Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY."— Presentation transcript:

1 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

2 OVERVIEW SPORTING FRATERNITIES ROWING IN THE U.S. NORTHEAST ROWING AND THE BIRTH OF INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS ROWING AND STUDENT LIFE INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS IN OTHER SPORTS: BASEBALL AND TRACK & FIELD

3 SPORTING FRATERNITIES INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS WERE BORN IN AMERICAN UNIVERSITIES IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AS A RESULT OF THE INCREASING POPULARITY OF THE MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY DOCTRINE, THE INSPIRATION PROVIDED BY OXFORD- CAMBRIDGE COMPETITIONS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, THE NEED TO ARTICULATE A STUDENT RECREATIONAL LIFE AND IDENTITY BY USING ATHLETIC ACTIVITIES AS SPORTING FRATERNITIES. STARTING IN THE PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN THE EAST COAST INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS WERE THE EXPRESSION OF STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS ACTING AS SPORTING FRATERNITIES. THESE STUDENT ASSOCIATIONS WERE COMPLETELY IN CHARGE OF ORGANIZING EVERY ASPECT OF INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC COMPETITIONS, FROM THE COMPOSITION OF THE TEAMS TO THE ORGANIZATION OF THE EVENTS. ORIGINALLY A TRADITION CREATED IN IVY LEAGUE INSTITUTIONS, INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETIC COMPETITIONS WERE SOON IMITATED BY STUDENTS ALL OVER THE NATION, USING THE INSTITUTIONAL IDENTITY OF STUDENT ASSOCIATIONS TO CREATE SPORTING FRATERNITIES.

4 ROWING SINCE COLONIAL TIMES ROWING IN RIVERS AND HARBORS WAS A VERY POPULAR COMPETITION AS THE UNITED STATES BECAME A COMMERCIAL COMPETITOR WITH THE UNITED KINGDOM, ROWING CONTESTS BETWEEN AMERICAN AND BRITISH TEAMS ATTRACTED MASSES IN NORTHEASTERN URBAN AREAS, ESPECIALLY NEW YORK AND BOSTON. IN 1824 THOUSANDS ATTENDED THE COMPETITION BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICANS IN THE HUDSON RIVER REGATTA CONTESTS BECAME SOCIAL EVENTS, RIVALING HORSERACES AND BASEBALL AS OUTDOOR SPECTACLES FOR UPPER, MIDDLE AND LOWER CLASSES IN 1834 THE CASTLE GARDEN AMATEUR CLUB ASSOCIATION WAS CREATED IN NEW YORK CITY, BUT DISAPPEARED IN THE 1840s

5 ROWING IN THE 1850s REGATTAS BECAME VERY POPULAR AMONGST THE YOUNG POPULATION IN URBAN AREAS, ESPECIALLY BOSTON AND NEW YORK. ANNUAL PROFESSIONAL AND AMATEUR REGATTAS ATTRACTED SEVERAL PEOPLE AND WERE SOON ORGANIZED IN OTHER AMERICAN CITIES, SUCH AS CHICAGO, PITTSBURGH, ST.LOUIS AND MILWAUKEE. PRIVATE CLUBES AND COLLEGES, ANNOUNCED THEIR REGATTAS IN NEWSPAPERS, INVITING PUBLIC TO WITNESS THE COMPETITION AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, THE MOST IMPORTANT REGATTAS WERE ORGANIZED BY COLLEGE FRATERNITIES

6 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS INSPIRED BY THE TRADITIONAL RIVALRY BETWEEN OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE (STARTING IN 1829), STUDENTS FROM HARVARD AND YALE CREATED INFORMAL ROWING OR CREW CLUBS AND PARTICIPATED IN PUBLIC REGATTAS AGAINST OTHER TEAMS. HARVARD TEAMS PARTICIPATED IN BOSTON REGATTAS

7 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE ROWING CRAZE IN THE 1850s TWO TEAMS FROM HARVARD AND YALE WERE INVITED TO PARTICIPATE IN A CONTEST ON LAKE WINNIPESAUKEE. THE RACE WAS ORGANIZED IN 1852 BY A RAILROAD COMPANY AS ONE OF THE ACTIVITIES TO PROMOTE THE AREA AS A SUMMER RESORT. HARVARD CREW WON THE RACE, NOW CONSIDERED THE FIRST DOCUMENTED INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITION, WITH ABOUT 1,000 SPECTATORS ATTENDING THE EVENT.

8 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS DEVELOPED IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY IN COMBINATION WITH THE INCREASING ACCEPTANCE THAT MUSCULAR CHRISTIANITY DOCTRINE ENJOYED, PLUS THE DESIRE AMONGST STUDENTS TO INCLUDE PHYSICAL CONTESTS IN THEIR RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS WERE, FOR THE MOST PART, ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY ORGANIZED AND RUN BY STUDENT ASSOCIATIONS, CLUBS AND FRATERNITIES, WITH LITTLE OR NONE SUPERVISION BY COLLEGE AUTHORITIES OR COLLEGE FACULTY.

