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ATHLETIC MIRACLES OR MONEY PITS? Athletic Supplements and Ergogenic Aids KIM ARCHER M.ED. NUTRITION SPECIALIST SOUTHWEST REGION.

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Presentation on theme: "ATHLETIC MIRACLES OR MONEY PITS? Athletic Supplements and Ergogenic Aids KIM ARCHER M.ED. NUTRITION SPECIALIST SOUTHWEST REGION."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATHLETIC MIRACLES OR MONEY PITS? Athletic Supplements and Ergogenic Aids KIM ARCHER M.ED. NUTRITION SPECIALIST SOUTHWEST REGION

2 Miracles or Money pits? Athletic Supplements or Ergogenic Aids WHAT WE DO KNOW vs. WHAT WE DONT KNOW

3 What We Do Know… SUPPLEMENTS AND ERGOGENIC AIDS ATHLETES DO USE THEM Nutrition Business Journal, estimated: ~40, 000 hard core athletes spent ~$300/month on supplements or 11% of sales. ~500,000 recreational athletes spend $80/mo on supplements or 43% of sales. Melinda Manore Ph.D., R.D., FACSM Oregon State University

4 What We Dont Know… Research Long Term Effects Why hard work doesnt pay off? The only place success comes in the before work is in the dictionary. --Vidal Sasson

5 Explain Supplements… Definition: ANY PRODUCT INTENDED FOR INGESTION AS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE DIET. Regulation Standards FDA MUST PROVE PRODUCT IS SAFE OR UNSAFE.

6 Explain Ergogenic Aids… Definition: SUPPLEMENT MARKETED TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE GENERALLY SPORTS RELATED. Regulation Standards: FDA MUST PROVE PRODUCT IS SAFE OR UNSAFE.

7 Relationship to Exercise EXERCISE = SUPPLEMENTS ERGOGENIC AIDS

8 Questions To Ask? Who needs to supplement? When do you recommend a supplement? How much do I need? What do you recommend? Can you get too much?

9 Top Ten List Popular Supplements/Ergogenic Aids Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Many, many, more If you train hard, youll not only be hard, youll be hard to beat. --Herchel Walker

10 #1-Androstendione ANDRO What is it? oSteroid Secreted by Adrenal Glands (W/DHEA) oBuilding Block for Test./Estrogen oAssociated with Masculinity oSold in Capsules oFood Sources: None oBanned: IOC, USOC, NCAA, NFL

11 #1-Androstendione

12 #1-Androstendione CLAIMS Increase Energy Enhance Recovery Increase Muscle Mass/Growth = Testosterone Production Increase Sexual Arousal Increase Sense of Well Being

13 #1-Androstendione RESEARCH Study #1 UNTRAINED MALE SUBJECTS (8 WEEKS) NO SIGNIFICANT INCREASE NO AFFECT ON MUSCLE SIZE/STRENGTH OR BODY COMPOSITION Study #2 8 MALE SUBJECTS INCREASE IN BLOOD TESTOSTERONE NO AFFECT ON MUSCLE SIZE/STRENGTH OR BODY COMPOSITION USED TO SUPPORT MARKETING CLAIM *NO EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED RECOVERY OR IMPROVED LIBIDO

14 #1-Androstendione SIDE EFFECTS Testicular atrophy Breast development Infertility Acne Baldness Clitoral enlargement Voice changes Premature bone closure Prostate Cancer Breast Cancer Early puberty Emotional outburst Growth stunting Interfere with natural production Decrease HDL production

15 #2-DHEA What is it? oProduced by the Adrenal Gland oBuilding Block for Test/Estrogen oFemale form of Andro oPeaks Levels years o? Role with Disease and Health oCapsules/Tablets: 150 mg oFood Source: None oBanned: USOC, NCAA, and NFL

16 #2-DHEA CLAIMS Eternal Youth Enhances Immune System Disease Fighter Weight Loss Aid Increases Muscle Mass Increases Energy Increases Libido Counteracts Stress

17 #2-DHEA RESEARCH Age Memory, Libido, and Mood Immunity Cardiovascular Diseases Cancer Lupus AIDS/HIV Infections Body Composition

18 #2-DHEA SIDE EFFECTS Long-term unknown Alter levels of hormones Facial hair Acne Baldness Deepening of voice Menstrual irregularities Prostate cancer Breast cancer Endometrial cancer

19 #3-BC Amino Acids What is it? oEssential Amino Acids oCompete with Tryptophan oDelay CNS Fatigue oBCAA During Endurance Exercise oPills/Sport Drinks: 7g to 20 g per serving/1 to 7 g/l. oFood Sources: chicken, beef, shrimp, yogurt, egg, oatmeal, pinto beans oBanned: NONE

20 #3-BC Amino Acids CLAIMS Improves Exercise Performance Builds Muscle Prevents Fatigue

