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IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization ( PART 7 ). IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE.

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Presentation on theme: "IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization ( PART 7 ). IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE."— Presentation transcript:

1 IRAN (PERSIA) Cradle of Civilization ( PART 7 )

2 IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE

3 Iranian architecture is the architecture of Greater Iran that has a continuous history from at least 5000 BC to the present, with characteristic examples distributed over a vast area from Syria to North India and the borders of China, from the Caucasus to Zanzibar. Persian buildings vary from peasant huts to tea houses, and garden pavilions to "some of the most majestic structures the world has ever seen. Fundamental principles inTraditional Persian architecture has maintained a continuity. In this architecture, "there are no trivial buildings; even garden pavilions have nobility and dignity, and the humblest caravanserais (travel – lodges) generally have charm. In expressiveness and communicativity, most Persian buildings are lucid-even eloquent. The combination of intensity and simplicity of form provides immediacy, while ornament and, often, subtle proportions reward sustained observation. Categorization of styles Overall, the traditional architecture of the Iranian lands throughout the ages can be categorized into the seven following classes or styles("sabk"): Pre-Islamic architecture of Persia Post islamic architecture Contemporary architecture in Iran Pre-Islamic Epsay: Holy shrine of Bishapur, 271 BC An ecerpt of Iranian master architects: Sheyda: Was a legendary master who built the magnificent Sassanid palace of Haft Gonbad of Bahram Gur, according to the poet Nizami Ganjavi Ustad Hosein Sharifi: Built the Masjed Jame mosque in Quchan in Jafa-khan Kashani: Built the gates of Bagh e Melli in Muhammad ali Tehrani: Built the Emarat-i Kulah Farangi Mihmankhaneh Muhamdesiyeh in Qom in Hasan Mimar-i Qomi: Built the Imamzadeh Shazdeh Hamzeh in Qom in Ustad Haj Hasan Mimar Damghani: Built the Imamzadeh Ijdun in Varamin in Vartan Havanesian: Built many structures in Tehran, including parts of Sadabad Palace, his earliest work in Mohandes Heydar Gholi Khan Ghiai-Chamlou Mohandes Hossein Amanat: Built the Tower of Azadi in 1971 Source: Wikipedia.org IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE

4 Gholestan Palace Source: N00/ Saadabad Palace THE PAHLAVI KINGS ROYAL PALACES Niavaran Palace

5 A traditional pigeon house in Meybod, Yazd. Grand Bazaar of Tabriz Persian Persepolis Source:en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Iranian_architecture The Arg of Tabriz Interior spaces in Persian architecture make optimal use of techniques for regulating light, temperature, and heat by usage of appropriate design and materials IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE

6 Architecture of Persian Gardens. Khalvat-i Karim-khani, in the gardens of the Golestan Palace Ghoharshad Mozque Tehran city theater, Pahlavi period. The Taj Mahal, a prominent Iranian architectural work outside Iran. Baháí House of worship, India Maqbarat-e-shoara, tomb of poets Tabriz Source:www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Iranian_architecture IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE

7 The Arg-é Bam ("Bam citadel") was the largest adobe building in the world, located in Bam, a city in the Kerman province of southeastern Iran. It is listed by UNESCO as part of the World Heritage Site "Bam and its Cultural Landscape". This enormous citadel on the Silk Road was built before 500 BC and remained in use until 1850 AD. It is not known for certain why it was then abandoned. The entire building was a large fortress in whose heart the citadel itself was located, but because of the impressive look of the citadel, which forms the highest point, the entire fortress is named the Bam Citadel. On December 26, 2003, the Citadel was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake, along with much of the rest of Bam and its environments. The Arg-é Bam THE ARG-É BAM The bi-millennium old citadel of Arg-é Bam: The world's largest adobe structure Bam, Kerman, Iran Source: Wikipedia.org

