Presentation on theme: "“If you think nobody cares if you’re alive, try missing a couple of car payments.” Earl Wilson US Representative Money and Banking."— Presentation transcript:
1 “If you think nobody cares if you’re alive, try missing a couple of car payments.” Earl Wilson US RepresentativeMoney andBanking
2 Chapter ObjectivesThe Functions of Money and the Components of the U.S. Money SupplyWhat “Backs” the Money Supply, Making Us Willing to Accept It?The Makeup of the Federal Reserve and the U.S. Banking SystemThe Functions and Responsibilities of the Federal Reserve
3 Money Defined The Functions of Money Medium of ExchangeMeans of exchanging goods and services without barter.Any item sellers generally accept and buyers generally use to pay for goods and services.Unit of AccountStandard unit in which prices can be stated and the value of goods and services can be compared.Store of ValueAn asset set aside for future use.
4 Money Defined Money Supply Components CurrencyCoins = “token money”Intrinsic value of metal in coin must be less than face value of coin.Paper = “folding money”Federal Reserve Notes, issued by Federal Reserve system.Checkable Deposits“checkbook money”Checking account balances are easily converted into currency on demand, so checks drawn on these accounts are considered equivalent to currency.
5 Money Defined Money Supply Components Other liquid savings deposits = “Near-monies” (not medium of exchange, but easily converted)Savings accountsMoney market depositsInterest-bearing savings, minimum balance and time restrictionsTime depositsCertificates of deposits (CD’s), earns interest, can’t be withdrawn before time expires without penaltyMoney market mutual funds held by individualsInterest-bearing pooled funds offered by investment firms.
6 Money Defined Measuring the Money Supply NOTE: Money supply measures do NOT include money in the banks, US Treasury, Federal Reserve or other financial institutions. This would result in double-counting. We only count money held by the public.M1 Money Supply = Currency + Checkable depositsM2 Money Supply = M1 + near monies listed on previous slide
7 Money Supply February 2006 + + + + + M1 M2 Currency M1 54%M1Checkable Deposits+46%20%Small Time Deposits+15%Money Market MutualFunds Held By Individuals(MMMF)11%+Savings DepositsIncluding Money MarketDeposit Accounts (MMDA)54%+Totals$1,375Billion$6,758Billion
8 Money Supply Are Credit Cards Money? NO. Credit cards are a means of postponing payment. The checking account balance used to pay the credit card bill is money. The credit card is not.What “Backs” the Money Supply?Money supply is backed (guaranteed) by government’s ability to keep the value of money relatively stable.
9 Money Supply Money as Debt Major components of the money supply are debts (promises to pay).Paper currency and checkable deposits have no intrinsic valuePaper money cannot be redeemed for gold or other tangible asset, only for other paper money.Checkable deposits are only redeemable for paper money.Monetary authorities attempt to maintain amount of money needed for volume of business activity necessary for full employment.
10 Money Supply Value of Money AcceptabilityCurrency is money because people accept it in exchange for goods and services.Legal Tender“This note is legal tender for all debts public and private.”Currency is legal means of payment of debt (but firms are NOT legally required to take cash instead of other forms of payment).
11 Money Supply Value of Money Relative ScarcityValue of money depends on supply and demand of money.Value is derived from its scarcity, just like everything else.With relatively constant demand, value is determined by supply.So what happens to value of money when money supply increases?What will then happen to prices when money supply increases?
12 Money Supply Money and Prices Purchasing power = amount of goods and services a unit of money will buy, which varies inversely with price level.Purchasing Power of the Dollar:$V = 1/(Price index/100)Examples:If CPI = 100, purchasing power of dollar = 1/1.00 = 1If CPI increases to 135, purchasing power of dollar falls to 1/1.35 = (by what percentage does purchasing power fall for this 35% increase in price?)
13 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United Statesaka “the Fed,” central bank of the USEstablished with the Federal Reserve Act of 1913Government’s bankBank’s bankMonetary authorityof the US
14 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States Central authority of US money and banking system is Fed’s Board of Governors.Seven members, appointed by president, confirmed by senate (like cabinet members and supreme court justices).Serve 14 year terms, providing continuity, experience, and independence from political pressures.One member selected by president to be chairperson (previous chair was Alan Greenspan, served over 18 years. Who is the current chair? The guy in the picture?).
15 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States Twelve district banks serve collectively as central bank.Quasi-public banks, blending private ownership and public control.Each district bank is owned by private banks in the district.Federally chartered banks are required to buy stock in the Fed bank in their district.
16 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States Twelve district banks serve collectively as central bank.Policies are established and coordinated by Board of Governors, a government body.The Fed and its district banks are not profit motivated like private banks.Their goal is overall economic stability.If the Fed has an operating profit, it transfers the profit to the US Treasury.
17 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States Twelve district banks serve collectively as bank’s bank.They perform the same functions for banks as banks provide to consumers.Banks have accounts at their district bank and they can borrow from that banks.Fed banks are “lender of last resort” for local banks, ensuring they have liquidity to serve our needs (e.g., after 9/11 attacks, when hurricanes hit )District banks also issue currency to private member banks (district number printed on each bill).
18 Federal Reserve System The 12 Federal Reserve Banks Source: Federal Reserve Bulletin
19 Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) aids Board of Governors in conducting monetary policy.FOMC is made up of 12 members, including all 7 of Board of Governors, president of NY district bank, and 4 other presidents who rotate on 1-year terms.FOMC meets every six weeks to determine direction of monetary policy, conduction open market operations (buy and sell bonds) to control money supply and influence interest rates (more on this later).
20 Federal Open Market Committee (Savings and Loan Associations, Framework of the Federal Reserve System and the Relationship to the PublicBoard of GovernorsFederal Open Market Committee12 Federal Reserve BanksCommercial BanksThrift Institutions(Savings and Loan Associations,Mutual Savings Banks,Credit Unions)The Public(Households andBusinesses)
21 Federal Reserve System Fed Functions and the Money Supply Federal Reserve IndependenceFed is an independent agency of government to protect it from political pressure so it can effectively control money supply and maintain price stability.Political pressure would likely result in inflationary pressure, low interest rates, even when economy needs higher rates.Research shows that nations with independent central banks have lower rates of inflation than countries that don’t.
22 Key Terms Medium of exchange Unit of account Store of value M1 Token moneyFederal Reserve notesCheckable depositsCommercial banksNear-moniesM2Savings accountTime depositsLegal tenderFederal Reserve SystemBoard of GovernorsFederal Reserve BanksFederal Open Market Committee (FOMC)
23 Money and Banking Wrap-Up The Fed12 District BanksBank's Bank3 Functions of MoneyValue of MoneyBoard of GovernorsPolitically IndependentMeasures of Money SupplyMoney and PricesFOMC