9 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE 1850s STUDENT REPRESENTATIVES FROM YALE, HARVARD, COLUMBIA, DARTHMOUTH AND BROWN STARTED TALKS TO ORGANIZE COLLEGE REGATTA COMPETITIONS 1958 HARVARD STUDENTS PROPOSED THE FORMATION OF THE COLLEGE UNION REGATTA ASSOCIATION, OR UNION REGATTA. FOUR COLLEGES AGREED TO PARTICIPATE STUDENTS FROM HARVARD AND YALE AGREED TO A REGULAR CONTEST BETWEEN THE TWO SCHOOLS. IN 1869 HARVARD RACED AGAINST OXFORD IN THE THAMES RIVER, IGNITING MANY STUDENTS IN THE EAST COAST TO ORGANIZE THEIR OWN TEAMS

10 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN 1870 THE ROWING ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA INCLUDED SIXTEEN COLLEGE TEAMS FROM UNIVERSITIES IN THE NORTHEAST. IN 1871 THE MASSACHUSETTS AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE DEFEATED HARVARD IN THE CHAMPIONSHIP, ENDING THE CAMBRIDGES SUPREMACY IN THE SPORT. FACING INCREASING COMPETITION, BOTH HARVARD AND YALE DROPPED THE ASSOCIATION IN THE 1870s AND PROCEEDED TO COMPETE AGAINST EACH OTHER ON ANNUAL BASIS.

11 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE 1870s AND 1880 THE COMPETITION AMONG DIFFERENT COLLEGES INTENSIFIED, FORCING CLUBS TO RIGOROUS TRAINING ROUTINES, DIETARY REGIMES AND EVEN THE HIRING OF ADVISORS AND COACHES TO PREPARE THE TEAM WELL IN ADVANCE. NORTHEASTERN UPPER CLASS FAMILIES FOLLOWED THE REGATTAS ON REGULAR BASIS REGATTA CREWS WERE FORMED BY STUDENTS BUT TRAINED BY PROFESSIONAL COACHES STUDENT AND LOCAL NEWSPAPERS PROVIDED AMPLE COVERAGE OF THE RACES

12 INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS- BASEBALL ALTHOUGH NEVER AS POPULAR AS ROWING IN 19 TH COLLEGE TOWNS, BASEBALL BECAME A REGULAR FEATURE OF INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS SINCE THE LATE 1850s. THE FIRST RECORDED MATCH WAS IN 1859, WHEN AMHERST DEFEATED WILLIAMS IN 1862 HARVARD ORGANIZED ITS FIRST BASE BALL CLUB, GOING UNDEFEATED FOR MOST OF THE DECADE. IN 1870 HARVARD BASE BALL TEAM TOURED THE COUNTRY PLAYING AGAINST COLLEGE, AMATEUR AND PROFESSIONAL TEAMS AS THE NATURAL BASEBALL SEASON (APRIL-OCTOBER) DID NOT COINCIDE WITH COLLEGE SCHOOL CALENDAR, PROBLEMS TO ORGANIZE A COMPETITION SCHEDULE PREVENTED THE FORMATION OF AN EFFICIENT STUDENT ASSOCIATION FOR COLLEGE BASEBALL

13 INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS BASEBALL IN 1879 A COLLEGE BASEBALL ASSOCIATION WAS FORMED BY NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITIES, BUT FAILED TO CREATE A REGULAR GENERAL SCHEDULE. MANY BASEBALL PLAYERS PARTICIPATED IN COLLEGE TEAMS IN THE SPRING AND PROFESSIONAL TEAMS IN THE SUMMER UNDER ASSUMED NAMES. NOTWITHSTANDING, BASEBALL TEAMS WERE CREATED IN COLLEGES ALL OVER THE NATION, WITH LIMITED SCHEDULES AGAINST OTHER LOCAL COLLEGES. FEMALE STUDENTS IN COLLEGES FOR WOMEN ALSO PARTICIPATED WITH THEIR OWN BASEBALL TEAMS, BUT THEY WERE DISBANDED BY COLLEGE AUTHORITIES

14 INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS TRACK AND FIELD IN THE LATE 1860s INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS EXPERIENCED A SIGNIFICANT EXPANSION AND INCLUDED EVENTS NOW CONSIDERED TRACK AND FIELD, FOLLOWING THE EXAMPLE OF THE BRITISH OXFORD-CAMBRDIGE COMPETITIONS AND THE CALEDONIAN GAMES, PRACTICED IN THE U.S. IN PREVIOUS DECADES. CONTESTS IN RUNNING, JUMPING AND THROWING WERE ORGANIZED AND SCHEDULED AS ADDITIONAL CHALLENGES AROUND OR BEFORE THE REGATTA RACES. CONTESTANTS WERE ORIGINALLY VARSITY ROWERS

15 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS TRACK & FIELD IN 1873 THE NEW YORK HERALD ORGANIZED A RACE AS A SIDE SHOW TO THE SARATOGA ANNUAL REGATTA. IN 1874 ADDITIONAL RACES WERE INCLUDED, AND IN 1876 THE NEW INTERCOLLEGIATE ASSOCIATION OF ATHLETICS FOR AMERICA STARTED THE ORGANIZATION OF ANNUAL RACES AT THE NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB, WITH SIGNIFICANT PRICES IN CASH. TRACK AND FIELD COMPETITIONS BECAME A REGULAR FEATURE OF COLLEGE ATHLETICS IN THE 1880s DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES ORGANIZED FIELD DAYS WITH NEIGHBOR INSTITUTIONS WITH TRACK & FIELD PROGRAMS.

16 INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS TAKE A LOOK AT THE ARTICLE WALTER CAMP WROTE ABOUT COLLEGE ATHLETICS IN THE MAGAZINE THE CENTURY ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY MAGAZINE 1893 VOL.46 PP THE FATHER OF AMERICAN FOOTBALL GIVES A FIRST-HAND ACCOUNT OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MENTALITY BEHIND INTERCOLLEGIATE COMPETITIONS AT THE TIME. A DIGITIZED VERSION IS AVAILABLE IN THE INTERNET FOR FREE.


Download ppt "INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORTS IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google