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Retirement and Disability Andrew Burr, Ph.D. Ronald Seatter, Ph.D., C. Psych Seatter Health www.seatterhealth.ca October 1, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Retirement and Disability Andrew Burr, Ph.D. Ronald Seatter, Ph.D., C. Psych Seatter Health www.seatterhealth.ca October 1, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Retirement and Disability Andrew Burr, Ph.D. Ronald Seatter, Ph.D., C. Psych Seatter Health October 1, 2010

2 Overall goals for today Major psychological adjustment issues facing retirees in general Major psychological adjustment issues facing retirees in general Particular challenges faced by those with a disability Particular challenges faced by those with a disability Especially if disability is the cause for involuntary retirement Especially if disability is the cause for involuntary retirement

3 Imagine your retirement... What does not working look like for you? What does not working look like for you? Picture your busy days that you spend now Picture your busy days that you spend now Imagine your life without the structure of work Imagine your life without the structure of work What kinds of dreams and plans do you have? What kinds of dreams and plans do you have? Who will you be without your job? Who will you be without your job? How long will you live in retirement? How long will you live in retirement? Imagine that you must suddenly re-paint that picture in your mind because life suddenly changed Imagine that you must suddenly re-paint that picture in your mind because life suddenly changed Injury; Illness; Chronic pain; Psychiatric disability Injury; Illness; Chronic pain; Psychiatric disability Impact on finances Impact on finances Impact on partner Impact on partner Impact on social network, family, friends Impact on social network, family, friends Impact on activities Impact on activities Impact on sense of identity Impact on sense of identity

4 Outline What is retirement? What is retirement? How do people respond to retirement in general? How do people respond to retirement in general? Review of current disability-related retirement research Review of current disability-related retirement research Involuntary retirement Involuntary retirement My research on retirement My research on retirement Values, health, finances Values, health, finances Subjective well-being Subjective well-being Clinical and policy implications Clinical and policy implications What kind of support is needed for those experiencing involuntary retirement due to disability? What kind of support is needed for those experiencing involuntary retirement due to disability?

5 Retirement Why is it an important issue? Why is it an important issue? 1) Baby boom cohort (born ) 1) Baby boom cohort (born ) Oldest of the boomers turned 60 in 2006 Oldest of the boomers turned 60 in 2006 Proportion of retirees in western society will rise dramatically in coming years. Proportion of retirees in western society will rise dramatically in coming years. 2) Advances in health and medicine 2) Advances in health and medicine Increased life expectancy Increased life expectancy Longer time spent in retirement stage than every in history Longer time spent in retirement stage than every in history 3) Major transition in adult lifespan 3) Major transition in adult lifespan Affects social and physical worlds Affects social and physical worlds Changes in roles, relationships, daily routines Changes in roles, relationships, daily routines Shifts in income, health Shifts in income, health Challenge of detaching from work and establishing new lifestyle Challenge of detaching from work and establishing new lifestyle Navigating a new context for marriage/partnership: a relational transition Navigating a new context for marriage/partnership: a relational transition

6 Defining Retirement Not as easy as the end of work Not as easy as the end of work Policies vary from country to country Policies vary from country to country Some degree of withdrawal from the workforce at the tail end of a career of work Some degree of withdrawal from the workforce at the tail end of a career of work Debatable: Age, length of career, extent of withdrawal (partial or complete) necessary to be considered retired Debatable: Age, length of career, extent of withdrawal (partial or complete) necessary to be considered retired Can be self-defined status (subjective) Can be self-defined status (subjective) Can be based on objective criteria: Can be based on objective criteria: over specific age, out of labor force specified amount of time; receiving certain percentage of total income from retirement- income sources over specific age, out of labor force specified amount of time; receiving certain percentage of total income from retirement- income sources

7 Evolving definitions Traditional: Traditional: Idea of retirement as the end of employment and the beginning of receiving pension benefits Idea of retirement as the end of employment and the beginning of receiving pension benefits Current reality: retirement represents a wide range o situations Current reality: retirement represents a wide range o situations Blurred exits from the workforce Blurred exits from the workforce Multiple entrances and exits from workforceMultiple entrances and exits from workforce Combinations of part-time work and retirementCombinations of part-time work and retirement Canadian policy: (Stone, 2006) Canadian policy: (Stone, 2006) Policy changes are beginning to give people the choice to work later in life Policy changes are beginning to give people the choice to work later in life No mandatory retirement in Canada (several provinces passed laws between present to eliminate mandatory retirement at age 65: Ontario did this in 2006) No mandatory retirement in Canada (several provinces passed laws between present to eliminate mandatory retirement at age 65: Ontario did this in 2006)

