Presentation on theme: "Monetary Policy. The Price Level is determined by: The relationship between the amount of money in circulation and the amount of goods and services in."— Presentation transcript:
The Price Level is determined by: The relationship between the amount of money in circulation and the amount of goods and services in the economy. MV = PQ
$5 Banks lend $5 which will buy a basket of goods and services
Borrowers repay $5 which no longer buys the same basket of goods and services. $500
IOU $5 Lenders hate inflation!
How does soft money affect prices? The supply of silver or greenbacks is greater than the supply of gold. The greater the money supply, the less the price/value of each dollar. If the supply of money increases, prices go up, each dollar buys less. With inflation, lenders are repaid in less valuable dollars. They lose.
Winners and Losers Lenders lose purchasing power because dollars they are repaid are less powerful than those they loaned Borrowers gain purchasing power because dollars they repay are less powerful than those they borrowed
The Money Supply Coins, currency, demand deposits, and other negotiable accounts in the hands of the NON-BANK public.
FED actions To stimulate the economy, increase the money supply To contract the economy, decrease the money supply
Three tools of monetary policy Discount rate Reserve requirement Open market operations
How the FED influences the money supply Increase the money supply –Lower the discount rate –Lower the reserve requirement –Buy bonds Decrease the money supply –Raise the discount rate –Raise the reserve requirement –Sell bonds
Jefferson and Hamilton Jeffersons political philosophy Hamiltons political philosophy Why would Jefferson be against a central bank? Why would Hamilton be for a central bank?
Oz and the Election of 1896
Bryan and McKinley The Cross of Gold Greenbacks or silver
Hard vs Soft Money Hard Money –gold –prevents inflation –benefits lenders –Republicans favor it Soft Money –silver or greenbacks –causes inflation –benefits borrowers –Democrats favor it
The Logic Soft Money (greenbacks or silver) causes inflation Hard money (gold) causes price stability or deflation Borrowers (farmers and workers)like soft money Lenders (bankers) like hard money
Helped and Hurt by Unanticipated Inflation The eastern bankers - lenders Western farmers - borrowers Industrial workers - borrowers
Measurements of Inflation Consumer Price Index Producer Price Index Implicit Price Deflator
Main Points The price level is determined by the relationship between the amount of goods and services in the economy and the amount of money Unanticipated inflation helps debtors and hurts creditors The FED influences the money supply through the discount rate, reserve requirement, and open market operations. Changes in the money supply influence aggregate demand.