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An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Alexander Yates Temple University Computer and Information Sciences.

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Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Alexander Yates Temple University Computer and Information Sciences."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Alexander Yates Temple University Computer and Information Sciences

2 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Popular Conception of Artificial Intelligence

3 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Artificial Intelligence, more realistically

4 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Autonomous Navigation Boston Dynamics Big Dog (or fly-dog) –0:30, 1:25 Self-driving cars –DARPAs Grand Challenge Ghostrider (DARPA Grand Challenge entry) 1:00, 2:20 –Googles self-driving car: 0:30-1:00

5 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences What is Artificial Intelligence? Its the science of making machines behave as if they understand the world the way humans do. Specifically, AI researchers build machines that can know (or believe) reason (or think or infer or draw conclusions) learn communicate (talk and listen)

6 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Expert Systems: Machines than can know and reason Idea: Make a machine thats better than a human expert. Early example: MYCIN: identifies bacteria causing severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. –It could propose an acceptable therapy in about 69% of cases, which was better than the performance of infectious disease experts who were judged using the same criteria.

7 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Expert Systems: Machines than can reason Second example: Chinook Schaeffer et al.: "Checkers Is Solved (2007) –They proved that the best an opponent can do against their Chinook system is to draw. –It had already been world champion since 1994 Interesting Sidebar: Dr. Marion Tinsley (February 3, 1927–April 3, 1995) is considered the greatest checkers player who ever lived. He was world champion from 1955–1958 and 1975–1991. Tinsley never lost a World Championship match, and lost only nine games (two of them to the Chinook computer program) in his entire 45 year career. He withdrew from championship play during the years 1958–1975, relinquishing the title during that time.

8 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Machines that can learn One of the more recent advances of AI has been the development of systems that can –Learn from training –Learn from experience –Adapt to changing conditions years ago, this was crazy. Now, there are toolkits: e.g., WEKA and LibSVMWEKALibSVM

9 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Machines that can learn Some sample applications: 1)Machines that can determine the amount of air pollution, based on satellite readings 2)Software that can detect network intruders based on network traffic patterns 3)Programs that can diagnose tumors based on MRI scans and CAT scans All of these are available today.

10 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Conversational Agents: Machines that can hold a conversation Chomsky chatbot demo Video of two chatbots talking with each other Speech Recognition –(e.g., Siri) –Youve probably interacted with this many times –Right now, so-so accuracy, but its going to change human-machine interactions

11 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Some problems for AI: 1.How can you make a machine know (or believe)? 2.How can you make a machine think (or reason)? 3. How can you make machines perceive and act upon the real world?

12 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Computational Linguistics Computational linguistics is the area of AI that deals with language. A brief tour of computational linguistics today: –Machine translation –Question Answering –Information retrieval –Information Extraction

13 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Machine Translation Machine translation is the task of translating automatically between languages, like a human interpreter would. Google translate demo –English Malay Hungarian English –I think, Watson, that you have put on seven and a half pounds since I saw you. Very hard problem – its considered AI-complete But a solution is worth $$$$$

14 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Information Retrieval Information retrieval = Web search (the Google kind) The academic study focuses on how to best find the most informative document in a large collection. 1996: 2 Stanford students start working on an information retrieval system called BackRub 2004: Their company, Google, has its IPO and makes them billionaires.

15 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Question Answering Question Answering is the task of finding a specific answer to an arbitrary question in English, using the Web. Watson Qualim demo

16 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences 16 Information Extraction Definition: The automatic extraction of structured information from unstructured documents. Overall Goals: –Making information more accessible to people –Making information machine-processable Practical Goal: Build large databases from the information contained in text TextRunner Demo

17 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences How AI fits into Computer Science AI Graphics Human Computer Interaction Databases Data Mining Systems Expert Systems and Applications Theory Software Engineering Bug Detection, Fault Analysis Approximation Algorithms and SAT Solvers Autonomous Video Game Characters

18 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Why study or work on AI? Its exciting – everything is always changing! –True in Computer Science, especially true for AI –Pressure to innovate: were so far from true AI, we have to constantly re-think how were doing things Its useful and it works –AI ideas show up everywhere in everyday life It can have a huge impact

19 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Impact of AI Some of AIs contributions to the world: –Fraud detection by banks –Control systems for car brakes –Automatic Zip Code readers used by the U.S.P.S. –License plate recognition for EZ-Pass –Logistic planning used by U.S. Army since the first Iraq War (saving more money than ever was invested into AI research by the government) –Deep Blue, and other games –Intelligent user interfaces –Google & web search –Mars rovers –…

20 Temple University Computer and Information Sciences Impact of Computational Linguistics –Web search –Speech Recognition –Speech interfaces used in car GPS systems –Automatic Arabic translators used by the U.S. Army –Semantic Web applications (eg, Google News) –Faster desktop search applications –Siri –… –Many more to come (still a young field)


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