8 Core features of retirement (Bowlby, 2007) 1) Retirement is a process of withdrawing from the workplace rather than a discrete event 1) Retirement is a process of withdrawing from the workplace rather than a discrete event 2) retirement does not necessarily mean economic inactivity 2) retirement does not necessarily mean economic inactivity 3) people of a relatively young age should not be considered retired 3) people of a relatively young age should not be considered retired

9 Canadian Statistics Statistics Canada Survey: Statistics Canada Survey: Defined retirement as over age 50, not having worked in past year, and self-reporting retirement as the reason for not working Defined retirement as over age 50, not having worked in past year, and self-reporting retirement as the reason for not working Median age: 61 Median age: 61 In 1970s: age 65 was more typical In 1970s: age 65 was more typical In 80s and 90s: retirement age began dropping in conjunction with public sector early retirement incentives (Bowlby, 2007). In 80s and 90s: retirement age began dropping in conjunction with public sector early retirement incentives (Bowlby, 2007).

10 Retirement and well-being Free time without pressure to work Free time without pressure to work Increase well being? Not necessarily (Kim & Moen, 2002) Increase well being? Not necessarily (Kim & Moen, 2002) On one hand: moving out of demanding and stressful career On one hand: moving out of demanding and stressful career On other hand: loss of occupational attachments, loss of social network of co-workers, loss of major anchor for identity On other hand: loss of occupational attachments, loss of social network of co-workers, loss of major anchor for identity Early retirement research (Atchley, 1976) Early retirement research (Atchley, 1976) Retirees tend to move through stages of adaptation Retirees tend to move through stages of adaptation Honeymoon phase Honeymoon phase Disenchantment Disenchantment Re-orientation Re-orientation New stability New stability Subsequent research: Subsequent research: But: Complexity and variability in retirement adaptation process But: Complexity and variability in retirement adaptation process

11 Types of responses to retirement (Hanson & Wapner, 1994) Transition to old age Transition to old age a time to wind down, reflect, rest, put ones life in order a time to wind down, reflect, rest, put ones life in order A new beginning A new beginning A time to energetically pursue long-awaited goals A time to energetically pursue long-awaited goals Continuation Continuation Continuing with valued activities in less pressured manner Continuing with valued activities in less pressured manner Imposed Disruption Imposed Disruption Losing part of the self as a result of forced retirement Losing part of the self as a result of forced retirement

12 A heterogeneous transition Most recent research: Most recent research: No typical response to retirement No typical response to retirement A non-uniform transition A non-uniform transition A crisis for some, a relief for others A crisis for some, a relief for others Adjustment depends on position in the process Adjustment depends on position in the process Impact of retirement depends on a host of contextual and psychological factors Impact of retirement depends on a host of contextual and psychological factors Economic resources Economic resources Personal resources Personal resources Social-relational resources Social-relational resources

13 Factors impacting well-being in retirement Access to key resources Access to key resources Finances, health, and marital relationship Finances, health, and marital relationship Characteristics of the transition Characteristics of the transition Involuntary or voluntary Involuntary or voluntary Type of job from which people retire Type of job from which people retire Physically demanding or intrinsically interesting Physically demanding or intrinsically interesting Expectations about retirement Expectations about retirement Age at retirement Age at retirement Duration of retirement Duration of retirement Gender Gender Quality of social relationships with spouse and family Quality of social relationships with spouse and family Personality characteristics Personality characteristics Spousal employment status Spousal employment status

14 Factors impacting well-being in retirement Access to key resources Access to key resources Finances, health, and marital relationship Finances, health, and marital relationship Characteristics of the transition Characteristics of the transition Involuntary or voluntary Involuntary or voluntary Type of job from which people retire Type of job from which people retire Physically demanding or intrinsically interesting Physically demanding or intrinsically interesting Expectations about retirement Expectations about retirement Age at retirement Age at retirement Duration of retirement Duration of retirement Gender Gender Quality of social relationships with spouse and family Quality of social relationships with spouse and family Personality characteristics Personality characteristics Spousal employment status Spousal employment status