8 Ali Qapu Palace Isfehan, Iran Armenian Vank Cathedral, Isfehan, Iran Naqshe Jahan square in Isfahan is the epitome of 16th century Iranian architecture. Source: Wikipedia.org

9 Chehel Sotoon (40 Columns) Isfehan, Iran Qeshm Island Sources: flicker.com & Interior Design in a Safavid Palace

10 Ahwaz Bridge, Ahwaz, Iran Alisadr Cave, Hamedan, Iran Eel Goli, Tabriz Source:

11 Khaju Bridge, Isfahan, Iran Sassanid 33 Pol (33 Bridges) Isfahan, Iran Detail of Khaju Bridge. Source: www. manhattanrugs.com

12 Blue Tile Works and architectural details Source: www. manhattanrugs.com

13 A tower in Tehran Areya mehr Soccer Stadium Capacity 100,000, Tehran, Iran Sources: worldisround.com & dreamview.com & flicker.com & Veresk Railway Bridge (built during Reza Shahs reign in Northern Iran)

14 Shahyad Square Is Currently The Symbol of Tehran, Capital Of Iran. Built in 1971 in commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of the Persian Empire, this "Gateway into Iran" was named the Shahyad Tower, meaning "Kings' Memorial. It is 50 metres (148 ft) tall and completely clad in cut marble. The architect, Hossein Amanat (who was a Baháí), won a competition to design the monument, which utilized elements of Sassanid architecture. There are several fountains around the base of the tower and a museum underground. Built with white marble stone from the Isfahan region, there are eight thousand blocks of stone. The stones were all located and supplied by Ghanbar Rahimi, whose knowledge of the quarries was second to none in the world and who was known as "Soltan-e-Sang-e-Iran". The shape of each of the blocks was calculated by a computer, and programmed to include all the instructions for the building's work. The actual construction of the tower was carried out, and supervised by Iran's finest master stonemason, Ghaffar Davarpanah Varnosfaderani. The main financing was provided by a group of five hundred Iranian industrialists. The inauguration took place on October 16, 1971, during Pahlavi era. Shahyad Square, Tehran, Iran Source: flicker.com & dreamview.com

15 Hand-knotted Persian Silk / wool Rug Persian hand carpet weaving set - up WORLD RENOWNED HAND - KNOTTED PERSIAN CARPETS,

16 The second 7 star hotel of the world Flower of the east Kish Island Sources: iranchamber.com & flicker.com & floweroftheeast.com Dolphin Park, Kish Island Salt Lake, Rezaeieh, Tabriz, Iran Damavand Mountain

17 Source: Chalous, North of Tehran Alborz Mountain Tomb of Daniel, Susa Zoroastrian Temple, Yazd Ganj Ali Khan Bath, Kerman Kashan

18 Kelar Dasht Vakeel Bath, Kerman. Now a Tea House Tea farms, Lahijan Ovan Lake, Alamout Negarestan gardens, Shiraz Valasht Lake Source:

19 AN EXCERPT OF MINERAL RESOURCES OF IRAN Natural resources of Iran include, but are not limited to: Energy Resources Oil Natural gas Water Iran has become self-sufficient in designing, building and operating dams and power plants and it has won a good number of international bids in competition with foreign firms. Mineral resources Others Abadan Oil Refinery, the largest in the world Source:www.fouman.com/history/img/ 1920_Abadan_Refinery_1300.jpg

20 Abadan Oil Refinery, the largest in the world Source: 1920_Abadan_Refinery_1300.jpg ABADAN OIL REFINERY, IRAN THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD Abadan Oil Refinery was bombed by Iraq and significantly damaged in the Iran – Iraq war in 1981

