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Linked (Open) Data Opportunities and challenges Makx Dekkers
Outline Basic notions Recent developments Comparing objectives Opportunities and risks Conclusions © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20112
BASIC NOTIONS © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20113
The idea and its history 1989: Tim Berners-Lee already talked about linking documents and data together (http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html)http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html 2001: Tim Berners-Lee and Ora Lassila introduced the Semantic Web (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web)http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web 2006: Tim Berners-Lee presented the initial design issues (rules) for Linked Data (http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html)http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20114
W3C Semantic Web initiative Objective – to create a universal medium for the exchange of data […] to smoothly interconnect personal information management, enterprise application integration, and the global sharing of commercial, scientific and cultural data Main results – Resource Description Framework (RDF), RDFa (RDF-in-HTML), SPARQL Query Language © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20115
Core Linked Data Specifications Transport – HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol Identification – URI Uniform Resource Identifier Description and linking – RDF Resource Description Framework Search and access – SPARQL Query Language for RDF © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20116
The four rules of Linked Data TBLs recommendations: 1.Use URIs as names for things 2.Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names 3.When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL) 4.Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20117
The basic model of RDF Resource Description Framework triple: – Subject: the thing (resource) described – Predicate: the characteristic of the resource – Object: the value of the characteristic SubjectObject Predicate © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20118
Complex structures in RDF This presentation Makx Dekkers Barcelona Journées ABES ABES Montpellier May 2011 presenter partOf organizer location hometown date location © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES 20119
Linked (Open / Enterprise) Data Commonalities – Using Semantic Web technologies (RDF) – Linking information resources, people, places Differences – Open Data with open licenses; Enterprise Data mostly for closed, controlled environments – Open Data links to other Open Data, available for external use; Enterprise Data may link to external data but not openly available for external use © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Linked Data -- Open Data Linked Data: focus on technology – Semantic Web: Resource Description Framework, and other Web standards – Final solutions still under development Open Data: focus on strategy – Based on notion that sharing is important and benefits all – Technology is secondary © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
The five-star system Source: © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
The LOD diagram: 2007 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES datasets
The LOD diagram: 2008 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES datasets
The LOD diagram: 2009 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES datasets
The LOD diagram: 2010 Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES datasets
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
W3C communities LinkingOpenData SWEO Community Project – Goal: to extend the Web with a data commons by publishing various open data sets as RDF on the Web and by setting RDF links between data items from different data sources (http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData)http://www.w3.org/wiki/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData Library Linked Data Incubator Group – to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web (http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/)http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/ © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
More W3C communities Government Linking Data Working Group – to provide standards and other information which help governments around the world publish their data as effective and usable linked data (http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter)http://www.w3.org/2011/gld/charter Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences (HCLS) Interest Group – to develop, advocate for, and support the use of Semantic Web technologies for health care and life science (e.g. biology, medicine) (http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls/)http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/hcls/ © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Open Knowledge Foundation, okfn.org not-for-profit organization promoting open knowledge: any kind of data and content that can be freely used, reused, and redistributed Working and Interest Groups, e.g. – Open Data in Science, Open Government Data, Open Bibliographic Data, Cultural Heritage etc. CKAN.net: registry of open datasets and other knowledge resources © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Linked Data initiatives Predicate vocabularies (descriptors) Research Description and Access (RDA)http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm The Bibliographic Ontology (BIBO)http://bibliontology.com/ Dublin Corehttp://dublincore.org/ Object vocabularies (values) Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)http://viaf.org/ Library of Congress authoritieshttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/ AgroVOC (agricultural terminology)e.g. DBPedia (based on Wikipedia)e.g. Bibliographic data LIBRIS Swedene.g. British Libraryhttp://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/datasamples.html CrossRef (DOI metadata)http://www.crossref.org/CrossTech/linked_data/ © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
More Linked Data initiatives Broadcasting, publishing BBChttp://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/bbcinternet/linked_data/ New York Timeshttp://data.nytimes.com/ Governments (small sample) USAhttp://data.gov/ Francehttp://opendata.paris.fr/ Finlandhttp://data.suomi.fi/ UKhttp://data.gov.uk/ Spain (Cataluña)http://dadesobertes.gencat.cat/ Norwayhttp://data.norge.no Netherlandshttp://www.overheid.nl/opendata Australiahttp://data.gov.au/ © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
