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Are we taking easy money from the cash cows or are we herding, training and educating them? Implications for policy and practice in the teaching and learning.

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Presentation on theme: "Are we taking easy money from the cash cows or are we herding, training and educating them? Implications for policy and practice in the teaching and learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are we taking easy money from the cash cows or are we herding, training and educating them? Implications for policy and practice in the teaching and learning process Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD Research Officer at ICHEM International Centre for Higher Education Management School of Management – University of Bath

2 Internationalisation running out of money Need foreign money International market Competition for resources Reputation and quality Why not international students?!... 15/06/20122 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

3 Marketisation UK second to the USA Proactive recruitment Intensive marketing Reputation and quality European neighbours Do we do what we say on the tin? 15/06/20123 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

4 The international student experience What are we offering international students? What do we do in the classroom? What means of support are being provided? What constitutes international students experience? How do we look at it? How do we understand it? 15/06/20124 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

5 Internationalisation in the teaching and learning process involves the development of the students abilities to acquire, understand, analyse, interpret and apply skills and knowledge, and to understand and respect multicultural perspectives related to their academic and professional areas. (Pimentel Bótas, 2012) 15/06/20125 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

6 Internationalisation in the teaching and learning process the exposure to and the experience of engaging with students and teachers from different countries and backgrounds in the classroom. (Pimentel Bótas, 2012) 15/06/20126 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

7 Internationalisation in the teaching and learning process the opportunity to see things from different cultural and professional perspectives, bringing the learning activities in the classroom to a new level, in which communication, understanding of multiple perspectives and analysis of practices, and respect for multicultural diversity are the ground rules. (Pimentel Bótas, 2012) 15/06/20127 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

8 Assumptions and realities English language International competition has increased International students are not all the same International students operate at least in two modalities of English language With different vocabulary, meaning and usage 15/06/20128 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

9 Neo-liberalism, new mangerialism and academic behaviour Teaching and teachers being undervalued and not appreciated Research and researchers being overvalued and extremely appreciated Research and publication as the most valuable path to career progression Some researchers see teaching, student support and contact with students as a barrier 15/06/20129 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

10 Money makes the world go round HEFCE allocated £3.2bn for teaching and 1.6bn for research International students contribute over £5bn to the UK economy USA $20.23bn, Australia $9.4bn and Canada $6.5bn Some HEIs in UK increased the number of international students by 20% to 50% in Academics internal dichotomy 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

11 Otherisation anybody who that sounds different, looks different, behaves and holds beliefs different from ours. (Pimentel Bótas, 2012) 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

12 International students The deficit model International students are: - Incapable - Dependent - Submissive - Underperformers - Unwilling to engage - Intellectually deficient and - cheaters and plagiarists Fluency in English language equals intelligent 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

13 International students are aware of the discriminatory stereotype project onto them International students in Medical Tourism wanted to form a group of East Asian students because they wanted the opportunity to demonstrate the value of East Asian student through the successful completion of their project. (Carrie, 2011) 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

14 Home students Ideal model Home students are: - Active - Independent pursuers - Engaged in deep learning and - Academically honest Powerful but meaningless concepts Academic performance is discipline related International students are equal to home students 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

15 According to Janette Ryan (2012), China Level of knowledge Learn from the teacher Respect teachers and texts Harmony of the group Consensus/avoiding conflict Reflective learners Critique of the self UK Type of (critical) thinking Independent learning Question teachers and texts Student-centred learning Argumentation/assertiveness Deep learners seeking meaning Critique of the other 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 15

16 Knowledge and attitude of the teacher Home student Male A good lecturer at university should not make students feel they are stupid. He should involve students in the classroom, by making them discuss the topic and give their opinions. International student Male The teacher has to have an understanding that he is not the only one who knows things. He has to be able to relate the ideas of the students into the context of the topic and the course. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 16

17 Enthusiasms and motivation Home student Female Teachers must want you to learn their subject. They have to show their passion for teaching and learning. They have to be enthusiastic about you learning their subject. When teachers are enthusiastic about their subject, they motivate you more and make you also enthusiastic in learning their subject. They help you to be inspired. International student Female The teacher should love teaching. He should be more enthusiastic in the classroom and motivate the students a lot. I like the teacher to be passionate about teaching. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 17

18 Narrow focus of curriculum, subject and topic Home student Female In one module I did, one student made the point that we were only reading the articles and chapters that were written by our lecturers, and that we were not given the opportunity to read other writers on the subject, so we dont know what the others have to say about our subject. I think that the teachers have to have a broad knowledge of other peoples works, and so far I think that they should mention other researchers and their research. International student Female I dont like when the teachers are talking only about their own research. They only focus on their own studies. He just pulls you to his own view. I dont want to focus only on his work. I want to express my own views. I want to know more about other views on the same subject. They should have a lot of references that also contradict their own views. They should be able to explain to you other views that do not support their own. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 18

19 Impact of teachers research activities in the teaching and learning process Home student Male I think that their research activities can improve the quality of what they are teaching, because the information will be up-to-date. I think if they are enthusiastic about what they research, that might make their teaching a bit more interesting, improving the quality of their teaching. International student Female I think that teaching and research have a very close relationship, because the teacher can give us a lot of interesting and real examples of what he is teaching. He can teach you with a lot of enthusiasm and you will follow with enthusiasm as well. It is good when the teacher is an expert on what he is teaching. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 19

