Presentation on theme: "Folk and Popular Culture: Case Studies Amish, Hutterite, and Makah"— Presentation transcript:
1 Folk and Popular Culture: Case Studies Amish, Hutterite, and Makah
2 Distance Decay- the diminishing importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distancefrom its origin.Time-Space Compression- the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communication and transportationsystems
3 WHERE DO CULTURES ORIGINATE AND DIFFUSE? Origin of folk and popular culturesFolk culture = hearth area; originators are usually unknownPopular culture = hearth area comes from more developed countries (MDCs)People in MDCs have disposable income and leisure time that allow for these innovations
4 WHERE DO CULTURES ORIGINATE AND DIFFUSE? Diffusion of folk and popular cultureFolk culture diffuses slowly, primarily through migration, and at a small scaleExample: Diffusion of Amish culturePopular culture diffuses rapidly, via hierarchical diffusion, and over a large scaleExample: Sports
6 WHY IS FOLK CULTURE CLUSTERED? Influence of the physical environmentFolk culture = close connection to the environmentMost folk cultures are rural and agriculturalClothing is often tied to environmental conditionsExample: Wooden clogs in the NetherlandsFolk cultures cant ignore environmental conditions
7 WHY IS FOLK CULTURE CLUSTERED? Influence of the physical environmentFood preferences and the environmentFood preferences are adapted to the environmentExample: In Asia, rice is grown in milder, wetter environments whereas wheat is grown in colder, drier environmentsFood taboos may be especially strongPeople avoid certain foods because of negative associations with that foodTerroir = the sum effects of the local environment on a particular food item
8 WHY IS FOLK CULTURE CLUSTERED? Influence of the physical environmentFolk housing and the environmentHousing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function, and the physical environmentTwo most common building materials = wood and brickMinor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles
9 MAKAH AMERICAN INDIANS It was the first of any animal or mineral oil to achieve commercial viability. Usually to light lamps, and as candle wax. Also a food for aboriginal people.A Gift From the Sea- Whaling and whales are central to Makah culture. For the Makah Tribe, whale hunting imposes a purpose and a discipline which benefits their entire community.
10 MAKAH AMERICAN INDIANS The Makah hunted whales for 1500 years. They used traditional hunting canoes and harpoons.In an 1855 treaty with the United States, they were guaranteed the right to hunt whale in the Pacific Ocean.
11 NEAH BAYAs more whales were hunted and killed, (high demand for whale oil) hunts would take the Makah further away from the shoreline.In the 1920s they decided to stop the whale hunt.Then, the Gray Whale was put on the Endangered Species List.
12 MAKAH AMERICAN INDIANS Let’s flash back to 1998…There was no one alive among the Makahs who had ever gone whaling, but they had heard stories and songs about it all their lives.Like their ancestors, they would paddle out in a cedar canoe and strike first with a harpoon.But in a departure from tradition, they will use a rifle to kill the whale and at least two motorized boats to tow it home.
13 MAKAH AMERICAN INDIANS “Whaling and whales have remained central to Makah culture. They are in our songs, our dances, our designs, and our basketry. Our social structure is based on traditional whaling families. The conduct of a whale hunt requires rituals and ceremonies which are deeply spiritual. Whale hunting imposes a purpose and a discipline which we believe will benefit our entire community.”Makah Elder, 2005
17 HUTTERITESAnabaptists (Amish, Mennonites) split from the Catholic ChurchLet’s look at what set’s the Hutterites apart.
18 Unlike the Amish, Hutterites readily accept technologies that help them in their agricultural pursuits.However, they do NOT accept TV, camera, or cell phone technology.
19 COMPARING FOLK CULTURES AmishHutteritesChildren traditionally dress as their parents do.Horse drawn wagons are the favored form of transportation.Technology is frowned upon and discouraged.Farmers use traditional techniques.Live in colonies. (100)Colony is responsible for raising children.Are in favor of using technology in their agricultural pursuits.
21 Cusco, PeruCuzco, an Inca capital, is a major tourist destinations.
22 Cusco, Peru colored with mineral or vegetable dyes Similar products are also produced by factory machines using chemical dyes for trendy colors for appeal to mass market.
23 Cultural integration in folk geography Interaction between folk and popular culturesOccasionally elements of folk culture penetrate the popular societyFolk handicrafts and arts often fetch high prices among city dwellers
24 Cultural integration in folk geography Interaction between folk and popular culturesFew folk groups escape some interaction with the larger worldA lively exchange is constantly on-going between folk and popular culture
25 Mountain moonshineHome manufacture of corn whiskey in the Upland South has been going on since the early pioneering days of the 1700sHome manufacture of whisky has occurred in many Appalachian hill settlements for 200 years
27 Mountain moonshineWhiskey making withstood the prohibitionist attitudes of the nineteenth century religious revivalMany mountaineers are devout Baptists or Methodists, but defied antiliquor teachingsCorn whiskey is very persistent in the folk diet
28 Mountain moonshineTraditionally corn liquor was intended mainly for family consumptionOver the years, Appalachian moonshine began to find its way to marketProved the best way for hill folk to participate in the money economyConverted a bulky grain crop of low cash value in a compact beverage of high value per unit of weight
29 Mountain moonshineEarly as 1791, the U.S. federal government began taxing manufacturers of whiskeyWhen stills were discovered and destroyed, new ones in different locations replaced themRevenuers were no more successful in stopping whisky making than the churches had been
31 Mountain moonshineThe important effect was mountain folk accepted markets offered by popular culture but rejected its legal and political institutionsBy the 1950s, some 25,000 gallons of white lightning reached the market each week from the counties of eastern Tennessee aloneIn spite of numerous raids by federal authorities, production continued unabatedToday, a substantial amount of illicit whisky still reaches markets from southern Appalachia
32 Mountain moonshineWhiskey production, legal and illegal, in Kentucky and Tennessee represents an impressive survival of folk industry to serve a market in popular societyIllegal whisky production and popular culture integration led to the creation of the “folk automobile”A fast vehicle needed to outrun the law, but humble in appearanceSome have claimed these vehicles were the forerunners of the basic American stock carStock-car racing then is considered another result of interplay between folk and popular cultures