COMPARING OBJECTIVES © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Strategic aspects Linked Data Achieving global interoperability with minimal coordination Aggregating human knowledge Supporting democracy, transparency and accountability Enhancing and enriching information Enabling user-driven and user-generated applications © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Strategic aspects libraries Organizing information for use by specific users for specific goals Ensuring and maintaining quality Sustaining services economically Preserving information for the long term Providing trusted services © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Functional aspects Linked Data Searching distributed collections Following your nose – navigating links between pieces of content Distributing responsibility for making statements about things Leaving to the user whom and what to trust Leaving development of products and services to an open market (apps) © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Functional aspects libraries Describing information by professionals Bringing together and managing aggregations of information Selecting relevant information Mixing analogue and digital resources © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Technical aspects Linked Data Publishing and using machine-readable statements (data that speak for themselves) Focusing on Semantic Web technology Enabling inferences across large distributed data sets (Still to be done) Solving issues around harvesting, caching and real-time updating © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Technical aspects libraries Using proven technology to provide high- quality services Managing production systems and services Guaranteeing performance, uptime, consistency across data © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Agility versus sustainability In the Linked Data space: – Things move fast – Trial-and-error – Lots of development by volunteers (hackers) In the library domain: – Operational systems need to evolve – Need to handle legacy data – Development by professionals in managed projects © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Data versus services In the Linked Data space: – Focus on availability of raw data – Quality is secondary – Data and technology should lead to useful results In the library domain: – Focus on services – Quality is essential – Data and technology in support of the service © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Economic aspects In the Linked Data space: – Information wants to be free – a human right? – Short-term thinking: today is hot, yesterday is not – Focus on applications to create value out of data In the library domain: – Long-term view: sustainability is crucial – Public money to provide community services – Expected to do more with less money © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Strong points Linked Data Attempt to create a common technical platform for machine-readable data Lots of enthusiasm in publishing open data Promise of global interoperability Mix of researchers, user communities, hackers, professional data providers High visibility on political level © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Risks Linked Data Driven by technology, not by requirements Technology may not (yet) be stable – RDF 2.0? Operational issues far from solved (reliability, performance, quality, security, trust) Hope for general agreement across domains may not be realistic Promise may turn into disappointment © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Strong points libraries Long time operational experience in managing information Professional intermediaries between users and information needs Sustainable business models (albeit with eternally shrinking budgets) Long-term perspective: the past (legacy data) as well as the future (preservation) © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Risks libraries Technologies change rapidly New skills difficult to spread through the organization Some people see libraries as a thing of the past (the book museum) Underestimation of information handling skills Information overload, human intervention does not scale, need for better tools © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Meeting both worlds An example: Europeana.eu – Started out with domain perspectives (libraries, archives, museums, audiovisual archives) – Traditional approach (metadata mappings) works but insufficient – Using Linked Data approach preserves domain specifics but allows for generalization to support common services – Cross-domain (but co-ordinated) interoperability © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Europeana Data Model Classes Properties Simple example Complex example Source at: © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
CONCLUSION © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Libraries and Linked Data Using Linked Data technology as the next step in connecting services Offering information management skills to the technology domain Creating a quality hub in the Linked Data space © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Best of both worlds Libraries providing stability and sustainability to Linked Data spaces Library professionals helping to manage the distributed collections Libraries delivering high-quality linked data to the Web Technologists to provide the next generation of systems and tools © 2011 Makx DekkersJourneés ABES
Linked (Open) Data: opportunity for libraries! Thank you! Makx Dekkers
Februari Organisation 22. Februari KI´s education and research DANDERYD HOSPITAL 155 FTE students Research SEK 39 million 31 FTE employees.
Library 1 Online Postwar European History: Web Sites for a European Digital & Digital Public History 23 rd of November 2011, Historical Archives of the.
Milk Market Situation Brussels, 20 October Market Situation –20 October !!! Data from some Member States are confidential and are NOT included.
Linked Library Data Miiya Holmes October 6-7, 2012.
Linked Data Activities at OCLC Ralph LeVan Senior Research Scientist OCLC Research.
Linked Data for Libraries, Archives, Museums. Learning objectives Define the concept of linked data State 3 benefits of creating linked data and making.
Linked Library (+AM) Data Presented LITA Next-Generation Catalog IG Corey A Harper Publish, Enrich, Relate and Un-Silo.
MICHAEL and the European Digital Library: promoting teaching, learning and research The MICHAEL Project is funded under the European Commission eTEN Programme.
National libraries and identity in the Semantic Web Gordon Dunsire BNE, Madrid, 14 Dec 2011.
Linked Open Data stuff Gordon Dunsire Opening Library Linked Data to National Heritage: Perspectives on International Practice (2nd Linked Open Data Conference),
Introduction to the Semantic Web and Linked Data Module 1 - Unit 2 The Semantic Web and Linked Data Concepts 1-1 Library of Congress BIBFRAME Pilot Training.