15 Involuntary retirement (Shultz, Morton, & Weckerle, 1998) A substantial portion of retirees view their retirement as forced or involuntary (20-30%) A substantial portion of retirees view their retirement as forced or involuntary (20-30%) Studied a sample of nearly 1000 Americans of retirement age Studied a sample of nearly 1000 Americans of retirement age Compared to those whose retirement was voluntary, those who perceive their retirement as forced or involuntary: Compared to those whose retirement was voluntary, those who perceive their retirement as forced or involuntary: Lower self-ratings of physical and emotional health Lower self-ratings of physical and emotional health Lower satisfaction with life and retirement Lower satisfaction with life and retirement (Shultz, Morton, & Weckerle, 1998) (Shultz, Morton, & Weckerle, 1998)

16 Involuntary retirement (van Solinge & Henkens, 2008) Involuntary retirement = loss = more psychological stress Involuntary retirement = loss = more psychological stress Planned retirement = relief = less stress Planned retirement = relief = less stress 1600 retired adults in Netherlands 1600 retired adults in Netherlands Measured changes in health behaviors (drinking, smoking, physical activity) Measured changes in health behaviors (drinking, smoking, physical activity) For involuntary retirees: negative changes in health behaviors (more drinking and smoking) For involuntary retirees: negative changes in health behaviors (more drinking and smoking) For voluntary retirees: positive changes in health behaviors (less drinking and smoking) For voluntary retirees: positive changes in health behaviors (less drinking and smoking) Good news: both groups increased physical activity Good news: both groups increased physical activity Conclusion: Heightened risk of potentially unhealthy behavior associated with unplanned retirement Conclusion: Heightened risk of potentially unhealthy behavior associated with unplanned retirement

17 Involuntary retirement (Scinovacz & Davies, 2005) Studied sample of over 1000 retirees in USA Studied sample of over 1000 retirees in USA Explored perceptions of forced retirement Explored perceptions of forced retirement 1/3 perceived retirement as forced 1/3 perceived retirement as forced Explored many possible reasons for forced retirement (health, job displacement, care obligations) Explored many possible reasons for forced retirement (health, job displacement, care obligations) Leaving work as a result of illness: primary predictor of perceiving retirement as involuntary Leaving work as a result of illness: primary predictor of perceiving retirement as involuntary

18 Involuntary retirement (Szinovazc & Davies, 2004) Investigated types of retirement (forced, early, abrupt) and spousal disability on change in depressive symptoms over time in over 2000 US retirees Investigated types of retirement (forced, early, abrupt) and spousal disability on change in depressive symptoms over time in over 2000 US retirees When retirement is abrupt and perceived as too early or forced: When retirement is abrupt and perceived as too early or forced: Generally, increase in depressive symptoms Generally, increase in depressive symptoms For women who perceived retirement as forced or too early, and who had a disabled spouse: For women who perceived retirement as forced or too early, and who had a disabled spouse: Increase in depressive symptomsIncrease in depressive symptoms No similar effect for men with disabled partnerNo similar effect for men with disabled partner For those who retired gradually and on-time and who had a disabled spouse: For those who retired gradually and on-time and who had a disabled spouse: Decrease in depressive symptomsDecrease in depressive symptoms

19 Involuntary retirement (Swan, Dame, & Carmelli, 1991) Explored whether Type A male personalities are more prone to involuntary retirement Explored whether Type A male personalities are more prone to involuntary retirement Type A: ambitious, aggressive, determined to control the environment Type A: ambitious, aggressive, determined to control the environment Less likely to retire voluntarily as a result of need for competitiveness in work place Less likely to retire voluntarily as a result of need for competitiveness in work place Sample of over 100 male retirees: Assessed in 1960 and 1986 Sample of over 100 male retirees: Assessed in 1960 and 1986 Type As in 1960 were more likely to have experienced an involuntary retirement by 1986 Type As in 1960 were more likely to have experienced an involuntary retirement by 1986 Regardless of personality type, those who experienced involuntary retirement tended to: Regardless of personality type, those who experienced involuntary retirement tended to: Have poorer adjustment to retirementHave poorer adjustment to retirement More illness and poorer physical health statusMore illness and poorer physical health status More depressive symptomsMore depressive symptoms

20 Disability and depression in pre-retirement adults Dunlop et al., 2005 Dunlop et al., 2005 Disability: limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Disability: limitations in Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Inability to perform functional tasks at personal levelInability to perform functional tasks at personal level Inability to dress, toilet, bathe, eat, walk across room, get in and out of bedInability to dress, toilet, bathe, eat, walk across room, get in and out of bed Over 6000 participants, age Over 6000 participants, age Assessed in 1996 and 1998 Assessed in 1996 and 1998 Included only those with no ADL disability in 1996 Included only those with no ADL disability in 1996 Examined depression as a predictor of the development of an ADL disability two years later Examined depression as a predictor of the development of an ADL disability two years later

