2 EVOLUTION OF MONEYMoney was developed according to needs & Requirements.Main aim was to remove the shortcomings of the Barter System.
3 DIFFERENT STAGES OF EVOLUTION OF MONEY COMMODITY MONEYMETALIC MONEYPAPER MONEYCREDIT MONEYELECTRONIC MONEY
4 1. COMMODITY MONEYWhen different commodities were used as a medium of exchange (BARTER SYSTEM)Cow Heads, Goats, Axes, Dried Fishes etc were used as medium of exchange.
5 3. PAPER MONEY PAPER MONEY Refers to the Notes issued by the State or by the Bank, usually the Central bank.Paper Money can be:Representative Paper Money.Convertible Paper Money.Fait Paper Money.
6 3. PAPER MONEY Representative Paper Money. It is that money which is fully backed by equivalent metallic reserves.Convertible Paper MoneyWhich is convertible into coins on demand.Fait Paper MoneyWhich is not redeemable or convertible into Gold or Silver on demand. It is accepted because it is declared legal tender by the issuing authority and has general acceptance as a medium of exchange. The intrinsic value of Fait money is Nil.
7 4. CREDIT MONEYIncludes Bank money (different instruments offered by the Banks.)Cheques, Drafts, P.O, T.C are examples.Convenient, Safe and easily convertible into cash.Its like Near Money.
8 5. ELECTRONIC MONEYElectronic money (also known as e-money, electronic cash, electronic currency, digital money, digital cash or digital currency) refers to money or scrip which is exchanged only electronically. Typically, this involves use of computer networks, the internet and digital stored value systems.
9 CHARACTERISTICS OF MONEY General Acceptability.Stability of Value.Transportability.Storeability.Divisibility.Homogeneity.Cognizability.Malleability.
10 LEGAL TENDER.“ Means of payment, which has state’s sanction behind it and can be used to settlement of Debt obligations”Debtor can compel creditor to accept it.Unlimited Legal Tender.Limited Legal Tender.
11 LEGAL TENDER. Unlimited Legal Tender. Money in terms of which debt can be legally paid up to any amount.All type of Currency Notes.Limited legal tender.Money in which debt can be paid to a certain limit.50 Paisa Coins.
12 MEASURING MONEYChanges in the amount of money in the economy are related to changes in Interest rates, Economic Development & Inflation.Inflation: rise in price level; makes the value of the money less.Measured by Money Aggregates M1, M2, M3.
13 MEASURING MONEYM1:Currency and checkable Deposit Accounts and other bank money instruments.Most Liquid assets of a Financial System.M2:M1 + Those assets which can’t be used directly as a mode of payment and converted into currency.Saving account depositsM3:M2+ Time deposits.Assets which are important to large institution and not to individuals.M0Base money or amount of money actually issued by the central bank . It is also the reserve requirements of commercial banks.
14 DEMAND FOR MONEYstore of value An asset that can be used to transport purchasing power from one time period to another.liquidity property of money The property of money that makes it a good medium of exchange as well as a store of value: It is portable and readily accepted and thus easily exchanged for goods.unit of account A standard unit that provides a consistent way of quoting prices.Standard of deferred payment
15 DEMAND FOR MONEY-Classical theory Quantity theory of money: The Transaction Motive: MV=PTVelocity= nominal GDP/nominal money stock= PY/MQuantity theory of money: The Income approach: Md=kPY where Y is nominal incomeMd is directly proportional to real income or Md/P (real money demand) = kY . Thus k=1/VVelocity is constant and does not depend on i or Y.
16 DEMAND FOR MONEY-Keynesian theory Keynes focused on three motives- transaction, precautionary and speculative.Aggregate speculative demand for money has inverse relation with current level of interest but upto a point. At low level of interest rates interest elasticity of money demand is infinite.Demand for money depends on prices, interest rates and real income.
17 Money demand functionMd=P* L(Y,i) where i is nominal int. earned on non-monetary assets.Md= P.L(Y, r+∏) where r is real rate of interest and ∏ is inflation rate.Md/P= L(Y, r+∏)Other factorsWealthRiskPayment technologies
18 Monetarist approach Md/P=h/i *Y Md/P is demand for real balances h/i is propensity to hold moneyWhen the interest rate is very high everyone expects it to fall in future and hence anticipates capital gains from bond-holding. Hence people convert their money into bonds. Thus, speculative demand for money is low. Hence speculative demand for money is inversely related to the rate of interest.
19 Other factors affecting money demand Demand for consumer spendingUncertainty about future(precautionary demand)Transaction costs to buy and sell stocks and bondsInflationDemand for exportsDemand for domestic investments by foreignersCentral bank’s currency holding
20 Supply of Money M1 = CU + DD M2 = M1 + Savings deposits with Post Office savings banksM3 = M1 + Net time deposits of commercial banksM4 = M3 + Total deposits with Post Office savings organisations (excluding National Savings Certificates)
21 Determinants of money supply Monetary base- money issued by the Govt and central bank of India.CRR and SLRLevels of bank reservesDiscount policy ratesPublic desire to hold currencyPublic desire to hold deposits with banksPrice changeExchange rate