21 Oil : Energy resources in Iran consist of the second largest oil reserves and the first largest natural gas reserves in the world. Energy wastage in Iran amounts to six or seven billion dollars (2008). The energy consumption in the country is extraordinarily higher than international standards. Iran recycles 28 percentof its used oil and gas whereas the figure for certain countries stands at 60 percent. Iran is one of the leading members of OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) and the Organization of Gas Exporting Countries (GECF). Natural gas and oil consumption both account for about half of Irans domestic energy consumption. With its heavy dependence on oil and gas revenues Iran continues to explore for new sources of natural gas and oil. Recently Iran has focused its energy sector on the exploration of the South Pars offshore natural gas fields in the Persian Gulf. [ [ Natural Gas: Iran has the world's second largest reserves of natural gas (15% of the world's total); these are exploited primarily for domestic use. It contains an estimated 974 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in proven natural gas reserves. In 2005 a large share of Irans natural gas reserves were believed to remain untapped. About 62% of these reserves are located in non-associated fields. Iranian production of natural gas is expected to increase over the next few years due to continuing discoveries in the North Pars and South Pars regions. Domestic consumption has matched production at 3.6 Tcf in the year of Domestic consumptionis expected to go up at about 7% per year for the following decade. In lieu of this increasing domestic demand, natural gas exportsare expected to decrease in the following years. IRANS OIL AND NATURAL GAS Source: Wikipedia.org

22 Sar Cheshmeh or Sarcheshmeh is a large open cast copper mine in the Kerman Province of Iran, considered to be the second largest copper deposit worldwide. Also, containing substantial amounts of molybdenum, gold and other rare metals. The Sar Cheshmeh Copper Complex is located 160 km southwest of Kerman and 50 km south of Rafsanjan. The region's altitude averages about 2600 m, the highest spot of which approximates 3000 m. Sar Cheshmeh ore bodies, situated in the central part of Zagros ranges, consist of folded and faulted early tertiary volcano- sedimentary rocks. Production units of Sar Cheshmeh Copper Complex involve the mine itself, concentrator, smelter, refinery, foundries and leaching facilities. SAR-CHESHMEH COPPER DEPOSITS Kerman, Iran (2 nd largest copper deposits in the world) Source: Wikipedia.org

23 In Iran, sturgeon fishing is still a traditional practice, and it is this unique Iranian ancestral fishing technique which makes Iranian caviar the best in the world. In the fishery, the sturgeons are thoroughly cleaned with water before caviar extraction begins. Once removed, the caviar eggs are strained and studied carefully for their firmness, size and color, which will dictate their classification as Imperial or regular caviar. This is followed by one of the most delicate operations, preservation salting. This involves adding a small amount of sea salt to the caviar in order to enhance taste and increase shelf life. The amount of salt added to the caviar varies with each batch of caviar, as no two sturgeon are the same. The caviar is then delicately placed into containers (usually 1.8kg. tins) and is ready for consumption and export. Only three hours pass from the time the sturgeon is caught until the caviar is processed, packed and ready to be enjoyed. Since 1952, the Shilat Company (Fishery Organization) has controlled the entire production and distribution of Iranian caviar. The government run Iranian entity has continuously produced the worlds greatest and most expensive caviar. Currently, all three of our Iranian caviar varieties are imported directly through the Shilat Company, these include Iranian Karaburun Ossetra Caviar, Iranian Ossetra Caviar, and Iranian Sevruga Caviar. IRAN'S WORLD RENOWNED CAVIAR the best and Most Popular In the World Source: Wikipedia.org