21 Disability and depression in pre-retirement adults Dunlop et al., 2005 (contd) Dunlop et al., 2005 (contd) Results: Results: Among US adults aged 54-65: Among US adults aged 54-65: 1 in 10 depressed adults developed an ADL disability over two years1 in 10 depressed adults developed an ADL disability over two years This is a high disability rate among a relatively young populationThis is a high disability rate among a relatively young population Depression increased the odds of developing an ADL disability across racial/ethnic groups:Depression increased the odds of developing an ADL disability across racial/ethnic groups: Risk was double for African American compared to White Risk was double for African American compared to White

22 Dunlop et al., 2005

23 What explains the link between depression and onset of ADL disability in older adults? What explains the link between depression and onset of ADL disability in older adults? Chronic illnesses Chronic illnesses arthritis, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, obesity)arthritis, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lung disease, obesity) Functional limitations Functional limitations Difficulty/avoidace of four physical tasks:Difficulty/avoidace of four physical tasks: walking / lifting / stairs / moving large objects walking / lifting / stairs / moving large objects These results point to the importance of treating depression in all adults to prevent the development of disability These results point to the importance of treating depression in all adults to prevent the development of disability

24 Summary thus far There is no typical response to retirement There is no typical response to retirement Adjustment depends on many variables Adjustment depends on many variables Involuntary retirement: Involuntary retirement: More depressive symptoms More depressive symptoms More health problems More health problems Poorer adjustment Poorer adjustment Lower satisfaction in retirement Lower satisfaction in retirement Illness is the most common reason for involuntary retirement Illness is the most common reason for involuntary retirement

25 My research Burr, A., Santo, J. B., & Pushkar, D. (2009). Affective well-being in retirement: The influence of values, money, and health across three years. Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI /s

26 Imagine these retirees … A person for whom it is important to help others and care for nature A person for whom it is important to help others and care for nature A person for whom it is important to conform to rules and maintain religious traditions A person for whom it is important to conform to rules and maintain religious traditions A person for whom it is important to seek excitement, novelty, creativity, independence A person for whom it is important to seek excitement, novelty, creativity, independence A person for whom it is important to seek status, wealth, admiration, and success A person for whom it is important to seek status, wealth, admiration, and success

27 Now ask yourself… Who among them is happy? Who among them is happy? Would their happiness depend on their health? Would their happiness depend on their health? Would their happiness depend on how much money they have? Would their happiness depend on how much money they have? Would their priorities help them to stay happy even if they had health problems or financial struggles? Would their priorities help them to stay happy even if they had health problems or financial struggles?

28 Affective well-being for retirees Health and finances are important Health and finances are important Lack of research on motivational factors Lack of research on motivational factors Retirement as a shift from structured to unstructured time Retirement as a shift from structured to unstructured time Motivation likely important for emotional well-being Motivation likely important for emotional well-being Shapes attitudes, coping styles, behavior Shapes attitudes, coping styles, behavior Motivation may interact with contextual variables Motivation may interact with contextual variables Certain motivational frameworks may promote well-being in the face of health or financial difficulties; others may erode it. Certain motivational frameworks may promote well-being in the face of health or financial difficulties; others may erode it. Our focus: Personal values Our focus: Personal values

29 Schwartz (1992) Value Theory Self-Direction Universalism Benevolence Tradition Conformity Security Power Achievement Hedonism Stimulation Openness to change Conservation Self-Transcendence- Self-Enhancement

30 Personal Values Abstract, global aspirations of how to live based on what is most important in life Abstract, global aspirations of how to live based on what is most important in life Goals: more concrete aspirations, particular projects Goals: more concrete aspirations, particular projects Values: Unending projects; relatively stable motivational traits Values: Unending projects; relatively stable motivational traits Desirable, trans-situational goals that serve as guiding principles in peoples lives (Schwartz, 1992). Desirable, trans-situational goals that serve as guiding principles in peoples lives (Schwartz, 1992).

