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© 2003 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction to Valuation: The Time Value of Money (Calculators) Chapter Five

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Key Concepts and Skills Be able to compute the future value of an investment made today Be able to compute the present value of cash to be received at some future date Be able to compute the return on an investment Be able to compute the number of periods that equates a present value and a future value given an interest rate Be able to use a financial calculator and a spreadsheet to solve time value of money problems

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Chapter Outline Future Value and Compounding Present Value and Discounting More on Present and Future Values

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Basic Definitions Present Value – earlier money on a time line Future Value – later money on a time line Interest rate – exchange rate between earlier money and later money –Discount rate –Cost of capital –Opportunity cost of capital –Required return

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Future Value and Compounding Single Period Multiple Periods

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Investing for a single period If you invest $X today at an interest rate of r, you will have $X + $X(r) = $X(1 + r) in one period. Example: $100 at 10% interest gives $100(1.1) = $110

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Investing for more than one period Simple Interest: no interest is paid on previous interest Compounding: Reinvesting the interest, we earn interest on interest, i.e., compounding

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Examples Two periods: FV = $X(1 + r)(1 + r) = $X(1 + r) 2 $100 at 10% for 2 periods = $100(1.1)(1.1) = $100(1.1) 2 =$121 In general, for t periods, FV = $X(1 + r) t where (1 + r) t is the future value interest factor, FVIF(r,t) Example: $100 at 10% for 10 periods gives $100(1.1) 10 = $259.37

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Example Assume you just started a new job and your current annual salary is $25,000. Suppose the rate of inflation is about 4% annually for the next 40 years, and you receive annual cost of living increases tied to the inflation rate. What will your ending salary be? How much will the final salary will be should you receive average raises of 5% annually. –The difference is striking: 25,000(1.05) 40 = $176,000; or approximately $56,000 in additional purchasing power in that year alone!

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Present Value and Discounting Single Period Multiple Period

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The Single Period Case Given r, what amount today (Present Value or PV) will produce a given future amount? Remember that FV = $X(1 + r). Rearrange and solve for $X, which is the present value. Therefore, PV = FV / (1 + r). Example –$110 in 1 period with an interest rate of 10% has a PV = 110 / (1.1) = $100

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Discounting Process of finding the present value. Present Value One Period Example –Determine the present value of $110 and $121 if the amounts are received in one year and two years, respectively, and the interest rate is 10%. –$100 = $110 (1 / 1.1) = 110 (.9091) –$100 = $121 (1 / 1.12) = 121(.8264)

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Present Values for Multiple Periods PV = FV [1 / (1 + r) t ] –where [1 / (1 + r) t ] is the discount factor, or the present value interest factor, PVIF(r,t) Example: If you have $259.37 in 10 periods and the interest rate was 10%, how much did you deposit initially? –PV = 259.37 [1/(1.1) 10 ] = 259.37(.3855) = $100

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Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Example: effect of compounding over long periods. –Vincent Van Gogh's "Sunflowers" was sold at auction in 1987 for approximately $36 million. It had been sold in 1889 for $125. At what discount rate is $125 the present value of $36 million, given a 98 year time span? –125 = 36,000,000 [1 / (1 + r) 98 ] –(36,000,000 / 125)1/98 1 = r =.13685 = 13.685% If your great grandfather had purchased the painting in 1889 and your family sold it for $36 million, the average annually compounded rate of return on the $125 investment was ____?

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Patterns Present value decreases as interest rates increase. Future values increase as the interest rate increases. Start with a present value of $100 and computing the future value under different interest rate scenarios. –Future Value of $100 at 10% for 5 years = 100(1.1)5 = $161.05 –Future Value of $100 at 12% for 5 years = 100(1.12)5 = 176.23 –Future Value of $100 at 14% for 5 years = 100(1.14)5 = 192.54

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More on Present and Future Values

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Present versus Future Value Present Value factors are reciprocals of Future Value factors: –PVIF(r,t) = 1 / (1 + r) t and FVIF(r,t) = (1 + r) t –Example: FVIF(10%,4) = 1.14 = 1.464 –PVIF(10%,4) = 1 / 1.14 =.683

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More on Time Values There are four variables in the basic time value equation. If we know three of the four, we can always solve for the fourth. Determining the Discount Rate –Start with the basic time value of money equation and rearrange to solve for r: –FV = PV(1 + r) t –r = (FV / PV)1/t 1 Example: What interest rate makes a PV of $100 become a FV of $150 in 6 periods? –r = (150 / 100)1/6 1 = 7% –or PV = 100; FV = 150; N = 6; CPT I/Y = 7%

