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Broadband – IP Transport 2012 ACE/RUS School and Symposium May 6-9, 2012 Fort Worth, TX Brian LeCuyer, PE RVW, Inc. (402)
©2006 RVW, Inc. 2 Agenda Transport Service Requirements Transport Technologies –Ethernet over SONET –Native Ethernet –Connection Oriented Ethernet –Optical Transport Network (OTN) –Wave Division Multiplexing
©2006 RVW, Inc. 3 Transport Service Requirements At the Demark –Port Types / Quantities (Current and Future) –Redundancy Path Diversity Hardware Protection Uplink: STP / LAG / G.8032 (ERPS) –Power / Mounting / Environment –Certifications (NEBS, Approved Vendor Lists) Bandwidth –Committed Information Rate (Guaranteed) –Excess Information Rate (Burst)
©2006 RVW, Inc. 4 Transport Service Requirements Performance & Reliability –Frame Delay (Latency) / Delay Variation (Jitter) –Error Rate –Fail Over / Availability –Time to Repair Circuit Testing & Acceptance –RFC 2544 (Bandwidth / Frame Sizes) –Y.1731 (Latency / Jitter) Monitoring / Reporting –Real-Time / Logged –Alerting
©2006 RVW, Inc. 5 Ethernet over SONET Native Ethernet Connection Oriented Ethernet Optical Transport Network (OTN) Wave Division Multiplexing Transport Technologies
©2006 RVW, Inc. 6 Transport Technologies Ethernet over SONET –First Generation of Carrier Class Ethernet –Leverages SONET Protection Scheme –Unified TDM and Packet Transport –May be a Quick, Low-Cost Option –Limited Capacity –High Cost to Scale
©2006 RVW, Inc. 7 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –Optical Ethernet Directly Over Fiber –100 Mbps to 100 Gbps –VLAN Tagging/Prioritization (802.1Q/p) VLAN Tags Separate Services VLAN Trunks Carry Multiple Services P-Bits Prioritize Traffic
©2006 RVW, Inc. 8 Transport Technologies
©2006 RVW, Inc. 9 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –802.1Q Issues Carrier Must Dictate Customer VLAN Assignments (No Overlap Allowed) VLAN Exhaust (No Re-Use Allowed) MAC Limitations Some Older Switches Can Tag but Not Trunk 1522 Byte Frame may be Dropped Provisioning / Administration Complexity for Larger Networks and Multipoint Customers
©2006 RVW, Inc. 10 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –Provider Bridges (802.1ad) AKA: Q-in-Q / VLAN Stacking / Double Tagging Carrier Uses Service VLAN (S-Tag / Outer Tag) to Carry Customer VLANs (C-Tag / Inner Tag) Allows Customer Control of their VLAN IDs Alleviates VLAN Exhaust Reduces Administrative Complexity for Carrier Does NOT Alleviate MAC Limitations
©2006 RVW, Inc. 11 Transport Technologies
©2006 RVW, Inc. 12 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –802.1ad Issues Carrier Edge Equipment Capabilities Jumbo Frame Support Required (Edge & Transit) MAC Limitations Still an Issue Provisioning / Administration Complexity for Larger Networks and Multipoint Customers
©2006 RVW, Inc. 13 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –Redundancy / Protection Link Aggregation (LAG) –Primarily for Customer Uplinks –Can be Used on Transport Links –Load Balancing / Incremental Bandwidth Growth –Inter-Switch or Cross-Card LAG for Redundant Hardware Spanning Tree Protocols (STP / RSTP / MSTP) –Prevents Layer-2 Loops (Link Blocking) –Uplink or Transport Protection –Supports Meshy Networks (Pun Intended) –VLAN Trunks Require MSTP (802.1s) –Can be Slow on Switching and Restoration (Tunable)
©2006 RVW, Inc. 14 Transport Technologies Native Ethernet –Redundancy / Protection Ethernet Ring Protection Switching (G.8032) –Prevents Layer-2 Loops –Primarily Transport, Can be Used on Uplinks –Ring / Inter-Connected Ring Architectures (Not Meshy) –Fast - Provides sub-50ms protection and recovery –Version 2 Adds »Interconnected Rings »Manual Protection Switching (Force, Manual, Clear) »Multiple Ring Instances »Revertive / Non-Revertive Switching
©2006 RVW, Inc. 15 Transport Technologies Connection Oriented Ethernet –Technologies that Provide Static, Circuit- Like Behavior for Ethernet –Provider Backbone Bridges (802.1ah) Leverages Ethernet Standards Like Q-in-Q Except Uses MAC-in-MAC Solves MAC scaling issues
©2006 RVW, Inc. 16 Transport Technologies
©2006 RVW, Inc. 17 Transport Technologies Connection Oriented Ethernet –PBB-TE (802.1Qay) TE = Traffic Engineering Enhances PBB to be More Transport Friendly –Eliminates Broadcast/Multicast Flooding –Does Not Use Dynamic (Learned) Forwarding Tables –No Mechanism for Loop Avoidance (Manual Prevention) Working / Protect Paths Manually Configured –More Predictable Traffic Engineering –Requires Up-Front Planning and Provisioning
©2006 RVW, Inc. 18 Transport Technologies Connection Oriented Ethernet –MPLS-TP TP = Transport Profile Simplified Subset of MPLS Protocol Removes Complexity of Dynamic Nature of MPLS Predetermined / Predictable / Bi-Directional Paths –PBB-TE & MPLS-TP Not Necessarily Competing Technologies PBB-TE good fit for Access and Aggregation MPLS-TP good fit for Core Transport Portions
©2006 RVW, Inc. 19 Transport Technologies Optical Transport Network (OTN / G.709) –Digital Wrapper that provides SONET-Like operations, administration, maintenance and provisioning –Allows multiplexing of different protocols into same payload SONET Ethernet SAN (FiberChannel) –Provides FEC for signal reach enhancement –Powerful adjunct to WDM systems
©2006 RVW, Inc. 20 Transport Technologies Wave Division Multiplexing –How Transport is Scaled as Customer Demand for Ethernet Services Grows –Technology Carries Multiple Systems Stacked on Same Fiber Using Different Wavelengths –Integrated Platforms Combine Ethernet Transport Technologies, OTN and WDM Carrier Ethernet Capabilities Multiprotocol Transport Simple and Cost-Effective Growth
©2006 RVW, Inc. 21 Transport Technologies Wave Division Multiplexing –Key Concepts CWDM (Coarse Wave Division Multiplexing) –Typically 4 to 16 Wave Systems –Shorter Reach DWDM (Dense Wave Division Multiplexing) –Typically 40 to 80 Wave (100 or 50 GHz Spacing) –Long Reach (Amplification / Dispersion Compensation) ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Mux) –Optical Circuit Mapping for DWDM Systems –Automatic Power Balancing –Degrees = Directions of Transport
©2006 RVW, Inc. 22 Transport Technologies - WDM
©2006 RVW, Inc. 23 Transport Technologies – WDM
©2006 RVW, Inc. 24 Thank You! Brian LeCuyer, PE (402)
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