31 Four Higher Order Values 1. Enhancement Pursuit of status, success, dominance Pursuit of status, success, dominance Consistent with materialistic values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) Consistent with materialistic values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) 2. Transcendence Concern for the welfare of others and the natural world Concern for the welfare of others and the natural world Consistent with community values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) Consistent with community values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002)

32 Four Higher Order Values 3. Conservation Self-restriction, (security, conformity, tradition), preservation of status quo Self-restriction, (security, conformity, tradition), preservation of status quo Consistent with religious and family values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) Consistent with religious and family values (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) 4. Openness to change Active search for stimulation, novelty, change and emphasizing freedom and independence in thought and behavior Active search for stimulation, novelty, change and emphasizing freedom and independence in thought and behavior Consistent with variety-seeking in other paradigms (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002) Consistent with variety-seeking in other paradigms (Burroughs & Rindfleisch, 2002)

33 Goals of Study 1. Direct effects of values To examine direct effects of values on affective well-being (PA and NA) among recent retirees To examine direct effects of values on affective well-being (PA and NA) among recent retirees 2. Interactions of values with circumstances To examine interaction of values and life circumstances (health and finances) on affective well-being To examine interaction of values and life circumstances (health and finances) on affective well-being 3. Stability To explore these associations across three years of retirement To explore these associations across three years of retirement

34 Hypotheses: Openness to Change Flexibility, creativity, independence, pleasure Flexibility, creativity, independence, pleasure May promote satisfying interactions and activities that in turn promote positive emotions May promote satisfying interactions and activities that in turn promote positive emotions Interaction with health / finances Interaction with health / finances May protect well-being in health or financial difficulty through promoting flexibility and resilienceMay protect well-being in health or financial difficulty through promoting flexibility and resilience

35 Hypothesis: Conservation Values Conformity to social norms, upholding traditions and customs, maintaining security of the individual person and of society. Conformity to social norms, upholding traditions and customs, maintaining security of the individual person and of society. May promote higher levels of well-being through social connectedness, sense of purpose and meaning, and health May promote higher levels of well-being through social connectedness, sense of purpose and meaning, and health

36 Hypotheses: Self- Enhancement Values Pursuit of status, control over others, success, admiration Pursuit of status, control over others, success, admiration May cause goal frustration in a post-employment lifestyle May cause goal frustration in a post-employment lifestyle Interaction: Interaction: May erode well-being when combined with health or financial difficulties, as valued goals become increasingly unattainableMay erode well-being when combined with health or financial difficulties, as valued goals become increasingly unattainable

37 Hypothesis: Self- Transcendence Concern for welfare of others and natural world Concern for welfare of others and natural world May promote positive emotions through intrinsically satisfying pro-social behavior and helping future generations (generativity) May promote positive emotions through intrinsically satisfying pro-social behavior and helping future generations (generativity)

38 Participants Concordias longitudinal retirement study Concordias longitudinal retirement study Retirees associations; newspaper ads Retirees associations; newspaper ads Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria T1: (2005): N = 433; T3: (2007): N = 371 (85%) T1: (2005): N = 433; T3: (2007): N = 371 (85%) Gender: 47% male; 53% female Gender: 47% male; 53% female Age: yrs (SD = 5) Age: yrs (SD = 5) Years worked: yrs (SD = 6.62) Years worked: yrs (SD = 6.62) Duration of retirement at T1: 1.9 yrs (SD = 1.81) Duration of retirement at T1: 1.9 yrs (SD = 1.81) Income (N = 255): Zero to $250,000 (Median = $41,250) Income (N = 255): Zero to $250,000 (Median = $41,250) Language: 61% French; 39% English Language: 61% French; 39% English

39 Materials Predictor variables Predictor variables Values: Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) (Schwartz et al., 2001) Values: Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) (Schwartz et al., 2001) Sample item: Its very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-beingSample item: Its very important to him to help the people around him. He wants to care for their well-being 6-point scale 6-point scale Very much like me to Not like me at all Very much like me to Not like me at all Health: # of illnesses Health: # of illnesses Finances: 1 item Finances: 1 item Compared to other people your age, how would you rate your financial situation? (7 point scale)Compared to other people your age, how would you rate your financial situation? (7 point scale) A lot worse than most to A lot better than most A lot worse than most to A lot better than most

40 Materials Outcome variables Outcome variables Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS: Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1998) Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS: Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1998) 10 positive emotions (PA)10 positive emotions (PA) interested, excited, strong, enthusiastic proud, alert, inspired, determined, attentive, active) interested, excited, strong, enthusiastic proud, alert, inspired, determined, attentive, active) 10 negative emotions (NA)10 negative emotions (NA) Distressed, upset, guilty, scared, hostile, irritable, ashamed, nervous, jittery, afraid) Distressed, upset, guilty, scared, hostile, irritable, ashamed, nervous, jittery, afraid).