Paloma Marín Arraiza 17 th International Conference on Grey Literature 1 st and 2 nd December 2015, Amsterdam (Netherlands) SCIENTIFIC AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS.
Boris Villazón-Terrazas, Ghislain Atemezing FI, UPM, EURECOM, Introduction to Linked Data.
An ontology server for the agentcities.NET project Dr. Manjula Patel Technical Research and Development
Introduction to the Semantic Web and Linked Data Module 1 - Part 1 The Semantic Web and Linked Data Concepts: A basic overview 1-1 Library of Congress.
23 October 2001Dublin Core Workshop, Tokyo1 The Semantic Web Makx Dekkers, Managing Director, Dublin Core Metadata Initiative A proposed.
Verify Unit of Measure in a Multivariate Equation ©
Interoperability through Library APIs Library Technology Services Open House 7/30/15.
RDF AND LINKED DATA Jenn Riley Head, Carolina Digital Library and Archives The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Metadata vocabularies and ontologies Dr. Manjula Patel Technical Research and Development
METADATA QUALITY IN EUROPEANA , Den Haag.
Who? What? When? Where? Reaching Jewish resources and knowledge Chi? Cosa? Quando? Dove? Accedere alle risorse ebraiche Dov Winer Scientific Manager, Judaica.
Communication costs of LU decomposition algorithms for banded matrices Razvan Carbunescu 12/02/20111.
Digital Repositories – Linked Open Data – the possible Role of D4Science Workshop, December 2010, FAO use cases A tool to create Linked Data providers.
Linked Open Data for European Earth Observation Products Carlo Matteo Scalzo CTO, Epistematica epistematica.
Getting triples from records: the role of ISBD Gordon Dunsire Presented at Centar zu Stalno Stručno Usavršavanje (CSSU), Zagreb 21 Nov 2011.
RDA AND LINKED DATA: MOVING BEYOND THE RULES Jenn Riley Head, Carolina Digital Library and Archives The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The OAI-ORE based data model of Europeana and the Digital Public Library of America: implications for educational publishing Dov Winer MAKASH – Advancing.
Shared innovation Linking Distributed Data across the Web Dr Tom Heath Researcher, Platform Division Talis Information Ltd t
An introduction to RDF and library linked data Gordon Dunsire Presented at the Dewey Decimal Classification Executive Briefing 15 Sep 2011, London.
Semantic Web Thanks to folks at LAIT lab Sources include : Tim Berners-Lee Presentation W3C Semantic Web Activity Presentation of W3C and Semantic Web.
Democracy, Innovation and Partnerships Jens Thorhauge Danish Agency for Libraries and Media.
1 Linked Data outlook Haifa12 th September Ex Libris Ltd., Internal and Confidential.
Authority Descriptions AGRIS Vocabularies classifies disambiguates Resources describes Disambiguate metadata, collocate resources, add consistency, e.g.
Build Your Own Identity Hub Ted Lawless Code4Lib 2016 – March 8 th, 2016.
SE320: Introduction to Computer Games Week 2 Gazihan Alankus 10/4/20111.
Preservation of Software Barbara Sierman (digital preservation manager) E-Humanities Software and Tools Sustainability,
Networking Session: Global Information Structures for Science & Cultural Heritage - The Interoperability Challenge «INTEROPERABILITY FROM THE CULTURAL.
Jim Hendler Chief Scientist - Information Systems Office DARPA.
What is LIBRIS? Division of the National Library of Sweden Is founded on co-operation among the affiliated libraries. Mostly university- and research.
The Semantic Web: What, Why, and How? Ann Wrightson Principal Consultant, alphaXML Ltd
Chinese-European Workshop on Digital Preservation, Beijing July 14 – Chinese-European Workshop on Digital Preservation Beijing (China), July.
Project Sales or Production Levels Using the Rolling Average ©
Creating Linked Data Juan F. Sequeda Semantic Technology Conference June 2011.
Not Just For Data Geeks! A Practical Approach to Linked Data for Digital Library Managers Cory Lampert and Silvia Southwick Salt Lake City October 9, 2013.
1 Open Ontology Repository Planning Meeting for Ontology repositories: approaches, technologies, collaboration Ken Baclawski June 15, 2009.
1 Web Search Environments Web Crawling Metadata using RDF and Dublin Core Dave Beckett Slides:
Large-scale (meta)Data Aggregators & Infrastructure Requirements the case of agriculture Nikos Manouselis Agro-Know Technologies & ARIADNE Foundation
RDF: Building Block for the Semantic Web Jim Ellenberger UCCS CS5260 Spring 2011.
10/24/09CK The Open Ontology Repository Initiative: Requirements and Research Challenges Ken Baclawski Todd Schneider.
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