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Prepositions To understand this presentation, it would probably be helpful to have worked through the verbs and nouns presentations first.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepositions To understand this presentation, it would probably be helpful to have worked through the verbs and nouns presentations first."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepositions To understand this presentation, it would probably be helpful to have worked through the verbs and nouns presentations first.

2 The bad news is that prepositions are the hardest part of speech to explain. The good news is that for most people, they are one of the easier parts of speech to spot. Prepositions do not have one simple definition though the one used most often is to say that prepositions are words that establish a relationship of position with a noun or pronoun. The easiest way to imagine that definition is to place an apple in your hand while sitting at a table. The positions of the apple in relation to the noun, table are all prepositions. For example, the following highlighted words are prepositions on the tableover the tablenear the tableunder the table above the tablebeneath the tablein the tableagainst the table along the tableonto the tablebeside the tablebehind the table by the tablebeyond the tableat the table upon the table If you were a magician, perhaps you could put the apple through the table or into the table or even within the table; if you were a pitcher you could throw the apple across the table or past the table or even move the apple around the table. If you were a waiter, you could bring the apple to the table or carry it from the table or just leave it between you and the table.

3 Most people, with a little practice, can understand that aspect of prepositions. Unfortunately, that explanation does not cover all of prepositions. However, we will start there and do some practice with them just as a means of making prepositions more familiar to you. Read the following sentence and the information below. Gara brought her famous guacamole dip to the party. brought is the verb and it is an action verb. Gara dip and party are nouns of the sentence. to is a preposition This time you see if you can spot the preposition(s) in the sentence. At the time they lacked the necessary resources.

4 At the time they lacked the necessary resources. lacked is the action verb of the sentence. time, they, and resources are the nouns or pronouns working as nouns in the sentence. at is the only preposition in the sentence. Identify any prepositions in the following sentence. Ella sat in the unpopular restaurant by herself.

5 Ella sat in the unpopular restaurant by herself. The verb of the sentence is sat, an action verb. Ella, restaurant, and herself are all the nouns or pronouns working as nouns. in and by are both prepositions. Identify any prepositions in the following sentence. Inside the stadium Alex sat near her friend under the scoreboard.

6 Inside the stadium Alex was near her friend under the scoreboard. The verb of the sentence is was, and it is a linking verb. The nouns of the sentence are stadium, Alex, friend, and scoreboard. inside, near and under are all prepositions. As you can readily observe, prepositions are always linked with nouns or pronouns; for example in the sentence above inside the stadium, near her friend, and under the scoreboard. These groups of words are called prepositional phrases, and in order to have a preposition in a sentence, it must be in a prepositional phrase. The first word of any prepositional phrase is, surprise, a preposition. The last word in a prepositional phrase is always a noun or pronoun working as a noun. Inside prepositional phrases you may have adjectives, articles, (a, an, the) and maybe an adverb. However, you wont have a verb. Identify the prepositions and prepositional phrases of the following sentence. Unfortunately, Sabrina drove past the campsite along the river.

7 Unfortunately, Sabrina drove past the campsite along the river. The verb drove is always an action verb. The nouns are Sabrina, campsite, and river. The prepositional phrases were past the campsite and along the river with the prepositions being the first words of each phrase – past and along. Find the prepositions and prepositional phrases of the following sentence. Jeff and Audra with their VIP passes walked onto the field.

8 Jeff and Audra with their VIP passes walked onto the field. The verb walked is always an action verb. The nouns are Jeff, Audra, passes, and field. The prepositional phrases are with their VIP passes, and onto the field with with and onto the two prepositions. Identify the prepositions and prepositional phrases of the following sentence. After class Scott went into the cafeteria for some lunch.

9 After class Scott went into the cafeteria for some lunch. The verb went is always an action verb. The nouns are class, Scott, cafeteria, and lunch. The prepositional phrases are: after class, into the cafeteria, for some lunch with the first words of each phrase being the prepositions – after, into, and for. If you recognized all of the phrases, terrific. If you did not, dont be too hard on yourself because two of the three prepositions had not appeared before in this presentation – after and for and neither really works with the apple and table trick discussed way back in slide 2. Some preposition do not provide a spatial relationship where one noun or pronoun is described in reference to another as we saw earlier. However, the prepositions still provide some context, some reference, sometimes with time. For example during the rehearsalafter youbefore the game

10 Thats not all. Prepositions are also capable of being more than one word. For example in spite of the flakaccording to the reports far from my intentexcept for this by means of caravantogether with the mule drivers in lieu of moneyon behalf of all ice cream lovers You can check other sources on the web for lists of prepositions. Google prepositions and see what you find or check out prepositions in Wikipedia. The list is just too long to memorize, and so the best way to become familiar with them is to work at them and with them. Here is some practice to help you. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Because of her head start Shantelle easily finished it before the deadline.

11 Because of her head start Shantelle easily finished it before the deadline. The verb finished is always an action verb. The nouns or pronouns working as nouns are start, Shantelle, it, and deadline. The prepositional phrases are because of her head start, before the deadline with because of and before as the prepositions. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Over brunch Adam presented the idea to her.

12 Over brunch Adam presented the idea to her. The verb is presented. which is always an action verb. The nouns or pronouns working as nouns are bunch, Adam, idea, and her. The prepositional phrases are over brunch and to her with over and to working as prepositions. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Dan and Gayle in spite of the delays finished the project ahead of schedule.

