Presentation on theme: "Explorations in Economics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Explorations in Economics Alan B. Krueger & David A. Anderson
2 Chapter 16: Money, Banking, and Financial Markets Module 47: What is Money?Module 48: The Banking SystemModule 49: The Role of Financial Markets in the Real Economy
3 Gov’t Spending Projects due Thursday 1/23. HousekeepingGov’t Spending Projects due Thursday 1/23.Questions: Mr. G or see after class.Test on fiscal and monetary policy 1/29.Read Modules Do review and assessment.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
4 MODULE 47: WHAT IS MONEY? KEY IDEA: OBJECTIVES: Money is a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a unit of account.OBJECTIVES:To identify the functions of money.To describe the characteristics of money.To explain the sources of money’s value.To describe the money supply.This chapter discusses the benefits of using money.
5 THE FUNCTIONS OF MONEYMoney can be anything that is widely accepted in exchange for goods and services. Money simplifies business transactions by serving as a medium of exchange, a store of value, and a unit of account. Barter is the exchange of goods or services for other goods or services without the use of money. Barter limits choices. Currency is paper money and coins. Demand deposits are the money held in checking accounts at a bank.Use a trading activity to show the value of exchange. Look for an activity that it shows that voluntary trade creates wealth.
6 THE FUNCTIONS OF MONEYA medium of exchange is something people acquire for the purpose of payment for goods and services. A store of value is something that can be saved and will hold its value relatively well over time. A unit of account is a standard measure used to set prices and make economic calculations.Challenge students to think of examples on to illustrate the difference in each of these types of functions of money.Quiz students on these examples:Bond price quotation for a corporate bond offered at 101 ½Paying $35.00 for a book at the bookstorePlacing a $100 of your summer earnings in a safety deposit box $35,000 price quote for a new Infiniti G
7 Student ExperienceIn your uses of money chart, write an example of how you have used money for its three purposes.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
8 A Brief History of Money British Museum - A brief history of moneyAs you listen to the video, write down the different types of money.And think about what all forms of money have in common.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
9 THE BASIS OF MONEY’S VALUE Commodity money is money that has value apart from its use as money. Many precious items were used in the past, but problems means we cannot use today. Representative money has no value of its own but can be exchanged for something of value. Gold and Silver certificates were issued from 1700’s to US had to hold large reserves of the metals. Fiat money has value because the government has ordered that it be accepted in payment of debts. People accept Federal Reserve Notes because they have faith in the government.Discuss the problems of commodity money.Use examples of places that have tokens or cards to use within their stores or restaurants only and that you use dollars to covert to the local “currency” to play games or use the cards within the establishment.Have students examine currency to see the Federal Reserve Note designation.
10 Do Now – Fiscal Policy Worksheet Review your worksheet and update:Make sure you say whether taxes are going up or down in each scenario.Make sure you do the same for spending.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
11 Gov’t Spending Projects due Thursday 1/23. HousekeepingGov’t Spending Projects due Thursday 1/23.Questions: Mr. G or see after class.Test on fiscal and monetary policy 1/29.Read Modules Do review and assessment.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
12 Cover characteristics of money. Measures of money. ObjectivesCover characteristics of money.Measures of money.How banks “create” money.Intro to Federal Reserve4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
13 CHARACTERISTICS OF MONEY Durable and Portable Light enough to carry but sturdy Uniform and Divisible Easily recognized as money How do we pay $5.87? Limited in Supply and Accepted for Payment Too much in circulation causes it to lose value We know that it is acceptable in exchange for goods or servicesDiscuss the most important characteristic of money our willingness to accept it. You accept a check from your employer with the expectation that you will be buy the goods and services you want.
14 THE MONEY SUPPLY TODAYThe money supply is the amount of money available for the purchase of goods and services. M1 is a measure of the money supply that includes only the forms of money that are readily available to spend: cash, checking account deposits, and traveler’s checks. M2 is a measure of the money supply that includes M1 along with forms of money that are less easily converted to cash. Savings accounts, called Time Deposits would be less liquid than cash.What about debit cards? What about credit cards? What about my automatic payments for the house, the car and my utility bills?
15 THE MONEY SUPPLY TODAYM1 is a measure of the money supply that includes only the forms of money that are readily available to spend: cash, checking account deposits, and traveler’s checks.This is a good spot to explain to students the concept of liquidity
16 Classify different types of money as M-1 or M-2. ActivityClassify different types of money as M-1 or M-2.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
17 What is money – three purposes SummaryWhat is money – three purposesHow money has evolved. Type of money we use today is…….Characteristics of money.How we measure money: M-1, and M-2.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
18 MODULE 48: THE BANKING SYSTEM KEY IDEA:The varied depository institutions (“banks”) in our banking system don’t just hold money; they create money, but not by making new currency.OBJECTIVES:To explain how depository institutions create money in the economy.To describe key aspects of the regulatory system for depository institutions.The banking system plays an important role in our economy. A bank or other depository institution holds our money but plays a much bigger role in the financial sector. Students may have difficulty understanding the phrase, “they create money”.
19 THE BANKING INDUSTRYA depository institution is a financial institution that obtains money mainly through deposits from clients. A commercial bank accepts deposits from individuals and firms, and provides them with loans in addition to a wide variety of other services.Ask what types of accounts the students have.Most neighborhood banks are a branch operation of a large commercial bank. Challenge students to list the big banks.Commercial banks are chartered and regulated by the federal or state governments. This provides a level of protection for depositors.
20 THE FUNCTIONS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS Depository institutions have three primary functions in common:Storing money: a safe place to keep moneyLending money: car and home loans, lines of credit for businessesIssuing credit cards: cardholders make purchases with a “loan”Have the students discuss the ways in which storing, lending, and issuing credit are important to the economy.How do depository institutions make profit from these functions?
21 Own Owe $ 10 cash $ 100 checking account $ 90 loans How Banks Work 2. Bank keeps some money in reserve in case depositor withdraws.OwnOwe1. Joanna deposits money in her bank account$ 10 cash$ 100 checking account$ 90 loans3. Bank lends remaining money to companies and consumers.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
22 FRACTIONAL RESERVEBANKING AND THE RESERVE REQUIREMENT In a fractional reserve banking system, banks must hold on to a fraction of their deposits and may lend out the rest. A reserve requirement specifies the percentage of deposits that banks must hold as reserves. The FED sets the rates for the legal reserves. Excess reserves are the source of loans and the money creation function of the banking system.Debate the advantages and disadvantages of the fractional reserve banking system.
23 Each row will represent an economy. Banking ExperimentEach row will represent an economy.Alternating students will represent banks or borrowers (consumers or companies).First bank will start with a $100 deposit.Bank sets up 10% reserve.First bank lends to first borrower 90% of their deposits.Borrow deposits their loan in the next bank.Repeat process until you reach the end.4/1/2017Chapter 16-Mods 47-49
24 HOW DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS CREATE MONEY Deposit, lending, spending…Students will find this to be difficult to understand. Explain this figure and move through the various steps. Be sure to stress the idea that people make deposits, other people needs loans, which they spend on homes, cars and other items. This helps the economy by finding funds for spending. AD increases and GDP grows larger.Find an interactive lesson from the St. Louis Fed to explain money creation.