24 IRANIAN WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS Source: freestyle-e.shtml

25 Gholamreza Takhti Jahan Pahlevan Takhti is the most famous wrestler (free style wrestling) in Iranian history. He was most famous for his chivalrous behavior and sportsmanship. Takhti was born in Tehran, Iran, on August 27, Takhti's family was poor, leaving Takhti with only 9 years of schooling. But, he was recognized as a natural athlete and was taken into the Poolad gymnasium for further training. Takhti was among the most famous practitioners of Varzesh-e Pahlavani the famous Persian "Sport of the Heroes. The sport included club swinging and juggling followed by submission wrestling known as Koshti Pahlavani. Varzesh-e Pahlavani was one of the formative influences of American catch wrestling. In 1961, a terrible earthquake occurred in Boein Zahra in western Iran, killing 45,000. Takhti was deeply touched by the suffering. Already one of Iran's biggest stars, he began to walk one of the main avenues of Tehran, asking for assistance for the victims. He inspired other champions to follow in his footseps, and thousands gave to alleviate the suffering. Another example of his character comes from a match in Moscow. After defeating the then-world champion Anatoli Albul, Takhti saw the sorrow on the face of Albul's mother. Takhti went to her and said, "I'm sorry about the result, but your son is a great wrestler. She smiled and kissed him. In another instance, he had a match with Russian wrestler Alexander Medved who had an injured right knee. When Takhti found out that he was injured, he never attacked that leg. Instead, he tried to attack the other leg. He lost the match, But, showed that he valued honorable behavior more than reaching victory.Takhti was found dead in his hotel room on January 7, As a national hero his funeral, organized by Hossein Towfigh, editor in chief of the late Towfigh magazine, drew hundreds of thousands of mourners. He is buried at Ebn-e Babooyeh cemetery in Southern partof Tehran, near Shahr-e Ray, Tehran. GHOLAM REZA TAKHTI (JAHAN PAHLEVAN TAKHTI) ( ) two times World Free Style wrestling Champions, one time Olympic Champions, and one time Asian champion Source: Wikipedia.org

26 Iranian Wrestling Team Top Three of the World Source: KHOLAM-REZA TAKHTI IRANIAN FREE STYLE WORLD WRESTLING CHAMPION Olympic Games Gold, 1956, Melbourne, Australia, 87 kg Silver, 1952, Helsinki, 79 kg Silver, 1960 Rome, 87 kg World Championship Silver, 1951 Helsinki, 79 kg Gold, 1959 Tehran, 87 kg Gold, 1961 Yokohama, 87 kg Silver,1962, Toledo, 97 kg Asian Game Gold, 1958 Tokyo, 87 kg Takhtis medals

27 Mohammad Nassiri Seresht was born 31 July 1945 in Tehran. He is a retired Iranian world champion weightlifter and an Olympic Gold Medalist for Iran. In 1995, he was elected member of the International Weightlifting Federation Hall of Fame. His medals include: Olympic Champion (1968). Silver Medalist in Olympic Games (1972). Bronze Medalist in Olympic Games (1976). Senior World Champion ( , 1973, and 1974). Silver Medalist in Senior World Championships (1972). Bronze Medalist in World Championships (1966, 1971, and 1976). 4 Gold and 1 Silver in Asian Games (1966, 1970, 1974 [included snatch, clean and jerk at 1974]). Set eighteen world records during his career. MOHAMMAD NASSIRI SERESHT World Weight Lifting Champion Source: Wikipedia.org

28 Iranian Women Car Racer Iranian Women Ice Skaters and Inline Skaters Source: worldisround.com IRANIAN FEMALE SPORTS

29 AN EXCERPT OF PROMINENT CONTEMPORARY IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS IN THE WORLD /BLD003/jg /

30 Amir Majidi Mehr Vice President of Digital Communications Microsoft Professor Caro Lucas Father of Robotics in Iran Minoo Aghtar Zand Swedish Rail Road Director Professor. Tofiq Mosivvand First artificial heart inventor Jamshid Delshad Mayor of Beverly Hills, Cal. Ali Deezaei West London Police Chief EXCERPT OF PROMINENT IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS / bts-metal-foams.html and Wikipedia.org

31 Iman Dehbozorghi Youngest IT engineer in the World Sina Tamadoun Apple Senior Director Professor Majid Samii World- renowned brain surgeon Living in Germany EXCERPT OF PROMINENT IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS / bts-metal-foams.html and Wikipedia.org

