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English 306A; Harris The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of association)

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Presentation on theme: "English 306A; Harris The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of association)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 English 306A; Harris The cognitive basis of language Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (relation of convention) Indexicality (relation of association) Iconicity (relation of resemblance)

3 English 306A; Harris At every level Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes Morphemes combine into words Words combine into phrases and sentences Sentences combine into turns or paragraphs Turns combine into conversations Paragraphs combine into texts Elements + combinatorics

4 English 306A; Harris Signs Signifier/signified pairs Index association Icon resemblance Symbol association-by-convention Meaning signifier signified cow

5 English 306A; Harris Types of signs Index A sign defined by relationship of association (especially cause and effect). Prototypically, think fever. Iconic A sign defined by relationship of resemblance. Prototypically, think picture. Symbolic A sign defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. Prototypically, think word.

6 English 306A; Harris Dimensions of signs Indexicality A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of association (esp. cause and effect). Iconicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of resemblance. Symbolicity A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning.

7 English 306A; Harris Metaphor and metonymy Indirect representation Something (called the source) carries the primary signification for something else (target) that ordinarily holds that signification. Metaphor is iconic The source/target relationship is an asserted resemblance: the target is said to be like the source in some way. Metonymy is indexical The source/target relationship is (not exactly necessary but) drawn from the same habitat: the target is related to the source in some way.

8 English 306A; Harris Metonymy The principle of set membership One element of a set or a relationship (the source) singled out to represent other element(s) (the target) Hollywood loves westerns. Toronto collapses! Calgary wins in OT! All hands on deck. Thirty head of cattle.

9 English 306A; Harris Metaphor The principle of analogy One element (the source) represents another element (the target), to which it is unrelated. My love is red, red rose. Homer is a pig. Toronto is toast. The table leg is broken. The orthopedic wing is closed. Fire kills thousands every year. (Personification)

10 English 306A; Harris

11 Pussy

12 English 306A; Harris Pussy

13 English 306A; Harris Pussy

14 English 306A; Harris Pussy

15 English 306A; Harris Pussy Metaphor Target = vagina Source = cat Attributes Warm Furry

16 English 306A; Harris Pussy! Stage 1 Metonymy (synecdoche) Target = woman Source = pussy-as-vagina The ultimate devaluing of a (category of a) person: to a small anatomical component. !

17 English 306A; Harris Pussy! Stage 2 Metaphor Target = the insult victim Source = woman (not vagina) Attributes Weak Soft Quitter Means Opposite of a man, but in a wholly evaluative way. =

18 English 306A; Harris Pussy Metaphor Metonymy Metaphor Indexicality, Iconicity a relatively mundane example of ordinary language not a fancy literary or rhetorical device these processes, and figuration generally, are pervasive

19 English 306A; Harris We now return you to regular programming F

20 English 306A; Harris Metonymy, metaphor to go tysonto go ballistic Association Similarity analogyRepresentation The picture is metaphoric; the expression isnt

21 English 306A; Harris Conceptual metaphors TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, …

22 English 306A; Harris TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Conceptual metaphors

23 English 306A; Harris TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Conceptual metaphors

24 English 306A; Harris TIME IS MONEY spend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, … ARGUMENT IS WAR he attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, … ANGER IS HEAT you make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, … Conceptual metaphors

25 English 306A; Harris Conceptual Metonymy PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT I only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, … CONTAINER FOR CONTAINED thats a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, … PERSON FOR INSTRUMENT Im parked out back, shes the lead guitar, hes the drill press, … PLACE FOR PEOPLE BC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, … PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Ottawa raised our taxes again, Queens Park changed the speed limits, …

26 English 306A; Harris Indexicality is metonymic Defined by association There must be a certain physical, temporal, or conceptual relation between referential objects for the words/expressions to function

27 English 306A; Harris Indexicality Egocentricity Speaker-oriented Deixis (pointing words) Anthropocentrism Human-oriented Inherent orientation (human-body orientation projected to objects)

28 English 306A; Harris Indexicality Deictics Gk. deiktos to show Pointing words Langauge which works by gesturing outward from speaker (the ego), to other objects

29 English 306A; Harris Indexical orientation Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Pronouns EGO = 1st person (I, me, …) EGO+others = 1st person plural (we, us, …) Hearer-of-EGO = 2nd person (you, your, …) Hearer-of-EGO+others = 2nd person plural (you, your, …) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO = 3rd person (he, she, it, …) Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of- EGO+others = 3rd person plural (they, them, …)

30 English 306A; Harris Indexical orientation Deictic centre Lexical egocentricity Proximals Speaking location Where-EGO-is: here, near, … Where-EGO-is-not: there, far, … Speaking time When-EGO-is: now, today, … When-EGO-is-not: then, tomorrow, … Relative location to speaker Close-to-EGO: this, these, … Not-close-to-EGO: that, those,..

31 English 306A; Harris Indexicality? Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos man (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) front, back left, right before, behind

32 English 306A; Harris Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation egocentric anthropo- centric

33 English 306A; Harris Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos man (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) front, back left, right before, behind Indexicality?

34 English 306A; Harris Anthropocentricity Gk. anthropos man (hu)man-centred Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities) front, back left, right before, behind = personification = metaphorical Indexicality?

35 English 306A; Harris Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order Dont drink and drive Distance Immediacy of action Quantity Reduplication

36 English 306A; Harris Iconicity is metaphoric Defined by similarity (rather than association) Sequential order Dont drink and drive Distance Immediacy of action Quantity Reduplication

37 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of sequential order Unless marked, the order of words mirrors the order of events. He kicked sand in my face and I got mad. I got mad and he kicked sand in my face.

38 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of distance Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance. She squeezed me. She gave me a squeeze. She gave a squeeze to me.

39 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Length of utterance correlates with (speakers perception of) quantity of concept. Dinosaurs lived a l o o o n g time ago. Dinosaurs lived a long, long, long, … time ago. Lawyerese. Political speeches.

40 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Reduplication Japanese hito 'person' hitobito group of people' kami 'god' kamigami group of gods' Mandarin xiao 'small' xiaoxiao 'very small' gaoxing 'happy' gaogaoxingxing 'very happy'

41 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Reduplication /ora¯/ = man / ora¯ ora¯/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all sorts of children /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes

42 English 306A; Harris Iconicity Principle of quantity Reduplication /ora¯/ = man / ora¯ ora¯/ = all sorts of men /anak/ = child /anak anak/ = all sorts of children /ma¯a/ = mango / ma¯a ma¯a / = all sorts of mangoes Download the SIL IPA fonts to see these transcriptions in PPS files

43 English 306A; Harris Any questions? Metaphoricity, metonymy Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning) Indexicality (relation of association) Egocentricity (deixis) Anthropocentricity (inherent orientation) Iconicity (relation of resemblance) Sequential order Distance Quantity


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