional courses

7 Dartmouth College 19% Duke University 22% Emory University 16% Knox College 28% Ohio State University 6% College of Wooster Unavailable Trinity University 40% University of Texas- Austin Unavailable Vanderbilt University 32% Dartmouth College 19% Duke University 22% Emory University 16% Knox College 28% Ohio State University 6% College of Wooster Unavailable Trinity University 40% University of Texas- Austin Unavailable Vanderbilt University 32% where. Institutional Type Baccalaureate Only Institutions Public Institutions Smaller Institutions Demographic Composition Traditional-Aged (18-24) Populations Predominantly White Student Bodies Low Numbers Of Students Receiving Loan Aid Inter-Institutional Prestige & Status Highly Selective (i.e., High SAT) Institutions High Tuition Institutions Institutional Type Baccalaureate Only Institutions Public Institutions Smaller Institutions Demographic Composition Traditional-Aged (18-24) Populations Predominantly White Student Bodies Low Numbers Of Students Receiving Loan Aid Inter-Institutional Prestige & Status Highly Selective (i.e., High SAT) Institutions High Tuition Institutions

8 why. Half of all double majors say theyre motivated by utilitarian and expressive values breadth and depth in their training T HEY P ICK S ECOND M AJORS B ECAUSE 1. They can get the grades they want 2. They have amassed a lot of credits 3. They think coursework is flexible. T HEY P ICK S ECOND M AJORS B ECAUSE 1. They can get the grades they want 2. They have amassed a lot of credits 3. They think coursework is flexible.

9 impact on student time. Most say double majoring has no or even positive effects on joining student clubs and participating in campus activities I scramble to take intensive science courses. I took three lab classes in a term and it destroyed me. I pulled like 30 all- nighters. I found it extremely limiting I was bombarded with at least two labs a week. You dont have time to go to practice and you cant travel because you cant make up these labs because they are 4 hours long and no one wants to proctor them

10 impact on student thinking. Enhancements are shaped by the mix of majors. Preliminary evidence finds gains (creativity) and losses (integration) with STEM and non-STEM majors combinations.

11 impact on student exposure. Hyper-specialization (deepening) reduces and hypo-specialization (spanning) increases breadth of students knowledge for STEM and SOCS Science majors are the most concentrated of the disciplines (even when spanning) and humanities majors are the least concentrated (even when deepening)

12 impact on integrative learning. To enhance the impact of double majors... students must develop the capacity for deep, integrative learningsomething that is difficult for many students to do on their own. George D. Kuh My teachers encourage me to apply and use knowledge across two majors My teachers encourage me to apply and use knowledge across two majors I can think of an assignment drawing on skills or knowledge in both majors. I can think of an assignment drawing on skills or knowledge in both majors. I have completed assignments for one major that could be relevant in the other. I have completed assignments for one major that could be relevant in the other. Students report being able to integrate knowledge across their two disciplines, especially if being able to do so motivated the decision to double major.

13 impact on student outcomes. Double majors (especially spanners) majors are less relevant to their eventual jobs Double majors are more likely to earn post-baccalaureate degrees Double majors actually earn less (about $866) than single majors As Usual, Combinations Matter Arts dramatically increase science incomes Business deepeners/spanners earn more STEM deepeners/spanners earn more Social Science spanners earn more Humanities deepeners earn more

14 R ECOMMENDATIONS F OSTER I NTENT R EQUIRE S TUDENTS TO E XPLAIN T HE D ECISION TO D OUBLE M AJOR AND ANY PLANS TO INTEGRATE THEM P ROMOTE THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF MINORS AND CERTIFICATES OVER A SECOND MAJOR P ROMOTE S PANNING E NCOURAGE STEM STUDENTS TO CONSIDER SECOND MAJORS IN ARTS OR HUMANITIES M AKE DOUBLE - COUNTING COURSES MORE DIFFICULT IN SIMILAR FIELDS F ACILITATE I NTEGRATION E NCOURAGE OR REQUIRE INTEGRATIVE SENIOR CAPSTONES, THESES, OR INDEPENDENT STUDIES H AVE FACULTY MINE THE RICH RESOURCE OF INTERDISCIPLINARITY PRESENT IN STUDENTS F OSTER I NTENT R EQUIRE S TUDENTS TO E XPLAIN T HE D ECISION TO D OUBLE M AJOR AND ANY PLANS TO INTEGRATE THEM P ROMOTE THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF MINORS AND CERTIFICATES OVER A SECOND MAJOR P ROMOTE S PANNING E NCOURAGE STEM STUDENTS TO CONSIDER SECOND MAJORS IN ARTS OR HUMANITIES M AKE DOUBLE - COUNTING COURSES MORE DIFFICULT IN SIMILAR FIELDS F ACILITATE I NTEGRATION E NCOURAGE OR REQUIRE INTEGRATIVE SENIOR CAPSTONES, THESES, OR INDEPENDENT STUDIES H AVE FACULTY MINE THE RICH RESOURCE OF INTERDISCIPLINARITY PRESENT IN STUDENTS

15 D ISCUSSION


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