21 #3-BC Amino Acids RESEARCH Exercise Performance Protein Loss During Exercise Abdominal Fat

22 #3-BC Amino Acids SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Long-Term Studies No Cases of Toxicity Ammonia Toxicity Impair Water Absorption

23 #4-Creatine What is it? oCreatine + ATP = ST Energy oSynthesized from AA in the Liver, Pancreas, and Kidneys 1 g/day. oPills, Powders, Liquids, Chewing Gum, and Gels: 20 – 25 g/dayloading 2 –5 g/day oFood Sources: pork, salmon, beef, cod, milk, herring oBanned: NCAA RestrictS Distribution

24 #4-Creatine

25

26 #4-Creatine CLAIMS Increase Muscular strength Delays fatigue Burn Fat Increase Muscle Mass Strength for Special populations

27 #4-Creatine RESEARCH High Intensity Exercise Body Composition Elderly Muscular Disease Congestive Heart Failure

28 #4-Creatine SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Stress on liver and kidneys? Muscle cramps Muscle pulls Tendon pulls Muscle injuries Delay recovery from injury Dehydration Gastro Problems Weight Gain Weight controlled sports Endurance sports Long – term effects? Renal diseaseavoid

29 #5-Vanadyl Sulfate What is it? oVanadium = Trace Mineral oRole Not Defined oGoats and Rats oFacilitate Glucose Uptake oDiabetes Management oCapsule: 7 – 15 mg oFood Source: shellfish, parsley, mushrooms, dill seed, and wine. oBanned: None

30 #5-Vanadyl Sulfate CLAIMS Reduces Need for Insulin Creates Pumped Appearance Increases Muscle Mass Increases Muscular Strength

31 #5-Vanadyl Sulfate RESEARCH Diabetes Weight Training

32 #5-Vanadyl Sulfate SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Potential Toxicity Diarrhea Green tongue Gastrointestinal Disturbances Muscle Cramps

33 #6-Chromium Picolonate What it is? oEssential Trace Mineral oMetabolismFat/Protein/CHOs oSafest Nutrientno toxicity oTablet, Capsule, Gel: 50 – 600 mg dose oFood Source: broccoli, ham, potatoes, bagel, green beans, apple rice, turkey oBanned: None

34 #6-Chromium Picolonate CLAIMS Daily Intake Need Control Diabetes Lowers Cholesterol Eliminates Body Fat Builds Muscle Prevents Osteoporosis

35 #6-Chromium Picolonate RESEARCH Intake, Metabolism and Deficiency Diabetes CVD Obesity Strength Training and Body Mass Bone Density

36 #6-Chromium Picolonate SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Increased Urinary Chromium Excretion Dietary Intake Weight Lose and Health Claims Long Term Effects Headaches, Sleep Disturbances, Mood Swings, Motor Function Perception Hinder Iron Absorption??

37 #7-Tribulus Terrestris What is it? oHerb known as Puncture Vine oIncrease Concentrations of Testosterone oNo Standard Recommendation oUsed with Other Supplements oCapsules oBanned: None

38 #7-Tribulus Terrestris CLAIMS Increases Testosterone Better Sex Life Bigger Muscles

39 #7-Tribulus Terrestris RESEARCH No Peer – Reviewed Research International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Study Animal Data

40 #7-Tribulus Terrestris SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Safety and Efficacy Data Needed No Known Harmful Interactions Upset Stomach Animals--Staggers (Weakness of Hind limbs)

41 #8-HMB What is it? oMetabolite of BCAALeucine o5 - 10% of Leucine = HMB o0.2 – 0.4 g HMB/day oTablets, Capsules, Bars: Calcium-HMB oFood Source: catfish, squash, avocado, cauliflower, asparagus, cheese, grapefruits oBanned: None

42 #8-HMB CLAIMS Increase Muscle Strength Increases Lean Body Mass Reduces Fat Prevents Muscle Breakdown (Catabolism) Speeds Up Muscle Repair Decreases Blood Cholesterol Levels

43 #8-HMB RESEARCH Resistance Exercise Endurance Exercise No Long – Term Studies Animal Studies

44 #8-HMB SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY No Long – Term Studies $$$--Found in Foods No Adverse Effects ? Help Trained Athletes

45 #9-Ephedrine Ma Haung and Ephedra What is it? oHerb from China oNasal DecongestantCNS Stimulant oTheory oTablets, Capsules, Teas: 5 – 75 mg oFood Source: None oBanned: IOC and NCAA

46 #9-Ephedrine Ma Haung and Ephedra CLAIMS Speeds Metabolism for Weight Loss Improve Athletic Performance Help for Asthma Nasal Decongestant Fast Acting Energy Herbal Ecstasy

47 #9-Ephedrine Ma Haung and Ephedra RESEARCH Ephedra vs. Ephedrine Ephedrine and Weight Loss Sweat plus sacrifice equals success. --Charlie Finley