13 Dan and Gayle in spite of the delays finished the project ahead of schedule. The verb is finished, which is always an action verb. The nouns are Dan, Gayle, delays, project, and schedule. The prepositional phrases are in spite of the delays and of schedule with in spite of and of working as subjects. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Within the support of the group Karissa felt better than ever.

14 Within the support of the group Karissa felt better than ever. The verb is felt, which here works as a linking verb. The nouns are support, group, and Karissa. The prepositional phrases are within the support and of the group with within and of working as prepositions. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Did Walter know about the missing cash from the safe?

15 Did Walter know about the missing cash from the safe? The verb is did know which is always an action verb. The nouns are Walter, cash, and safe. The prepositional phrases are about the missing cash and from the safe with about and from working as prepositions.. Look at the difference between sentence A and sentence B. Then decide where the preposition and prepositional phrases might be. A. Louis went inside. B. Louis went inside his house.

16 A. Louis went inside. B. Louis went inside his house. Only sentence B has a preposition. The verb is went, which is always an action verb. The noun in sentence A is Louis. In sentence B, the nouns are Louis and house. The only prepositional phrase is in sentence B with inside being the preposition. Remember, a preposition must have a prepositional phrase if it is to work as a preposition in the sentence. If it looks like a preposition but lacks a noun or pronoun working as a noun to go with it to make a prepositional phrase, the word is a probably an adverb, not a preposition. The word inside in sentence A is an adverb. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Later Matt reached his hand outside beside the gargoyles nose.

17 Later Matt reached his hand outside beside the gargoyles nose. The verb is reached, which is always an action verb. The nouns are Matt, hand, and nose. The single prepositional phrase is beside the gargoyles nose with beside being the preposition. In this sentence, the word outside works as an adverb because there is no noun to create a prepositional phrase. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. During the war Agnes worked in the munitions plant nearby.

18 During the war Agnes worked in the munitions plant nearby. The verb worked is always an action verb. The nouns are war, Agnes, and plant. The prepositional phrases are during the war and in the munitions plant with during and in working as prepositions. Nearby is an adverb in this sentence because it lacks a noun for a prepositional phrase. The adverb nearby tells you where Agnes worked. Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. Each of the friends divided the work among themselves.

19 Each of the friends divided the work among themselves. The verb of the sentence is divided, which is always an action verb. The nouns or pronouns working as nouns of the sentence are Each, friends, work, and themselves. The prepositional phrases are of the friends and among themselves with of and among working as prepositions. One of the truths of grammar is that it is better to understand how a word is used rather than memorize what part of speech it is since a word can change its part of speech depending upon its context in a sentence. As you just saw, prepositions can sometimes be prepositions and sometimes adverbs. Here are some other words that usually cause some confusion. tolike past to – can be part of the root of the infinitive of a verb as well as a preposition but – can be a conjunction or a preposition like – can be a verb or a preposition past – can be a noun or a preposition Find the prepositional phrases and prepositions in the following sentence. In the past Jeremy walked past the haunted house without looking.

20 In the past Jeremy walked past the haunted house without looking. The verb of the sentence is walked, which is always an action verb. The first past is a noun as are Jeremy, house, and looking. The prepositional phrases are in the past past the haunted house, and without looking with in, past (the second one), and without all working as prepositions. Why isnt looking a verb? Remember no verb that ends in ing works as a verb unless it has a helper verb, such as is looking or might be looking or was looking. All of the helper verbs will come from to be. Find any prepositional phrases in the following sentence. Like her brother Mimi liked the ice cream store by the river.

21 Like her brother Mimi liked the ice cream store by the river. The verb of the sentence is liked which is always an action verb. The nouns are brother, Mimi, store, and river. The prepositional phrases are like her brother and by the river with like and by working as prepositions. The following examples are to help you understand the two ways to can be used. The infinitive or root of the verb is made in the following manner. He wants to go to the concert. to go is being used a the root of the verb or infinitive. Infinitives are easy to spot because they always have a verb following them, such as to believe, to cook, to contemplate, to review, to enjoy, to sing, etc. to the store is a prepositional phrase with to working as a preposition. Find any prepositional phrases in the following sentence. Tomas shipped the package to me yesterday.

22 Tomas shipped the package to me yesterday. The verb of the sentence is shipped, which is always an action verb. The nouns are Tomas package and me. The prepositional phrase is to me with to being the preposition. Find any prepositional phrases in the following sentence. Due to the weather the game was postponed for a another day.

23 Due to the weather the umpire postponed the game for a another day. The verb of the sentence is postponed, which is always an action verb. weather, umpire, game, and day are all working as nouns. due to the weather and for another day are both prepositional phrases with due to and for working as prepositions. The archaeologist dived down into the cenote to explore the caves.

24 The archaeologist dived down into the cenote to explore the caves. The verb of the sentence is dived, which is always an action verb. archaeologist, cenote, and caves are the nouns. The only prepositional phrase is into the cenote down lacks a noun for a prepositional phrase and therefore is as an adverb. Last one Their team against all odds won the championship for the second straight year.

25 T h e i r t e a m a g a i n s t a l l o d d s w o n t h e c h a m p i o n s h i p f o r t h e s e c o n d s t r a i g h t y e a r. T h e v e r b o f t h e s e n t e n c e i s w o n, w h i c h i s a l w a y s a n a c t i o n v e r b T h e n o u n s o f t h e s e n t e n c e a r e t e a m, o d d s, c h a m p i o n s h i p, a n d y e a r. T h e p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s a r e a g a i n s t a l l o d d s a n d f o r t h e s e c o n d s t r a i g h t y e a r w i t h a g a i n s t a n d f o r t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s. Congratulations – you made it!


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