20 Impact of teachers research activities in the teaching and learning process Home student Female If they are researching something that I could try and apply in my learning and in my professional life, then it impacts on my learning. If they are going to schools and researching teaching and learning, and bring examples of other teachers experiences, I think that it impacts on my learning. When they tell you what they have just done, and show you how to do it and apply it, then it impacts on my learning. International student Female Unless they are teaching whatever they are researching we cannot get fresh, new information from the field. But that is not what happens. Their research is on other areas and the topic is in a different area. They dont necessarily overlap. Whatever the research they are doing does not necessarily come into the class. It does not necessarily fit the topic that they are teaching. That is why I object to the time that is taken away from the students. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 20

21 Use of questioning in the teaching and learning process Home student Male One of the bad experiences I had, where I came out very frustrated, has been where the person taking the lecture did really not know much about it. All the time that a question was asked, it was not answered. He was so arrogant. There was no evidence that he knew anything. We did not have faith in him. He was not credible. I found it really disappointing. It felt like a waste of time. I came out and I felt like I want to change the course. It was frustrating. The quality of his teaching was very slow and poor, because people were asking difficult questions, he was laughing and saying that is a good question, we talk about it later. International student Female This teacher talked a lot. Some students would ask some questions and the teacher would spend a lot of time answering them. I was very anxious because I was waiting to learn something and that did not happen. I think that the teacher attitude towards the class is the most important thing, because he can make all students motivated to interact and learn from one another. I dont think that the knowledge of the teacher is the most important thing in the class, but I think that the most important thing is his attitude and behaviour, and his attitude made the quality of his teaching very poor. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 21

22 Use of workshop in the teaching and learning process Home student Male She gave us a group work straight away. We were active straight away, and the rest of the lecture was built on the learning we had in the small groups. We were split into small groups to analyse other peoples experience of what they have done. It was more of a workshop type. It worked very well. Everybody enjoyed and learned from it. I was right into it. I was happy. It facilitates your own learning I suppose. You find people much more engaged and not sitting at the back listening and taking notes. It was very good, because it was interactive, group focused, and learning by doing. That was quality teaching. International student Female The teacher divided the lecture into two parts. In the first part he talked explaining the topic. In the second part he did like a seminar. He divided us into groups, so we had the opportunity to work with different people. We were working towards a project. I liked that experience because I learned a lot working with other people, as they have much more experience than me. They helped me to understand the work. My colleagues experience and knowledge helped me to learn and participate in the project. He made our learning practical and we experienced learning. It was high quality teaching. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 22

23 Challenges The old new teaching styles are not enough International students want: - PowerPoint - videos/DVDs - simulation and games - One-to-one - Practice and - Work-placements 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

24 The international student in the post-2008 world Techno-savvy Cut-throat Assertive Aware of their rights Exercise choices Make rational decisions University rankings Subject rankings Academics reputation To be treated as equal To be treated with respect 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

25 The main challenge for HEIs How to address the behaviour and attitude of academics towards international students in order to make them feel accepted and supported in their teaching and learning process. 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

26 Questions we have to ask ourselves: Are we taking easy money from the cash cows or are we herding, training and educating them? 15/06/ Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath

27 Implication for policy: For research: In order to understand the experience, perceptions and approaches to teaching and learning of international students we need a sociological perspective rather than a cultural one, as it provides us with holistic understanding that is not grounded on otherisation For practice, teachers need to: Stop making assumptions and stereotyping Be honest, professional, ethical and moral responsible for guiding and interacting with international students Make themselves understood Morally reflect on their practice as academics, i.e. no yeah but, no but Treat international students with respect Use international students expertise on their culture and professional practice Create a positive and supportive learning environment in the classroom 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 27

28 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 28 For institutional policy, higher education institutions need to: Value and respect teaching and teachers Put teaching first and research second Have spin-off institutes for research and researchers that are not involved in teaching Have all teachers involved in meaningful research that is applied to their teaching Be proud in promoting their teachers Make international students the responsibility of all academic and non-academic staff Be proactive rather than reactive to international students learning needs and other needs Reduce bureaucratic procedures and processes that prevent their support mechanism to international students from working in full capacity, i.e. being efficient and effective Create a positive and supportive social and learning environment outside the classroom For governmental policy, the government needs to: Demand institutions that require public money to be responsive to international students learning needs and other needs Demand an clear and streamlined career path for teachers progression and promotion Demand that higher education institutions have separate research institutes for research that are not involved in teaching Demand that higher education institutions reduce their bureaucratic procedures and processes of decision-making Demand that higher education institutions prioritise students

29 References Pimentel Bótas, P. C. (2012) The international student revolution – Changing academics attitudes. University World News, 10 June, Issue No:225. Downloaded from: Ryan, J. (2012) A whole institutional approach to teaching and supporting international students – Presentation at the University of Baths one day event for Enhancing the International Student Learning Experience in the Biosciences by the Higher Education Academy. On 24 May. Carrie, S. (2011) A critical realist case study into the role of the social landscape in the creation of psychological safety – a precursor to effective group work. Unpublished Master of Research Dissertation, Department of Education, University of Bath. 15/06/2012 Dr Paulo Charles Pimentel Bótas PhD ICHEM - School of Management University of Bath 29


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