3MoneyDefinition: anything that can be used as a medium of exchange, measure of value, and a store of value
4Why not BARTER? barter = trade barter economy – an economy based on tradeNot most efficientsystem because itrequires a “mutual coincidence of wants”(each person must have exactly what the other wants—also called “double coincidence of wants”)
5Three Types of Money1) Commodity money – money that has an alternative use as an economic good2) Representative money – money that is backed by a commodity3) Fiat money – money that has value because of government decreeWhat phrase is printed on the top left corner of U.S. currency?
6“This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private” Three Types of Money“This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private”legal tender – fiat money that must be accepted as payment for purchases/debts
7Characteristics of Money PortableDurableDivisibleStableScarce(limited in supply)Accepted
8Three Functions of Money Medium of exchange – something accepted by all parties as payment for goods and services
9Three Functions of Money Measure of value – common measuring stick to express the worth or value of a good
10Three Functions of Money Store of value – quality that allows purchasing power to be saved until needed
11MoneyU.S. currency is printed by the U.S. Dept. of the Treasury’s Bureau of Printing and Engraving.U.S. coins are created by the U.S. Mint.This money is distributed to banks by the Federal Reserve Bank (also known as “the Fed”).Our currency is known as “Federal Reserve Notes.”There are currently about $829 billion in circulation. (most outside the U.S.)
12Money TermsDemand deposit accounts (DDAs) – funds deposited in a bank that can be accessed by writing a check and without having to secure prior approval from the bank (Ex.: checking accts)
13Categories of MoneyM1 – coins, currency, checks, checking accounts / DDAs [relates to money’s function as a medium of exchange]
14Types of MoneyM2 – M1 + savings accounts, money market accounts, CDs (time deposits)[relates to money’sfunction as a store ofvalue]
15Types of MoneyM3 – M2 + Institutional money market & long-term savings accounts (large time deposits) [relates to money’sfunction as a store of value & unit of accounting]
16(M)(V)=(P)(Q) Equation of Exchange M=money supply (M1) V=velocity (# of times the avg. $ changes hands in a year)P=price levels (current)Q (or Y)=real GDP/output[PQ=nominal GDP]
17(M)(V)=(P)(Q) Equation of Exchange What will happen if the money supply increases, but velocity remains constant?What will happen if velocity increases, but M remains constant?
19The Federal Reserve (the Fed) The privately-owned (owned by the people—stockholders of private banks), publicly-controlled (the President selects the Fed Chairman and appoints the Board of Governors) central bank of the United States
20The Federal Reserve (the Fed) Has the power to lend to banks to prevent bank runs
21FDICIn 1933, the U.S. government created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insures bank deposits up to $250,000 per customer per bank.
22Fractional Reserve System Why couldn’t George give his customers their money? Where was it?
23Fractional Reserve System Banks make money when they make loans to their customers and charge them interest.Banks are only required to keep a portion of all deposits.The Fed decides what percentage of all deposits banks must hold (reserve requirement / reserve rate). [Current=10%]Banks can take the remaining money and lend it to customers.
24Structure of the Fed Directed by a 7-member Board of Governors Each app’ted by President to 14-yr. termCountry is divided into 12 districts, each served by a district bankNew York -ChicagoBoston -ClevelandRichmond -AtlantaDallas -St. LouisKansas City -PhiladelphiaMinneapolis -San Francisco
25Structure of the Fed Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) 12 members – 7 governors, pres of NY Fed, and 4 other Fed district presidentsEvaluates state of economy and determines interest rates
26Fed ChairmanThe head of the Federal Reserve is known as the Chairman. The current Chairman of the Fed is Ben Bernanke.
27Fed ResponsibilitiesMain responsibility: controlling the rate of growth of the money supplyActing as the government’s bankMaintaining the payments system [Ex.: you swipe debit Zaxby’s, Fed makes sure your $ gets from your bank to Zaxby’s bank]Regulating & supervising banksPreparing consumer legislation [Ex.: making sure that businesses treat consumers fairly and disclose all information in credit transactions]
30Macroeconomics macroeconomics—analysis of the overall national economy We can measure the health of the national economy by assessing THREE factors:GDPUnemploymentInflation
31A HEALTHY Economy The economy is considered healthy if: There is a sustained increase in real GDP (economic growth)Unemployment is lowPrices are stable (or there is minimal inflation)[On business cycle = Expansion/Recovery]
32An UNHEALTHY Economy The economy is considered unhealthy if: There is a sustained decrease in real GDPUnemployment is highExcessive inflation (or deflation) exists[On business cycle = Contraction/Recession]
33Ensuring Economic Stability *In order to make sure our economy is stable (economic stability – reduction of extreme ups & downs in the business cycle & standard of living), the federal government steps in with…Macroeconomic stabilization policies – attempts by the federal government to keep the economy healthy and to make the future more predictable
34Economic Stabilization Policies **The two types of stabilization policies are fiscal & monetary policy. Monetary policy attempts to either INCREASE or DECREASEthe money supply.
35Economic Stabilization Policies **Policy can be expansionary or contractionary.Expansionary increases the money supply, which spurs economic growth, because it increases demand. (loose $)Contractionary decreases the money supply, which can curb inflation and slow down spending and can slow down economic growth. (tight $)
36Economic Stabilization Policies monetary policy – changing the rate of growth of the supply of money in circulation (specifically, to curb inflation or deflation)*Implementedby the FED
37Three Tools of Monetary Policy open market operations – when the Fed buys and sells securities (government bonds) on the open marketcontractionary:selling securities / bondsexpansionary:buying securities / bonds
38Three Tools of Monetary Policy reserve rate – the amount of deposits the bank must keep “on reserve”(i.e., stored in their vault or deposited in their local Federal Reserve branch bank)contractionary: raising the reserve rateexpansionary: lowering the reserve rate
39Three Tools of Monetary Policy discount rate – the interest rate on loans made by the Federal Reserve to bankscontractionary: raising the discount rateexpansionary: lowering the discount rate
40Effects of Monetary Policy Federal funds rate – interest rate banks charge each other**The Fed “targets” this interest rate to** change the amount of $ in the money supply!
41Effects of Monetary Policy prime rate – interest rate banks charge their best customers(affected by the discount & fed funds rate)