32 EXCERPT OF PROMINENT IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS Prof. Ali Javan Inventor of Gas Laser in 1960 DR. Afsaneh Rabiei invented an ultra-strong and lightweight composite metal foam College of Engineering at North Carolina State University Source: / bts-metal-foams.html and Wikipedia.org Dr. Ghasem Asrar Associate Administrator for Earth Science of NASA Prof. Mohammad Jamshidi A Member of the Advisory Board of the NASA JPL's MARS Pathfinder Project Azadeh Tabazadeh Senior Research Scientist, Earth Science Division, NASA Firouz Naderi Scientist and the Associate Director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

33 Professor Bijan Davari IBM Fellow and Vice President Hossein Eslambolchi Chief Technology Officer and Chief Information Officer of AT&T Prof. Lotfi Zadeh Father of Fuzzy Logic Theorem, UC Berkley Professor Faryar Shirzad Former White House Deputy Assistant for International Economic Affairs to President George W. Bush Maria Khorsand President of Erickson Company Omid Kordestani Senior Vice President for Worldwide Sales and Field Operations of Google / bts-metal-foams.html and Wikipedia.org EXCERPT OF PROMINENT IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS

34 Farzad Nazem Executive Vice President of Yahoo Pierre M. Omidyar Founder and Chairman of the eBay Bijan Pakzad (Bijan) Designer of Menswear and Fragrances Owner of the most expensive store in the world in Beverly Hills, CA / bts-metal-foams.html and Wikipedia.org Shohreh Aghdashloo 2009 Emmy Award-Winning Actress, Nominated for Oscar, With Humanitarian Award for Contribution to Womens Rights Movement Ehsan Yarshater the director of The Center for Iranian Studies and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University. He is famous for editing the monumental Encyclopædia Iranica along with 40 other editors and 300 authors from various academic institutions throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia. He has won several International awards for scholarship, including a UNESCO award in EXCERPT OF PROMINENT IRANIANS IN DIFFERENT FIELDS Anousheh Ansari Founder and President of Technologies Telecom

35 Statistics Source:www.dragonartz.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/04 /_vector-statistics-chart-element-preview-by-dragonart.jpg

36 Geographical Location : southwest Asia, Middle East Coordinates : 32°00'N, 53°00'E Race : Aryans Name : Iran ( the country used to be called Persia, and was ordered by Reza Shah the great in 1935 to be called Iran Area: 1,648,195 km 2 Flag : tri-color (red, white, green from the top), with lion and sun emblem Capital : Tehran (population = 8,429,807 Major Cities: Mashhad, Isfahan, Tabriz, Shiraz Total Population : 74,196,000 (2009 estimate) Age Group:Over 40 percent of the population is below the age of 15 Native Groups : Persians 65%, Azeris 16%, Kurds 7%, Lurs 6%, Arabs 2%, Baloch 2%, Turkmens 1%, Turkic tribal groups (e.g. Qashqai) 1%, and non-Persian, non-Turkic groups (e.g. Armenians, Assyrians, and Georgians) 1% Languages : The official language of Iran is Persian or Parsi = %, Other language categories include: Persians, Kurds, Gilakis, Mazandaranis, Lurs, and Baluchis. Turkic speakers, such as the Azeri, Turkmen, and the Qashqai peoples, comprise a substantial minority. The remainder are primarily Semitics such as Arabs and Assyrians or other Indo-Europeans such as Armenians. There are also small communities of Brahui in southeastern Iran. The Georgian language is spoken only by thoseIranian Georgians that live in Fereydan and Fereydunshahr (On 21 March 1935, Reza Shah the Great issued a decree requiring foreign delegates to use the termIran(instead of Persia) in formal correspondence in accordance with the fact that Persia was a term used for a country identified as Iran in the Persian language. ) Major Waterways : Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea (28 m, lowest point) Major Mountains: Damavand (5,610 m altitude, highest point), Alborz, Zagros Rivers : Arvand Rud (Arvand Rūd (Arvand River), is a riverin Southwest Asia of some 200 kilometers (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq, Karun Climate : See climate map Literacy Rate : Iran's population reached 70 million in More than two-thirds of the Iranians are under the age of 30, and the literacy rate stands above 80%. Islands : Greater and Lesser Tunbs and Abu Musa islands, in Persian Gulf Natural resources : petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur Largest lake : Lake Urmia Persian Gulf Caspian Sea Strait of Hormouz Source: of_Iran#Languages_and_ethnic_groups IRAN STATISTICS