48 #9-Ephedrine Ma Haung and Ephedra SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Increased BP Heart Rate Irregularities Insomnia Nervousness Tremors Headaches Seizures Heart Attacks Strokes Death Improve Athletic Performance? Weight Loss Safety? Rec. Dose – 1 week Doping Concerns Drug-Like Effect BANNED

49 #10-Fat Burners Diet Formulas What is it? oCholine Bitartrate, Inositol, Lipotropic Vitamins, L-Carnitine, Methionine, Chromium oGreen Tea, Ginger Root Cayenne Powder, Caffeine, Ginseng, Kola Nut, Ma Huang… oThermogenic oAppetite Suppressant oBanned: None

50 #10-Fat Burners Diet Formulas CLAIMS Lose Weight, Lose Fat Wont be Hungry Improve Athletic Performance

51 #10-Fat Burners Diet Formulas RESEARCH Appetite Suppressant Number of Ingredients Long Term Study of Poor Diet

52 #10-Fat Burners Diet Formulas SIDE EFFECTS/SAFETY Past Side Effects Proper Food Choices Research Claims

53 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Do they improve performance? NO… in active individuals with good status. At risk group: Athletes consuming highly refined diets. Athletes with low energy intakes due to dieting, eating disorders, or chronic energy restriction. Athletes in thin – build sports Athletes with metabolic issues

54 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Does exercise increase the need? YES… B-Complex Vitamins Iron Antioxidants Electrolytes The will to win is important, but the will to prepare is vital. --Joe Paterno

55 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Fitness Levels and Hours of Exercise Per Week Increased Nutrient Needs? SedentaryRecreation/ Fitness Elite Athlete RDA/DRI Set RDA/DRI??

56 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Can you get to much? Problem Nutrients… Zinc Magnesium Iron B-6 Vit D Vit A Folate

57 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Fortified Food and Supplements Intake One Meal Plan Breakfast: 1 c. Total; 1 c milk, 1 Centrum Performance Supplement Lunch: 11 oz Ultra Slim Fast Snack: 1 Power Bar Essential

58 Vitamins and Mineral Supplements Fortified Food and Supplements Intake One Meal Plan Nutrient%DV%UL Vit. A178%89% Vit. D163%33% Folate366%147% Vit B6573%12% Iron283%113% Zinc280%109%

59 Playing By the Rules Banned and Restricted Substances National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) International Olympic Committee (IOC) United State Olympic Committee NFL, NBA, ABA, etc….

60 Playing By the Rules Importance The price of success is hard work, dedication to the job at hand, and the determination that whether we win or lose, we have applied the best of ourselves to the task at hand. –Vince Lombardi

61 Recommendation Guidelines Supplements and Ergogenic Aids Is current dietary intake adequate? Is there an indication of increased need? Is the amount below toxic levels? Can product cause harm? Does the athlete want to supplement? What do they believe it will do for them? Can I recommend an alternative substance or food?

62 Recommendation Guidelines Supplements and Ergogenic Aids Is the athlete willing to make dietary changes to improve performance? What is the cost of the product and is it a reputable manufacturer? Are their any nutrient-nutrient or drug-nutrient interactions? Are there ethical issues? Is it banned or restricted by any credible organization?

63 Coaching Nutrition Motives and Beliefs Knowledge/Overall Diet Know the Sport and Athlete Updated Research/Media Education Improves Performance

64 Safe Supplementing The Right Athlete in the Right Way The world is full of willing people, some willing to work, the others willing to let them.Robert Frost

65 Athletic Performance $1 into $100 Genetics Training Coaching/Education Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. John Wooden

66 Additional References Sports Nutrition: A guide for the professional working with active people. 3 rd Edition. ADA and Christine A. Rosenbloom PhD, Rd, Editor ACSM Health and Fitness Journals Eat Smart, Play Hard. Liz Applegate, PhD The Health Professionals Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. Allison Sarubin, MS, RD Jacqueline R. Berning, PhD, RD. Assistant Professor, University of Colorado, Nutrition Consultant Robert Murray, PhD, FACSM, Director, The Gatorade Sports Science Institute.

67 References for Presentation Fueling the Athlete: Current and Emerging Issues in Sports Nutrition. Gatorade Sports Science Institute Seminar 10/19/2001. Top Ten Sports Nutrition Supplements. Susan Bohanan R.D., L.D. plem.htm plem.htm Sports Supplement: A Win at Any Cost? Melinda Hemmelgarn N.S., R.D. Associate State Nutrition Specialist U O/E. Eat Smart, Play Hard. Liz Applegate, PhD The Health Professionals Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. Allison Sarubin, MS, RD

68 References for Presentation Gatorade Sports Science Institute. SCAN. Sports Nutrition Information Resources. Sports MedUpdate. NCAA Sports Medicine Handbook. Journal of Performance Enhancement. Food Nutrition Information Center.


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