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Finding the Number of Periods and Rule of 72 Finding the Number of Periods –FV = PV(1 + r)t rearrange and solve for t. –t = ln(FV / PV) / ln(1 + r) Example: How many periods before $100 today grows to $150 at 7%? –t = ln(150 / 100) / ln(1.07) = 6 periods

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Rule of 72 Time to double your money, (FV / PV) = 2.00 is approximately (72 / r%) periods. The rate needed to double your money is approximately (72/t)%. Example: To double your money at 10% takes approximately (72/10) = 7.2 periods.

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Future Values Suppose you invest $1000 for one year at 5% per year. What is the future value in one year? –Interest = 1000(.05) = 50 –Value in one year = principal + interest = 1000 + 50 = 1050 –Future Value (FV) = 1000(1 +.05) = 1050 Suppose you leave the money in for another year. How much will you have two years from now? –FV = 1000(1.05)(1.05) = 1000(1.05) 2 = 1102.50

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Future Values: General Formula FV = PV(1 + r) t –FV = future value –PV = present value –r = period interest rate, expressed as a decimal –T = number of periods Future value interest factor = (1 + r) t

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Effects of Compounding Simple interest Compound interest Consider the previous example –FV with simple interest = 1000 + 50 + 50 = 1100 –FV with compound interest = 1102.50 –The extra 2.50 comes from the interest of.05(50) = 2.50 earned on the first interest payment

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Calculator Keys Texas Instruments BA-II Plus –FV = future value –PV = present value –I/Y = period interest rate P/Y must equal 1 for the I/Y to be the period rate Interest is entered as a percent, not a decimal –N = number of periods –Remember to clear the registers (CLR TVM) after each problem –Other calculators are similar in format

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Future Values – Example 2 Suppose you invest the $1000 from the previous example for 5 years. How much would you have? –5 N –5 I/Y –1000 PV –CPT FV = -1276.28 The effect of compounding is small for a small number of periods, but increases as the number of periods increases. (Simple interest would have a future value of $1250, for a difference of $26.28.)

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Future Values – Example 3 Suppose you had a relative deposit $10 at 5.5% interest 200 years ago. How much would the investment be worth today? –200 N –5.5 I/Y –10 PV –CPT FV = -447,189.84 What is the effect of compounding? –Simple interest = 10 + 200(10)(.055) = 210.55 –Compounding added $446,979.29 to the value of the investment

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Future Value as a General Growth Formula Suppose your company expects to increase unit sales of widgets by 15% per year for the next 5 years. If you currently sell 3 million widgets in one year, how many widgets do you expect to sell in 5 years? –5 N –15 I/Y –3,000,000 PV –CPT FV = -6,034,072 units (remember the sign convention)

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Quick Quiz – Part I What is the difference between simple interest and compound interest? Suppose you have $500 to invest and you believe that you can earn 8% per year over the next 15 years. –How much would you have at the end of 15 years using compound interest? –How much would you have using simple interest?

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Present Values How much do I have to invest today to have some amount in the future? –FV = PV(1 + r) t –Rearrange to solve for PV = FV / (1 + r) t When we talk about discounting, we mean finding the present value of some future amount. When we talk about the value of something, we are talking about the present value unless we specifically indicate that we want the future value.

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Present Value – One Period Example Suppose you need $10,000 in one year for the down payment on a new car. If you can earn 7% annually, how much do you need to invest today? PV = 10,000 / (1.07) 1 = 9345.79 Calculator –1 N –7 I/Y –10,000 FV –CPT PV = -9345.79

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Present Values – Example 2 You want to begin saving for you daughters college education and you estimate that she will need $150,000 in 17 years. If you feel confident that you can earn 8% per year, how much do you need to invest today? –N = 17 –I/Y = 8 –FV = 150,000 –CPT PV = -40,540.34 (remember the sign convention)

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Present Values – Example 3 Your parents set up a trust fund for you 10 years ago that is now worth $19,671.51. If the fund earned 7% per year, how much did your parents invest? –N = 10 –I/Y = 7 –FV = 19,671.51 –CPT PV = -10,000

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Present Value – Important Relationship I For a given interest rate – the longer the time period, the lower the present value –What is the present value of $500 to be received in 5 years? 10 years? The discount rate is 10% –5 years: N = 5; I/Y = 10; FV = 500 CPT PV = -310.46 –10 years: N = 10; I/Y = 10; FV = 500 CPT PV = -192.77