37 Green = Caspian Mild Brown = Mountains Yellow = Desert & semi-desert IRAN CLIMATIC MAP Source: Persian Gulf Caspian Sea

38 photos/derami/ / IRAN PROVINCES AND MAJOR CITIES

39 MAJOR NATIVE GROUPS OF IRAN Azeri Gilak Mazandarani Kurd Khouzestan Balutch Turkman Lur Qashqaei Persian Gulf Caspian Sea Source: Native Iranians Include and are not limited to : Baluchis, Khouzestanis, Bakhteyaris, Tourkamans, Kurds, Lurs, Taleshis, Gilaks, Mazandaranis, Qashqaeis, Azerbaejanis and all others

40 The quantity of Iranian regions and territories severed and lost, during the past roughly 400 years, (from our Greater motherland Iran), solely due to incompetence and treason by Iranian monarchs and politicians (specifically during Safavids and Qajar dynasties), the shameful political manipulation and interferences of British and Russian governments, and assisted by the fifth-column traitors in Iran are outlined below: Treaties of Tourkaman chai, Gholestan with Russia (1813 – 1828 AD) Aran and Shirvan = 86,600 Km 2 Armanistan = 29,800 Km 2 Ghorjestan = 69,700 Km 2 Daghestan = 50,300 Km 2 Northern Osita = 8,000 Km 2 Chechen = 15,700 Km 2 Inghous = 3,600 Km 2 Total = 263,700 Km 2 Treaties of Paris and British Regional Advisory Heart and Afghanistan = 625,225 Km 2 Parts of Balouchestan and Makran = 35,000 Km 2 Total = 660,225 Km 2 Lost territories of Varad (Mavar-ol-nahre), based upon Aghal Treaty with Russia (1881 AD) Turkmenistan = 488,100 Km 2 Uzbekistan = 447,100 Km 2 Tajikistan = 141,300 Km 2 Lands annexed to Kazakhstan = 100,000 Km 2 Lands annexed to Ghirghizestan = 50,000 Km 2 Total = 1,226,500 Km 2 Territories severed and lost from south of Persian Gulf, based on British Regional Advisory Treaty United Arab Emirate = 83,600 Km 2 Bahrain = 694 Km 2 Qatar = 11,493 Km 2 Oman = 309,500 Km 2 Total = 405,287 Km 2 LOST TERRITORIES FROM GREATER IRAN ( DURING THE PAST 400 YEARS) Source: Shahre- ma Newspaper, No. 260, Aban 1388, Page 93, Toronto, Canada

41 Lands severed and lost from Iran combined with 2/3 of Khourdestan (which were occupied by Ottoman Empire during Safavids and subsequently, were divided between Turkey, Iraq and Syria) with an estimated total of 200,000 Km 2 and annexed to Iraq with an estimated total of 438,317 Km 2. The Grand total of all the above land is approximately 3 million Km 2, lost approximately over the past 400 years. Dear Iranian compatriots, we must not allow neither the foreign governments nor the traitor Iranians inside and outside of Iran to take away even one more centimeter of Iran (whether land or waterways). Thompson Publication, 1814 AD, Iranian map prior to losing some of her territories Source: World Atlas