41 Procedure Those interested contacted us Those interested contacted us Came to lab and completed battery of questionnaires (2-3 hours) in either English or French Came to lab and completed battery of questionnaires (2-3 hours) in either English or French Paid 50$ Paid 50$ Annual follow-up at 1 year interval Annual follow-up at 1 year interval

42 Statistical Analyses SEM models (using M-Plus and Jon Santo) SEM models (using M-Plus and Jon Santo) Testing a predicted pattern of associations among variables with the actual data Testing a predicted pattern of associations among variables with the actual data Looking for variance accounted for, but also goodness of fit of models Looking for variance accounted for, but also goodness of fit of models

43 Two SEM Strategies 1. look at paths between predictors and outcomes at T1, T2, T3 Does same pattern emerge?Does same pattern emerge? 2. Create one integrated model for all three years Which predictors have additional impact above and beyond initial associations?Which predictors have additional impact above and beyond initial associations?

44 Fig 1 Details of separate SEM models for predictors of positive and negative affect at T1, T2, and T3.

45 Fig. 2 Interaction of financial status with enhancement values for positive affect at T1 =.32, p <.01 =.03, p =.60

46 Fig. 3 Interaction of financial status with openness to change values for positive affect at T1. =.06, p =.36 =.29, p <.01

47 Fig 4 Integrated SEM model details for predictors of positive and negative affect at T1, T2, and T3. Significant associations at T2 and T3 indicate increased effects above and beyond prior associations. Non-significant associations at T2 and T3 indicate stability in effects over time.

48 Summary Gender, health, finances all play an important role in emotional well- being Gender, health, finances all play an important role in emotional well- being Consistent with previous research Consistent with previous research Values also help to explain emotional well-being, above and beyond these variables Values also help to explain emotional well-being, above and beyond these variables Openness to change Openness to change More positive, less negative emotionsMore positive, less negative emotions Transcendence, Conservation Transcendence, Conservation More positive emotionsMore positive emotions Enhancement Enhancement More negative emotionsMore negative emotions

49 Summary: Moderating Role of Values With low finances: With low finances: Better to have low enhancement values Better to have low enhancement values High enhancement values + low finances = fewer positive emotionsHigh enhancement values + low finances = fewer positive emotions Better to have high openness to change values Better to have high openness to change values Low openness to change + low finances = fewer positive emotionsLow openness to change + low finances = fewer positive emotions No interaction of values and health No interaction of values and health

50 Stability and Increasing Effects Pattern of associations generally consistent across 3 years Pattern of associations generally consistent across 3 years Finances were a significant but constant predictor of emotional well- being Finances were a significant but constant predictor of emotional well- being Health and values had increasing effects beyond initial associations Health and values had increasing effects beyond initial associations Speculation for increasing effects: Speculation for increasing effects: Accumulating benefits or deficits Accumulating benefits or deficits E.g.: Openness to change values may lead to healthier activity patterns whose effects compound over timeE.g.: Openness to change values may lead to healthier activity patterns whose effects compound over time E.g.: Illnesses may lead to activity restriction and social disengagement, the negative effects of which multiply as years go by.E.g.: Illnesses may lead to activity restriction and social disengagement, the negative effects of which multiply as years go by.

51 Implications For retirees For retirees Gender, health, and money matter in terms of happiness in retirement Gender, health, and money matter in terms of happiness in retirement Personal values matter in terms of happiness Personal values matter in terms of happiness Can even protect happiness in financial difficultyCan even protect happiness in financial difficulty Values dont protect against the emotional impact of illnessValues dont protect against the emotional impact of illness Retirement planning: Retirement planning: Taking stock of values and how compatible they are with opportunities in retirementTaking stock of values and how compatible they are with opportunities in retirement Look for new ways to express values in activitiesLook for new ways to express values in activities

52 Future Directions Collect new retirement data during and after global financial crisis Collect new retirement data during and after global financial crisis Pathway from values to well-being in retirement Pathway from values to well-being in retirement Mechanism through which values influence well-being? Mechanism through which values influence well-being? Continuity of the self? Continuity of the self? Enhancers may experience an inability to express important aspects of the self in retirementEnhancers may experience an inability to express important aspects of the self in retirement Those who value openness to change, transcendence, and conservation, sense of self can be preserved in retirementThose who value openness to change, transcendence, and conservation, sense of self can be preserved in retirement

53 Questions? Slides of this presentation will be available on website of Seatter Health:


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