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Present Value – Important Relationship II For a given time period – the higher the interest rate, the smaller the present value –What is the present value of $500 received in 5 years if the interest rate is 10%? 15%? Rate = 10%: N = 5; I/Y = 10; FV = 500 CPT PV = -310.46 Rate = 15%; N = 5; I/Y = 15; FV = 500 CPT PV = -248.58

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Quick Quiz – Part II What is the relationship between present value and future value? Suppose you need $15,000 in 3 years. If you can earn 6% annually, how much do you need to invest today? If you could invest the money at 8%, would you have to invest more or less than at 6%? How much?

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The Basic PV Equation - Refresher PV = FV / (1 + r) t There are four parts to this equation –PV, FV, r and t –If we know any three, we can solve for the fourth If you are using a financial calculator, be sure and remember the sign convention or you will receive an error when solving for r or t

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Discount Rate Often we will want to know what the implied interest rate is in an investment Rearrange the basic PV equation and solve for r –FV = PV(1 + r) t –r = (FV / PV) 1/t – 1 If you are using formulas, you will want to make use of both the y x and the 1/x keys

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Discount Rate – Example 1 You are looking at an investment that will pay $1200 in 5 years if you invest $1000 today. What is the implied rate of interest? –r = (1200 / 1000) 1/5 – 1 =.03714 = 3.714% –Calculator – the sign convention matters!!! N = 5 PV = -1000 (you pay 1000 today) FV = 1200 (you receive 1200 in 5 years) CPT I/Y = 3.714%

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Discount Rate – Example 2 Suppose you are offered an investment that will allow you to double your money in 6 years. You have $10,000 to invest. What is the implied rate of interest? –N = 6 –PV = -10,000 –FV = 20,000 –CPT I/Y = 12.25%

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Discount Rate – Example 3 Suppose you have a 1-year old son and you want to provide $75,000 in 17 years towards his college education. You currently have $5000 to invest. What interest rate must you earn to have the $75,000 when you need it? –N = 17 –PV = -5000 –FV = 75,000 –CPT I/Y = 17.27%

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Quick Quiz – Part III What are some situations where you might want to compute the implied interest rate? Suppose you are offered the following investment choices: –You can invest $500 today and receive $600 in 5 years. The investment is considered low risk. –You can invest the $500 in a bank account paying 4%. –What is the implied interest rate for the first choice and which investment should you choose?

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Finding the Number of Periods Start with basic equation and solve for t (remember you logs) –FV = PV(1 + r) t –t = ln(FV / PV) / ln(1 + r) You can use the financial keys on the calculator as well, just remember the sign convention.

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Number of Periods – Example 1 You want to purchase a new car and you are willing to pay $20,000. If you can invest at 10% per year and you currently have $15,000, how long will it be before you have enough money to pay cash for the car? –I/Y = 10 –PV = -15,000 –FV = 20,000 –CPT N = 3.02 years

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Number of Periods – Example 2 Suppose you want to buy a new house. You currently have $15,000 and you figure you need to have a 10% down payment plus an additional 5% in closing costs. If the type of house you want costs about $150,000 and you can earn 7.5% per year, how long will it be before you have enough money for the down payment and closing costs?

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Number of Periods – Example 2 Continued How much do you need to have in the future? –Down payment =.1(150,000) = 15,000 –Closing costs =.05(150,000 – 15,000) = 6,750 –Total needed = 15,000 + 6,750 = 21,750 Compute the number of periods –PV = -15,000 –FV = 21,750 –I/Y = 7.5 –CPT N = 5.14 years Using the formula –t = ln(21,750 / 15,000) / ln(1.075) = 5.14 years

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Quick Quiz – Part IV When might you want to compute the number of periods? Suppose you want to buy some new furniture for your family room. You currently have $500 and the furniture you want costs $600. If you can earn 6%, how long will you have to wait if you dont add any additional money?

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Spreadsheet Example Use the following formulas for TVM calculations –FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv) –PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv) –RATE(nper,pmt,pv,fv) –NPER(rate,pmt,pv,fv) The formula icon is very useful when you cant remember the exact formula Click on the Excel icon to open a spreadsheet containing four different examples.

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Work the Web Example Many financial calculators are available online Click on the web surfer to go to Cignas web site and work the following example: –You need $50,000 in 10 years. If you can earn 6% interest, how much do you need to invest today? –You should get $27,920

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Table 5.4

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