42 CLOSING REMARKS

43 In the history of Iran - the oldest civilization in the world, the country situated in the most important geopolitical location in the world, the second wealthiest country in the world - which spans over a period of several millenniums, a few periods of darkness, invasion and occupation, and socio – political upheavals were bound to occur. Our motherland Iran experienced invasions of Alexander, invasion and occupation of poverty - stricken and illiterate Islamic Arabs, Mongols, Turks of Ottoman Empire, …., and finally and most recently the political upheaval in In 1979, a dark chapter began in the contemporary Iranian history. Iran being the 7 th wealthiest (*) country in the world, not willing to be exploited by the foreign powers and foreign governments alarmed with the expeditious development of Iran toward becoming a superpower in the world; a socio - political unrest - headed by an illiterate and criminal mullah called Rohoullah Khomaini – was plotted as early as 1974, by the US and England and supported by French and German Governments, using the internal traitors (fifth - column) in Iran. A new theocratic government by illiterate, criminal and terrorist mullahs were imposed on the Iranian people, under the fake name of Islamic revolution. This only proved to be a major catastrophe for the same governments noted above and the globe only a few decades later. For the record, for the future generations of Iranians, some of the major reasons for this global conspiracy against Iran and Iranians were, but not limited to: …/… * Source: thepoliticsofdebt.com/?p=344 The Richest Country On Earth By Franklin in Economy on April 21st, 2008

44 To exploit Irans wealth (Iran is the second wealthiest nation in the world) and possess highly educated young people To stop and reverse the fast paste of modernization and expansion of Iran, causing it to become a superpower Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran did not intend to renew oil concessions to the multi-national oil companies (specially British Petroleum) and foreign exploiters, at the same price and output as before (i.e., Shahs speeches during oil crisis), see next page A plan by the foreign governments to forfeit billion of dollars of Iranian assets in exchange fund abroad to save their ailing economy A plan by the foreign governments to unilaterally cancel contracts provided to them for industrial and military equipment and forfeiting the down payments for them Shah cutting payments and salaries to the top 100 Iranian mullahs into half and reduction of budgets for the support of building additional mosques To destroy highly trained and skilled technocrats and top managers who were replacing foreign Advisors and technical staff in different areas To destroy imperial Iranian Army which was at the verge of becoming the top 6th modern army in the world, thanks to highly educated and qualified generals and army personnel, and equipped with the state-of-the-art equipment To stop rapid implementation of huge Petro-chemical complex in Isfahan and implementation of Nuclear power plant in Busher To destroy Irans infra-structure Iran becoming a dominant power in the Middle East and beyond Iran rapid industrialization preventing the major powers to be able to have a huge market for their shoddy products To further Islamize Iran, to create a deterrent against the then Soviet Unions To force highly educated Iranians to leave the country to create a massive brain drain out of Iran, benefiting foreign universities, industries and research facilities in other countries To force a huge wealth drain out of Iran, benefiting foreign banks and countries To stop major investments in some major western companies (i.e., Krupp of Germany, Pan-Am of the US, etc.) and real estate purchase by Iran across the world To strive to weaken and destroy all ancient Iranian history, culture and glories past Humiliation of head of some of the western countries (e.g., French president Ghiscardistan) to wait for hours to meet with the Shah to potentially obtain major concessions and contracts An 8 years war (financially, militarily and politically supported by the US, England, France, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and others) were imposed on Iran, resulting in over a million Iranian casualties and deaths. Abadan refinery (the largest in the work) was significantly damaged. Foreign countries closed their eyes while the Iranian dissidents were murdered in these countries by Islamic terrorists and criminals Co-operation with mullahs in Iran to further exploit the wealth of the country And many other reasons…. The above plans as well as co-operating with criminal terrorist mullahs did Spread terrorism and criminal activates across the globe and proved one more time that the so called superpowers were wrong and naive in their planning and intensions. The above also brought Iran to the brink of disaster. Over the proceeding 31 years. However, brave Iranian young and old women and man fought back and the victory is dawning.. And fortunately, Islam will be totally put aside from meddling in Iranian affairs for ever. This period clearly demonstrated that all Islamic propaganda over the past 14 centuries were nothing but a farce. Source:www.time.com/time/magazine/ article/0,9171, ,00.html

45 Figures are in US cents per liter of crude oil, each barrel contains 159 liters Costs of extraction from the wells and transportation (by pipes) to the export terminal, at one of Irans oil terminal (i.e., Khrag island) = 7 C / liter Wholesale price sold to giant tankers for exportation = 30 C / liter Gross profit for Iran upon export = 23 C / liter Each tanker takes about 25 –30 days to travel to one of the European terminals ( i.e., Netherlands), to deliver the crude to the terminal, which in turn, will be transported to giant refineries to produce by-products such as gasoline and others Gasoline is sold to gas stations (like Shell and others) = 43 C / liter Gas stations additional margin for storage, profit, overhead, etc. = 12 C / liter Total costs for the gas stations = 55 C / liter ( = 55) Gas charged to European customers, at the stations, average retail price = 1.44 C / liter Irans gross profit = 23 C / liter ( =0.23) Oil cartels and European governments profits = 89 C / liter (1.44 – 0.55= 0.89) Remember that the share of Irans profit is a lot less, once you factor in costs associated with wells maintenance, piping maintenance and other operational costs. As you note, oil cartels and the European companies have a profit which is almost 4 times Irans profit. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, considering the above figures intended to change this equation more in favor of Iran, that was one of the main reasons why he was ousted by the oil cartels and the European and American governments in Source : PARS TV, L.A. Alireza Mayboudi, Yaran Program, Tuesday, April 6 th, 2010

46 A secular and national Iranian government will be implemented in Iran, its structure to be determined by a free referendum monitored by patriot Iranians. Islam and Shia mullahs that miserably failed during the past 31 years will not be permitted to have any role in the political and social aspects in Iran, for good. A new Iranian constitution will be prepared by Iranian scholars and implemented in Iran. In this new constitution, for the first time, there will be no place for Islam and mullahs. All streets, avenues, highways, buildings, etc., will be named based on our previous Shahs and our fallen freedom fighters like the brave generals who were executed in 1979, and all young and old men and women who fought back against the criminal mullahs In the past 31 years, their statues will be installed in major squares. Criminal Mullahs like Khamenei, Rafsanjani,, and all other mullahs, Ahmadinejad, all criminal parliamentary Members, members of the revolutionary guards and Basijgis, fifth-columns traitors including but not limited to: Ebrahim Yazdi, Banisadr, Kadivar, Sazegara, Nourizadeh, Ghangi and others, and even the first class families of dead criminals like Mullah Khomaini, Mottahari, Khalkhali, Ghotb-zadeh, Bazargan, Sanjabi as well as all their accomplices, who have already been identified will be arrested, prosecuted by national Iranian courts to the full extent of law and brought to justice. The wealth stolen by them and their families from Iran and Iranians will be confiscated and returned to Iran. If they consider running away and hiding outside of Iran, they will be sought and found like members of the Nazi groups and brought back to Iran to face punishment. We will cherish and honor our Iranian heritage and history and culture. Our territorial land and water sovereignty will be maintained at all costs, Persian Gulf will remain Persian Gulf for eternity. Any And all contracts and Concessions, including oil and gas contracts, signed and granted by the criminal mullahs during the past 31 years, with other nations or companies, will be void and null. Any country which supported the criminal mullahs in the past 31 years for their financial gains and benefits and kept silent during the struggle of the Iranian peoples uprising will not benefit from Iranian resources or co-operation, unless and until all Iranian wealth and stolen money by the criminal mullahs and their accomplices, as well as themselves are returned to Iran. United Nations that has been a puppet of the major superpowers that kept silent as well as all human rights organizations which sufficed to issuing condemning statements will have to prove themselves worthy again to the Iranian people. Turkey which created a lot of hardship and agony for our young Iranian refuges during the past 31 years and occasionally returned some of the Iranian refuges to Iran, will not even be considered a neighbor and all economic and trade ties will be severed with her. FINAL WORDS…..

47 May Ahura Mazda (the God of Iran) protect our beloved motherland and grant tranquility, prosperity and happiness to our great nation

48 END OF PART 7


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